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Effect of Soil Temperature on Reproduction of Root-knot Nematodes in Flue-cured Tobacco with Homozygous Rk1 and/or Rk2 Resistance Genes


Most commercial flue-cured tobacco cultivars contain the Rk1 resistance gene, which provides resistance to races 1 and 3 of Meloidogyne incognita and race 1 of M. arenaria. A number of cultivars now possess a second root-knot resistance gene, Rk2. High soil temperatures have been associated with a breakdown of root-knot resistance genes in a number of crops. Three greenhouse trials were performed from 2014 to 2015 investigate the effect of high soil temperature on the efficacy of Rk1 and/or Rk2 genes in reducing parasitism by a population of M. incognita race 3. Trials were arranged in randomized complete block design in open-top growth chambers set at 25°, 30°, and 35°C. Plants were inoculated with 3,000 eggs and data were collected 35 days post-inoculation. Galling, numbers of egg masses and eggs, and reproductive index were compared across cultivar entries. Nematode reproduction was reduced at 25°C and 30°C on entries possessing Rk1 and Rk1Rk2 compared to the susceptible entry and the entry possessing only Rk2. However, there were often no significant differences in reproduction at 35°C between entries with Rk1 and/or Rk2 compared to the susceptible control, indicating an increase of root-knot nematode parasitism on resistant entries at higher temperatures. Although seasonal differences in nematode reproduction were observed among experiments, relative differences among tobacco genotypes remained generally consistent.

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Biologie, andere