Open Access

Macronutrient Intake and Association with the Risk Factors of Diabetic Complications among People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Al-Madinah Al-Munawara



Worldwide, Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. There is little research on the relationship between T2DM problems and daily macronutrient intake in Saudi Arabia, particularly in Al-Madina Al-Munawara.


This study aimed to investigate the relationship between T2DM complications and daily carbohydrate, protein, and fat intake in T2DM patients.


A cross-sectional study was conducted on 138 T2DM patients in Al-Madina Al-Munawara City, Saudi Arabia. The data were collected using a questionnaire that was published on social media. The macronutrient data were collected by a 24-h dietary recall questionnaire on 2 non-consecutive days. Appropriate statistical tests were done, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine the association of macronutrient intake with diabetes complications among the studied patients.


The mean age of patients was 53.8 ± 11.3 years, and 55.8% were females. The prevalence of T2DM complications was 55.8% for diabetic retinopathy, 30.4% for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), 26.1% for diabetic foot, 19.6% for stroke, and 5.3% for kidney diseases with no significant difference by patients’ sex. Daily carbohydrates intake >65% was associated with an increased risk of CVD, retinopathy, and diabetic foot with odds ratio (OR) of 4.75, 4.35, and 65.5, respectively. Daily proteins intake >20% and daily fat intake ≥30% were associated with a significant increased risk of stroke and CVD, respectively.


The study findings suggest that high daily calorie intake from carbohydrate protein and fat plays an important role in the risk of T2DM complications. Patients with diabetes who understand the value of consuming calories from macronutrients and how to distribute their daily intake of these calories may reduce their risk of developing diabetic complications.

Publication timeframe:
4 times per year
Journal Subjects:
Medicine, Assistive Professions, Nursing, Basic Medical Science, other, Clinical Medicine