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Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Review

 und    | 10. Dez. 2020


Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has been a source of attraction for many researchers as well as common people for the past few years. The use of WSN in various environmental applications like monitoring of weather, temperature, humidity, military surveillance etc. is not limited. WSN is built on hundreds to thousands of nodes where each node is a sensor whose main role is to sense data. These nodes are restricted to various constraints like power, energy, efficiency and deployment. The location of deployment influences the efficiency of data transmission. In this paper we briefly discuss on localization process in WSN and the classification of localization methodologies, namely centralized localization and distributed localization. The various techniques like ToA, TDoA, AoA and RSSI that are used to estimate the distance among the nodes are studied in detail. The localization issues categorized under proximity-based, range-based and range-free localization are discussed in detail. This paper also focuses on how the nodes with GPS can contribute to the localization process. The merits and demerits of using GPS have also been looked into. The various approaches of range-based techniques like Bounding box, SumDistMinMax, geometric methods, general techniques have been discussed briefly. We will also discuss on how the factors like path loss, noise, propagation, device measurements, connectivity, power control and tracking can influence the measurements in localization. In the tracking process we have briefly discussed about the variants of Kalman filter that can be used in detecting the direct path, strongest path and undirected path. This paper as a whole is just a brush up of the localization methodologies used in wireless sensor networks. This paper may give idea to the researchers to develop efficient algorithms to localize nodes with accuracy adapting to different techniques with respect to the environment and applications to be designed.

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Informatik, Informationstechnik