Background: Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of α-L-iduronidase (IDUA), which leads to the accumulation of partially digested glycosaminoglycans (dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate) in the lysosomes and induces multisystemic alteration. Hurler (severe), Scheie (mild), and Hurler/Scheie (intermediate) syndromes are clinical subtypes of MPS-I. To date, more than 290 IDUA mutations have been reported. The purpose of this study was to present the clinical and genetic characteristics of Romanian MPS I syndrome patients and their genotype-phenotype correlation.

Patients and methods: Seven patients (5 girls and 2 boys) with MPS type I, belonging to 4 unrelated families, aged 0,75-17.9 years, were enrolled. The study methods consisted in: clinical and standard auxological assessment, bone radiographs, joint ultrasonography, goniometry, neurological and psychological evaluation, hepatic and splenic ultrasonography, cardiological evaluation, otorhinolaryngology examination, ophthalmological examination, spirometry, α-L-iduronidase enzyme activity assay and molecular analysis.

Results: The seven patients originated from 4 unrelated families, three patients with severe, two patients with intermediate and two with attenuated clinical phenotype. Each patient presented the classical picture of MPS type I picture, represented by: variable coarse facial features, arthropathy, hepatosplenomegaly, cardiac involvement, respiratory dysfunction and neurological impairment. Five patological variants, three point mutations (p.Q70 *, p.I238Q and p.K324R), two deletion c.1045_1047delGAC, c.46_57delTCGCTCCTG) and an insertion (c.1389 insC) were identified in both alleles of the ADUA gene in homozygous or heterozygous form. Two novel mutations (p.K324R and c.1389 insC) were reported. The p.Q70*(c.208C>T) variant was identified in 2 families with severe form of disease (Hurler syndrome) in homozygous status in one family and in compound heterozygous status in the other family.

Conclusion: The p.Q70* missense variant was the most frequent, correlated in all the cases who presented it with severe form, Hurler syndrome, the other mutations being usually isolated and particular for each patient, associated in our patients with less severe MPS I phenotype, as Hurler-Scheie or Scheie syndrome. The results of this study indicated the mutational heterogeneity of the IDUA gene and the difficulty to indicate some correlation between the genotype and phenotype in MPS I patients.

Publication timeframe:
4 times per year
Journal Subjects:
Life Sciences, Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Human Biology, Microbiology and Virology