Vitamin D (VitD) is involved in calcium and phosphate homeostasis, bone health, and normal functioning of the immune system. VitD status is monitored using serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) as a biomarker. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations below 30 nmol/L indicate VitD deficiency and below 50 nmol/L indicate insufficiency. VitD can be synthesised endogenously in human skin when exposed to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. In the absence of sufficient UVB-light exposure, VitD intake becomes the main source of VitD, with a recommended daily intake of 20 μg. The aim of this study was to conduct a review and meta-analysis on the abovementioned topics, focusing on scientific studies in various Slovenian populations.


We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published scientific papers, academic theses, or conference contributions reporting serum 25(OH)D status and VitD intake across various Slovenian populations. A search was carried out using Web of Science, Scopus, Medline, and the Slovenian library database.


We identified 43 pertinent studies that addressed 25(OH)D status and 16 that addressed VitD intake. Serum 25(OH)D status was generally low across all populations, and notable seasonal variability was observed. VitD intakes were below 5 μg in all studies.


A general observation is that various population groups across Slovenia are at high risk of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency, particularly during wintertime. Regarding vitamin D intake, all included studies reported daily intakes below the recommended level. We also identified key research gaps that need to be addressed to support further public health decision-making.

Publication timeframe:
4 times per year
Journal Subjects:
Medicine, Clinical Medicine, Hygiene and Environmental Medicine