1. bookVolume 10 (2018): Issue 3 (September 2018)
Journal Details
First Published
24 Feb 2009
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
access type Open Access

Motivation Crowding and Participation in Agri-Environmental Schemes – The Case of the Austrian Öpul-Programme in Vineyards

Published Online: 16 Oct 2018
Page range: 355 - 376
Received: 17 Aug 2017
Accepted: 26 Jun 2018
Journal Details
First Published
24 Feb 2009
Publication timeframe
4 times per year

Viticulture has an effect on several ecosystem services, while it also is a sector critically affected by diverse ecological risks. Payments for agri-environmental services address several of these risks. Based on 77 interviews, we compare the motivational patterns of vintners participating and non-participating in the Austrian agri-environmental scheme ÖPUL to analyse mechanisms of motivation crowding. We identified three types of vintners that are motivated not only by “financial incentives” but also by a complex combination of different intersecting socio-psychological mechanisms – such as frame shifting by social learning or peer recognition reinforcing or control aversion and frustration with the administrative burden hindering the delivery of environmental services. More research is needed to understand how different strategies of risk governance, such as legal standards, information, capacity building, incentives and reflective discourse might be best combined to address different groups of farmers.


[1] Bauer, K., Regner, F. & Schildberger, B. (2013). Weinbau. 3rd ed., Wien: Cadmos Verlag.Search in Google Scholar

[2] Baur, I., Dobricki, M. & Lips, M. (2016). The basic motivational drivers of northern and central European farmers. Journal of Rural Studies 46, 93–101. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2016. DOISearch in Google Scholar

[3] Bazzoffi, P., Abbattista, F., Vanino, S. & Pellegrini, S. (2006). Impact of land levelling for vineyard plantation on soil degradation in Italy. BollettinoSocieta Geologica Italiana 6, 191–199.Search in Google Scholar

[4] Beharry-Borg N., Smart, J. C. R., Termansen, M. & Hubacek, K. (2013). Evaluating farmers’ likely participation in a payment programme for water quality protection in the UK uplands. Regional Environmental Change 13(3), 633–647. DOI: 10.1007/s10113-012-0282-9.10.1007/s10113-012-0282-9Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[5] Bonada, M. & Sadras, V. O. (2015). Review: Critical appraisal of methods to investigate the effect of temperature on grapevine berry composition. Australian Journal for Grape and Wine Research 21(1), 1–17. DOI: 10.1111/ajgw.12102.10.1111/ajgw.12102Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[6] Bowles, S. & Polanía-Reyes, S. (2012). Economic incentives and social preferences: Substitutes or complements? Journal of Economic Literature 50(2), 368–425. DOI: 10.1257/jel.50.2.368.10.1257/jel.50.2.368Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[7] Braito, M. T., Böck, K., Flint, C., Muhar, A., Muhar, S. & Penker, M. (2017). Human-Nature Relationships and Linkages to Environmental Behaviour. Environmental Values 26(3), 365– 389. DOI: 10.3197/096327117X14913285800706.10.3197/096327117X14913285800706Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[8] Bruggisser, O. T., Schmidt-Entling, M. H. & Bacher, S. (2010). Effects of vineyard management on biodiversity at three trophic levels. Biological Conservation 143(6), 1521– 1528. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2010. in Google Scholar

[9] Chan, K. M. A., Anderson, E., Chapman, M., Jespersen, K. & Olmsted, P. (2017). Payments for ecosystem services: Rife with problems and potential – for transformation towards sustainability. Ecological Economics 140, 110–122. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2017. DOISearch in Google Scholar

[10] Coulouma, G., Boizard, H., Trotoux, G., Lagacherie, P. & Richard, G. (2006). Effect of deep tillage for vineyard establishment on soil structure: A case study in Southern France. Soil and Tillage Research 88(1–2), 132–143. DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2005. in Google Scholar

