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Potential of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) for management of root-knot nematode in tomato


Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) has been shown to induce plant defense responses to different plant pathogens, including reducing northern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla, penetration and increasing plant mass in tomato. We wanted to further evaluate NAD that are effective against the more economically important species, M. incognita and whether NAD treatments of tomato seedlings in transplant trays can protect plants in the field. Different NAD concentrations (1  mM, 0.1  mM and 0.01  mM) and three application timings (pre; post; pre and post inoculation) were evaluated in growth room and greenhouse trials. The highest tested NAD concentration (1  mM) suppressed second-stage juveniles (J2) infection for all three application methods. Root gall ratings at 30 days after inoculation (DAI) were also suppressed by 1  mM NAD compared to the other two concentrations, and egg mass number was significantly suppressed for all concentrations and application timings compared to the non-treated control. The rate of 1  mM NAD for all three application timings also improved plant growth at 30 DAI. Long-term effects of 1  mM NAD (pre, pre + post, or post applications) on nematode infection, growth and yield of tomato were evaluated in two additional experiments. All NAD applications suppressed root galls after 60 days, but only the pre + post 1  mM NAD application suppressed gall severity at 105 days, as well as suppressed egg counts by 50% at 60 DAT. No significant difference in plant biomass and fruit yield after 105 days was observed among the treatments. Two field trials were conducted in spring and fall 2020 using tomato seedlings (cv. HM 1823) treated with two different NAD concentrations (1  mM and 5  mM in spring; 5  mM and 10  mM in fall) and transplanting seedlings in fumigated (chloropicrin  ±  1,3-dichloropropene) and non-fumigated plastic-mulch beds. No significant impact of NAD in terms of reducing RKN severity or overall tomato growth and production was seen in fumigated beds, but in non-fumigated beds 5  mM NAD slightly increased early fruit yield in spring, and 10  mM NAD reduced root-knot soil populations in fall.

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