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Proton pump inhibitors therapy and risk of hyperprolactinemia with associated sexual disorders


Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the most widely prescribed medications in the world. According to numerous studies, PPIs have been linked to hyperprolactinemia, which can lead to a variety of sexual and reproductive issues. This review summarizes the effects of numerous PPIs on the blood prolactin levels and associated sexual dysfunctions, which have an effect on the patient’s life quality and fertility. The study is taken into account all the available resources till January 31, 2021. Out of total 364, only 27 relevant resources were involved in this review. In certain studies, short-term PPIs use has been shown to have little or no effect on the blood prolactin and other reproductive hormones levels. PPIs have been linked to the development of hyperprolactinemia in several case studies with varying degrees of the blood prolactin levels increase seen in individuals taking PPI alone or in combination with medications, like prokinetics. The relative risk of the sexual consequences development, such as gynecomastia, has been documented using lansoprazole and omeprazole in various cohort studies. On the other hand, other bits of data are insufficient to establish a definite relationship that can turn a possibility into certainty. The majority of the literature data is comprising of double-blind, randomized, crossover studies, case reports, and adverse drug reaction incidents reported to various pharmacovigilance centers. To investigate this link, high-quality studies in patients taking PPIs for a longer time period are needed. We conclude this article with a comprehensive discussion of the hyperprolactinemia clinical implications and the PPIs’ function.