[11] Daube, M. & Ulph, D. (2016). Moral behaviour, altruism and environmental policy. Environmental and Resource Economics 63(2), 505–522. DOI: 10.1007/s10640-014-9836-2.10.1007/s10640-014-9836-2Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[12] Deci, E. L. (1971). Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 18(1), 105–115. DOI: 10.1037/h0030644.10.1037/h0030644Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[13] Deci, E. L., Koestner, R. & Ryan, R. M. (1999). A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological Bulletin 125(6), 627–668. DOI: 10.1037/0033-2909.125.6.627.10.1037/0033-2909.125.6.62710589297Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[14] Engel, S. & Muller, A. (2016). Payments for environmental services to promote “climate-smart agriculture”? Potential and challenges. Agricultural Economics 47(1), 173– 184. DOI: 10.1111/agec.12307.10.1111/agec.12307Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[15] Engel, S. (2016). The Devil in the detail: A practical guide on designing payments for environmental services. International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics 9(1–2), 131–177. DOI: 10.1561/101.00000076.10.1561/101.00000076Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[16] Evans, L., Maio, G. R., Corner, A., Hodgetts, C. J., Ahmed, S. & Hahn, U. (2012). Self-interest and pro-environmental behaviour. Nature Climate Change 3, 122–125. DOI: 10.1038/nclimate1662.10.1038/nclimate1662Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[17] Ezzine-de-Blas, D., Esteve, C. & Laperye, R. (2015). Crowding-in or crowding-out? A conceptual framework to understand motivations in payments for ecosystem services. In Resource Politics: Transforming Pathways to Sustainability [Conference paper]. Brighton: University of Sussex.Search in Google Scholar

[18] Feigl, E. & Peyerl, H. (2011). Die Sicherung der Traubenlieferung an die Winzergenossenschaft „Domäne Wachau”. In Diversifizierung versus Spezialisierung in der Agrar- und Ernährungswirtschaft (pp. 73–74). Bozen: Europäischen Akademie Bozen.Search in Google Scholar

[19] Ferguson, M. J. & Bargh, J. A. (2004). Liking is for doing: The effects of goal pursuit on automatic evaluation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 87(5), 557–572. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.87.5.557.10.1037/0022-3514.87.5.55715535771Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[20] Fisher, J. (2012). No pay, no care? A case study exploring motivations for participation in payments for ecosystem services in Uganda. Oryx 46(1), 45–54. DOI: 10.1017/S0030605311001384.10.1017/S0030605311001384Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[21] Fraser, N. & Honneth, A. (2003). Redistribution or Recognition? A Political-Philosophical Exchange. London, New York: Verso.Search in Google Scholar

[22] Frey, B. S. (1992). Pricing and regulating affect environmental ethics. Environmental and Resource Economics 2(4), 399–414. DOI: 10.1007/BF00304969.10.1007/BF00304969Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[23] Gaigher, R. & Samways, M. J. (2014). Landscape mosaic attributes for maintaining ground-living spider diversity in a biodiversity hotspot. Insect Conservation and Diversity 7(5), 470–479. DOI: 10.1111/icad.12070.10.1111/icad.12070Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[24] Gaupp-Berghausen, M., Hofer, M., Rewald, B. & Zaller, J. G. (2015). Glyphosate-based herbicides reduce the activity and reproduction of earthworms and lead to increased soil nutrient concentrations. Scientific Reports 5, 12886. DOI: 10.1038/srep12886.10.1038/srep12886454266126243044Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[25] Gneezy, U., Meier, S. & Rey-Biel, P. (2011). When and why incentives (don’t) work to modify behavior. Journal of Economic Perspectives 25(4), 191–210. DOI: 10.1257/jep. DOISearch in Google Scholar

[26] Gneezy, U. & Rustichini, A. (2000). Pay enough or don't pay at all. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 115(3), 791–810.10.1162/003355300554917Search in Google Scholar

[27] Goodin, R. E. (1994). Selling environmental indulgences. Kyklos 47(4), 573–596. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-6435.1994.tb02067.x.10.1111/j.1467-6435.1994.tb02067.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

[28] Guerrero, A. M., McAllister, R. R. J., Corcoran, J. & Wilson, K. A. (2013). Scale mismatches, conservation planning, and the value of social-network analyses. Conservation Biology 27(1), 35–44. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2012.01964.x.10.1111/j.1523-1739.2012.01964.x23305381Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[29] Guidoni, S., Gangemi, L. & Mania, E. (2012). Slope viticulture risk factors impacting on the environment equilibrium. The case of north-west Italy. In Bois, B., ed., Acta IX International Terroir Congress (pp. 6–39). DOI: 10.13140/2.1.2718.0162. Paris: International Organization of Vine and Wine.Search in Google Scholar

[30] Honneth, A. (1992). Kampf um Anerkennung: Zur moralischen Grammatik sozialer Konflikte. Berlin: Suhrkamp.Search in Google Scholar

