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The relationship between body mass index, blood pressure, and atherosclerosis risk factors in type 1 and 2 diabetic patients from northwestern Algeria

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Objective. The present work was framed to study the relationship between body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, and atherosclerosis risk factors on the basis of three lipid ratios in type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients.

Methods. A prospective, comparative, and cross-sectional study was performed at the level of three health facilities in Sidi-Bel-Abbes city (north-western Algeria). Anthropometric parameters, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and lipid profiles were assessed in adults T1D and T2D patients over a period of eleven months. Individual atherogenic risk factors were estimated based on lipid ratios in relation to corpulence and hypertension.

Results. From the total 237 adult diabetic patients, 90 T1D and 147 T2D ones were involved in the study. Total cholesterol (TC)/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides (TG)/HDL ratios were significantly higher in normal weight T2D comparing to T1D. The TC/HDL ratio was significantly higher (p=0.046) in obese men. Nevertheless, no significant differences were revealed in low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/HDL ratio between T1D and T2D patients. Higher TC/HDL ratios were observed in T2D patients (males and females) with normal blood pressure (systolic blood pressure, SBP ≤13.5 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure, DBP ≤8 mmHg) comparing to T1D patients. Likewise, the LDL/HDL ratio was significantly higher in T2D men with normal DBP (p=0.044).

Conclusion. The lipid ratios constitute good indices while managing diabetes. It is also recommended to screen T1D and T2D patients for hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity and initiate the management at early stages to prevent the related complications, such as atherosclerosis, as a priority.