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Newly diagnosed primary hypothyroidism applicant with massive pericardial effusion and acute renal failure

,  et    | 22 févr. 2016
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Objective. While non-symptomatic pericardial effusion is seen in primary hypothyroidism, massive pericardial effusion is a very rare finding. In the literature, newly diagnosed primary hypothyroidism cases presenting with massive pericardial effusion or acute renal failure are present, but we did not encounter any case first presenting with combination of two signs. In this case report, primary hypothyroidism case that presenting with massive pericardial effusion and acute renal failure will be discussed.

Subject and Results. Forty-eight years old male patient was hospitalized with shortness of breath, chest pain, swelling of the eyelids and bilateral limbs complaints. On chest radiograph heart shadow was deleted, pleural effusion was present until the middle zone of the left lung. Biochemical parameters (urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, sodium, potassium, creatine kinase, Troponin I, CK-MB, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, c-reactive protein) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, 52.6 μg/ml), free triiodothyronine (T3, 0.61pg/ml), free thyroxine (T4, 0.12 ng/dl), anti thyroperoxydase (343 IU/ml), anti thyroglobulin (1604 IU/ml), were analyzed. The patient underwent pericardiocentesis. Levothyroxine treatment started with a dose of 0.05 mg per day and increased gradually until the optimum dose provided. At the end of the third month, the values of TSH, free T4, and free T3 were measured (2.3 μg/ml, 1.1 ng/dl, 2.54 pg/ml, respectively). The patient recovered completely and pericardial effusion was not detected in echocardiography.

Conclusion. Massive PE and acute renal failure due to primary hypothyroidism is a rare clinical condition. Primary hypothyroidism should be kept in mind in patients with symptoms like shortness of breath, chest pain, and generalized edema; moreover, when acute renal failure and PE were detected. It should be considered that patient’s biochemical parameters can improve starting from the two weeks after levothyroxine treatment started with pericardiocentesis in severe symptomatic patients.