[31] Ingram, J., Gaskell, P., Mills, J. & Short, C. J. (2013). Incorporating agri-environment schemes into farm development pathways: A temporal analysis of farmer motivations. Land Use Policy 31, 267–279. DOI: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2012. DOISearch in Google Scholar

[32] Kehinde, T. & Samways, M. J. (2014). Effects of vineyard management on biotic homogenization of insect-flower interaction networks in the Cape Floristic Region biodiversity hotspot. Journal of Insect Conservation, 18(3), 469–477. DOI: 10.1007/s10841-014-9659-z.10.1007/s10841-014-9659-zOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

[33] Kerschhofer, K. (2013). Akzeptanz von Naturschutzmaßnahmen in der Landwirtschaft: am Beispiel der Erhaltung von Streuobstbeständen im Bezirk Hartberg in der Oststeiermark [Master thesis]. Wien: University of Natural Resources and Life Scienes, Vienna.Search in Google Scholar

[34] Kieninger, P. & Winter, S. (2014). Phytodiversität im Weinbau – naturschutzfachliche Analyse von Bewirtschaftungsmaßnahmen und Weiterentwicklung von ÖPUL-Maßnahmen [Research report]. Wien: Ministerium für ein lebenswertes Österreich.Search in Google Scholar

[35] Kieninger, P. R., Yamaji, E. & Penker, M. (2011). Urban people as paddy farmers: The Japanese Tanada Ownership System discussed from a European perspective. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 26(4), 328–341. DOI: 10.1017/S1742170511000123.10.1017/S1742170511000123Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[36] Lieskovský, J. & Kenderessy, P. (2014). Modelling the effect of vegetation cover and different tillage practices on soil erosion in vineyards: A case study in Vráble (Slovakia) using WATEM/SEDEM. Land Degradation & Development 25(3), 288–296. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2162.10.1002/ldr.2162Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[37] Linder, S. (2016). Fostering strategic renewal: monetary incentives, merit-based promotions, and engagement in autonomous strategic action. Journal of Management Control 27(2–3), 251–280. DOI: 10.1007/s00187-015-0227-9.10.1007/s00187-015-0227-9Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[38] Lokhorst, A. M., Staats, H., van Dijk, J., van Dijk, E. & de Snoo, G. (2011). What’s in it for me? Motivational differences between farmers’ subsidised and non-subsidised conservation practices. Applied Psychology 60(3): 337–353. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.2011.00438.x.10.1111/j.1464-0597.2011.00438.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

[39] Longbottom, M. L. & Petrie, P. R. (2015). Role of vineyard practices in generating and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 21(S1), 522–536. DOI: 10.1111/ajgw.12197.10.1111/ajgw.12197Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[40] Louchart, X., Volz, M., Andrieux, P. & Moussa, R. (2001). Herbicide transport to surface waters at field and watershed scales in a Mediterranean vineyard area. Journal of Environmental Quality 30(3), 982–991.10.2134/jeq2001.303982x11401289Search in Google Scholar

[41] Ma, S., Swinton, S. M., Lupi, F. & Jolejole-Foreman, C. (2012). Farmers’ willingness to participate in payment-for-environmental-services programmes. Journal of Agricultural Economics 63(3), 604–626. DOI: 10.1111/j.1477-9552.2012.00358.x.10.1111/j.1477-9552.2012.00358.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

[42] Marques, M. J., Bienes, R., Cuadrado, J., Ruiz-Colmenero, M., Barbero-Sierra, C. & Velasco, A. (2015). Analysing perceptions attitudes and responses of winegrowers about sustainable land management in Central Spain. Land Degradation & Development 26(5), 458–467. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2355.10.1002/ldr.2355Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[43] McKenzie, A. J., Emery, S. B., Franks, J. R. & Whittingham, M. J. (2013). Landscape-scale conservation: collaborative agri-environment schemes could benefit both biodiversity and ecosystem services, but will farmers be willing to participate? Journal of Applied Ecology 50(5), 1274–1280. DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12122.10.1111/1365-2664.12122Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[44] Montanarella, L. (2005). Emerging issues in soil and water management for vineyards and olive-tree orchards. In Benites, J., Pisante, M. & Stagnari, F., eds., Integrated Soil and Water Management for Orchard Development: Role and Importance (pp. 3–11). Rome: FAO.Search in Google Scholar

