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Responses of Anastrepha suspensa, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, and Sensitivity of Guava Production to Heterorhabditis bacteriophora in Fruit Fly Integrated Pest Management


Caribbean fruit fly, also known as Caribfly or Anastrepha suspensa, is a major tephritid pest of guavas. A virulent entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) species was investigated to suppress the fruit-to-soil stages of Caribflies, which are also attacked by the koinobiont parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata in south Florida. The main objective was to develop a feasible and cost-effective EPN-application method for integrated pest management (IPM) of Caribfly to improve guava production. Naturally infested guavas were treated with increasing Heterorhabditis bacteriophora infective juvenile (IJ) concentration or rate (0, 25, 50, …, 1,600 IJs cm−2) in field trials to measure the optimum IJ rate and then examine sensitivity of producing guavas to inclusion of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora in Caribfly IPM plans. Relative survival of Caribfly in treatments significantly decreased with increasing IJ rate from 0 to 100 IJs cm−2. Similarly, probability of observing large numbers of parasitoid wasps (Diachasmimorpha longicaudata) in EPN treatments significantly declined with increasing IJ rate (0–100 IJs cm−2), even though the non-target effects of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora on relative survival of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata could not be determined because of few emerging parasitoid wasps. Optimum suppression (⩾ 60%) of Caribfly was consistently achieved at 100 IJs cm−2 or 17,500 IJs fruit−1. Profitability analysis showed that Heterorhabditis bacteriophora can be included in Caribfly IPM tactics to produce guavas. Costs of EPNs in Caribfly IPM are minimized if Heterorhabditis bacteriophora is strategically applied by spot treatment of fruit. Repayment of costs of EPN-augmentation by spot treatments appears achievable by recovering 5.71% of the annual yield losses (⩾1,963 kg ha−1 ≈ US$ 8,650 ha−1), which are largely due to Caribfly infestation. Hectare-wide EPN-augmentation (or broadcasting) method requires more fruit recovery than the total annual yield losses to repay its high costs. Profitability of guava production in south Florida will not be very sensitive to marginal costs of the spot treatment method, when compared to the field-wide broadcasting of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora.

Calendario de la edición:
Volume Open
Temas de la revista:
Life Sciences, other