[45] Montanaro, G., Xiloyannis, C., Nuzzo, V. & Dichio, B. (2017). Orchard management, soil organic carbon and ecosystem services in Mediterranean fruit tree crops. Scientia Horticulturae 217, 92–101. DOI: 10.1016/j.scienta.2017. DOISearch in Google Scholar

[46] Muradian, R., Arsel, M., Pellegrini, L., Adaman, F., Aguilar, B., Agarwal, B., Corbera, E., Ezzine de Blas, D., Farley, J., Froger, G., Garcia-Frapolli, E., Gómez-Baggethun, E., Gowdy, J., Kosoy, N., Le Coq, J. F., Leroy, P., May, P., Méral, P., Mibielli, P., Norgaard, R., Ozkaynak, B., Pascual, U., Pengue, W., Perez, M., Pesche, D., Pirard, R., Ramos-Martin, J., Rival, L., Saenz, F., Van Hecken, G., Vatn, A., Vira, B. & Urama, K. (2013). Payments for ecosystem services and the fatal attraction of win-win solutions. Conservation Letters 6(4), 274–279. DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2012.00309.x.10.1111/j.1755-263X.2012.00309.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

[47] Nascimbene, J., Marini, L. & Paoletti, M. G. (2012). Organic farming benefits local plant diversity in vineyard farms located in intensive agricultural landscapes. Environmental Management 49(5), 1054–1060. DOI: 10.1007/s00267-012-9834-5.10.1007/s00267-012-9834-522411057Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[48] Novara, A., Gristina, L., Guaitoli, F., Santoro, A. & Cerdà, A. (2013). Managing soil nitrate with cover crops and buffer strips in Sicilian vineyards. Solid Earth 4(2), 255–262. DOI: 10.5194/se-4-255-2013.10.5194/se-4-255-2013Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[49] Novara, A., Gristina, L., Saladino, S. S., Santoro, A. & Cerdà, A. (2011). Soil erosion assessment on tillage and alternative soil managements in a Sicilian vineyard. Soil and Tillage Research 117, 140–147. DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2011. DOISearch in Google Scholar

[50] Orderud, G. I. & Vogt, R. D. (2016). Environmental values and attitudes among farmers in China – a case study in the watershed of Yuqiao reservoir of Tianjin Municipality, China. International Journal of Environmental Studies 73(6), 917–938. DOI: 10.1080/00207233.2016.1220699.10.1080/00207233.2016.1220699506205327812223Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[51] Prosdocimi, M., Cerdà, A. & Tarolli, P. (2016). Soil water erosion on Mediterranean vineyards: A review. Catena 141, 1–21. DOI: 10.1016/j.catena.2016. DOISearch in Google Scholar

[52] Renaud-Gentié, C., Dijkman, T. J., Bjørn, A. & Birkved, M. (2014). Modeling pesticides emissions for Grapevine Life Cycle Assessment: adaptation of Pest-LCI model to viticulture. In Schenck, R. & Huizenga, D., eds., Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Life Cycle Assessment in the Agri-Food Sector (pp. 1075–1085). Vashon, WA: ACLCA.Search in Google Scholar

[53] Rico García-Amado, L., Ruiz Pérez, M. & Barrasa García, S. (2013). Motivation for conservation: Assessing integrated conservation and development projects and payments for environmental services in La Sepultura Biosphere Reserve, Chiapas, Mexico. Ecological Economics 89, 92–100. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013. DOISearch in Google Scholar

[54] Rode, J., Gómez-Baggethun, E. & Krause, T. (2015). Motivation crowding by economic incentives in conservation policy: A review of the empirical evidence. Ecological Economics 117, 270–282. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2014. DOISearch in Google Scholar

[55] Ruíz-Colmenero, M., Bienes, R. & Marqués, M. J. (2011). Soil and water conservation dilemmas associated with the use of green cover in steep vineyards. Soil & Tillage Research 117, 211–223. DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2011. DOISearch in Google Scholar

[56] Ruto, R. & Garrod, G. (2009). Investigating farmers' preferences for the design of agri-environment schemes: a choice experiment approach. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 52(5), 631–647. DOI: 10.1080/09640560902958172.10.1080/09640560902958172Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[57] Sanguankeo, P. P. & León, R. G. (2011). Weed management practices determine plant and arthropod diversity and seed predation in vineyards. Weed Research 51(4), 404–412. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3180.2011.00853.x.10.1111/j.1365-3180.2011.00853.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

[58] Schildberger, B., Hanak, K. & Regner, F. (2007). Untersuchung von Herbizidschäden im österreichischen Weinbau. Gesunde Pflanzen 59(1), 23–28. DOI: 10.1007/s10343-007-0142-6.10.1007/s10343-007-0142-6Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[59] Sharley, D. J., Hoffmann, A. A. & Thomson, L. J. (2008). The effects of soil tillage on beneficial invertebrates within the vineyard. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 10, 233– 243. DOI: 10.1111/j.1461-9563.2008.00376.x.10.1111/j.1461-9563.2008.00376.xSearch in Google Scholar

[60] Soja, G., Zehetner, F., Rampazzo-Todorovic, G., Schildberger, B., Hackl, K., Hofmann, R., Burger, E. & Omann, I. (2010). Wine production under climate change conditions: mitigation and adaptation options from the vineyard to the sales booth. In Darnhofer, I. & Grötzer, M., eds., Building sustainable rural futures (pp. 1368–1378). Wien: Universität für Bodenkultur.Search in Google Scholar

[61] Sommerville, M., Milner-Gulland, E. J., Rahajaharison, M. & Jones, J. P. (2010). Impact of a community-based payment for environmental services intervention on forest use in Menabe, Madagascar. Conservation Biolology 24(6), 1488–1498. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01526.x.10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01526.x20507351Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[62] Steg, L. & De Groot, J. (2010). Explaining prosocial intentions: Testing causal relationships in the norm activation model. British Journal of Social Psychology 49(4), 725–743. DOI: 10.1348/014466609X477745.10.1348/014466609X47774520021707Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[63] Steg, L., Bolderdijk, J. W., Keizer, K. & Perlaviciute, G. (2014). An integrated framework for encouraging pro-environmental behaviour: The role of values, situational factors and goals. Journal of Environmental Psychology 38, 104–115. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvp.2014. DOISearch in Google Scholar

[64] Van Dijk, W. F. A., Lokhorst, A. M., Berendse, F. & de Snoo, G. R. (2016). Factors underlying farmers’ intentions to perform unsubsidised agri-environmental measures. Land Use Policy 59, 207–216. DOI: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2016. DOISearch in Google Scholar

[65] Van Hecken, G. & J. Bastiaensen (2010). Payments for ecosystem services: Justified or not? A political view. Environmental Science & Policy 13(8), 785–792. DOI: 10.1016/j.envsci.2010. in Google Scholar

[66] Van Hecken, G., Merlet, P., Lindtner, M. & Bastiaensen, J. (2017). Can financial incentives change farmers’ motivations? An agrarian system approach to development pathways at the Nicaraguan agricultural frontier. Ecological Economics, in press. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2016. DOISearch in Google Scholar

[67] Vatn, A. (2010). An institutional analysis of payments for environmental services. Ecological Economics 69, 1245–1252. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009. DOISearch in Google Scholar

[68] Viers, J. H., Williams, J. N., Nicholas, K. A., Barbosa, O., Kotzé, I., Spence, L., Webb, L. B., Merenlender, A. & Reynolds, M. (2013). Vinecology: pairing wine with nature. Conservation Letters 6(5), 287–299. DOI: 10.1111/conl.12011.10.1111/conl.12011Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[69] Vršič, S., Ivancic, A., Pulko, B. & Valdhuber, J. (2011). Effect of soil management systems on erosion and nutrition loss in vineyard. Journal of Environmental Biology 32(3), 289–294.Search in Google Scholar

[70] Wegner, G. I. (2016). Payments for ecosystem services (PES): a flexible, participatory, and integrated approach for improved conservation and equity outcomes. Environment, Development and Sustainability 18(3), 617–644. DOI: 10.1007/s10668-015-9673-7.10.1007/s10668-015-9673-7Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[71] Wunder, S. (2013). When payments for environmental services will work for conservation. Conservation Letters 6(4), 230–237. DOI: 10.1111/conl.12034.10.1111/conl.12034Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[72] Wunder, S. (2015). Revisiting the concept of payments for environmental services. Ecological Economics 117, 234–243. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2014. DOISearch in Google Scholar

[73] Ying, G. G. & Williams, B. (1999). Herbicide residues in grapes and wine. Journal of Environmental Science & Health, Part B 34(3), 397–411. DOI:10.1080/03601239909373205.10.1080/0360123990937320510227191Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[74] Zaller, J. G., Heigl, F., Ruess, L. & Grabmaier, A. (2014). Glyphosate herbicide affects belowground interactions between earthworms and symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi in a model ecosystem. Scientific Reports 4, 5634. DOI: 10.1038/srep05634.10.1038/srep05634408791725005713Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[75] Zehetner, F., Djukic, I., Hofmann, R., Kühnen, L., Rampazzo-Todorovic, G., Gerzabek, M. H. & Soja, G. (2015). Soil organic carbon and microbial communities respond to vineyard management. Soil Use and Management 31(4), 528–533. DOI: 10.1111/sum.12204.10.1111/sum.12204Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[76] AK (Arbeitskreis Wachau – Work Group Wachau) (2007). Unpublished internal documents.Search in Google Scholar

[77] BMLFUW (Federal Ministry for Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management) (2013). Sonderrichtlinie des BMLFUW für das Österreichische Programm zur Förderung einer umweltgerechten, extensiven und den natürlichen Lebensraum schützenden Landwirtschaft (Ö P U L 2007); GZ BMLFUW-LE.1.1.8/0072-II/8/2013.Search in Google Scholar

[78] BMLFUW (Federal Ministry for Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management) (2016). ÖPUL 2015 – das Agrar-Umweltprogramm bis 2020. https://www.bmlfuw.gv.at/land/laendl_entwicklung/oepul/oepul2015.html. Last viewed on August 06, 2017.Search in Google Scholar

[79] CSWA (California Sustainable Winegrowing Alliance) (s.a.). Sustainable Winegrowing Program. http://www.sustainablewinegrowing.org/sustainable_winegrowing_program.php. Last viewed on August 23, 2016.Search in Google Scholar

[80] Environment Agency Austria (Umweltbundesamt) (s.a.), How Vulnerable is Austria?http://www.klimawandelanpassung.at/ms/klimawandelanpassung/en/kwa_en/kwa_en_vuln/. Last viewed on August 21, 2016.Search in Google Scholar

[81] European Commission (s.a.). Agriculture and Rural Development. Agriculture and Environment. Agri-environment measures. https://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/envir/measures_en. Last viewed on August 06, 2017.Search in Google Scholar

[82] Forum per la Sostenibilità del Vino (2014). First Report on Sustainable Winegrowing. http://www.vinosostenibile.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/First-Report-Wine-Sustainability-Ocotber-2014.pdf. Last viewed on August 23, 2016.Search in Google Scholar

[83] Forum per la Sostenibilità del Vino (s.a.). Promoting wine sustainability. http://www.vinosostenibile.org/?lang=en. Last viewed on August 23, 2016.Search in Google Scholar

[84] NZWINE (New Zealand Wine) (s.a). Sustainable Winegrowing New Zealand. http://www.nzwine.com/sustainability/sustainable-winegrowing-new-zealand/. Last viewed on August 23, 2016.Search in Google Scholar

[85] OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) (2016). Innovation, Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability in the United States. OECD Foods an Agricultural Reviews. Paris: OECD Publishing.Search in Google Scholar

[86] ÖWM (Österreich Wein Marketing GmbH) (s.a.a). WachauSteile Terrassen, edle Rebsorten, monumentale Weine. http://www.oesterreichwein.at/unser-wein/weinbaugebiete/niederoesterreich/wachau/. Last viewed on May 11, 2017.Search in Google Scholar

[87] ÖWM (Österreich Wein Marketing GmbH) (s.a.b). Weingüter mit Betriebsstandort Wagram.http://www.oesterreichwein.at/unser-wein/weinbaugebiete/niederoesterreich/wagram/weingueter-mit-betriebsstandort-wagram/. Last viewed on May 10, 2017.Search in Google Scholar

[88] R Development Core Team (2008). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.Search in Google Scholar

[89] RH (Rechnungshof Österreich – Austrian Court of Audit) (2013). Bericht des Rechnungshofes – Agrarumweltprogramm ÖPUL 2007 Bund. Vienna.Search in Google Scholar

[90] RH (Rechnungshof Österreich – Austrian Court of Audit) (2016). Bericht des Rechnungshofes – Agrarumweltprogramm ÖPUL 2007; Follow–up–Überprüfung. Vienna.Search in Google Scholar

[91] Riegler, M. & Hinterberger, F. (2010). Monatsthema 09/10: Weinbau im (Klima-)Wandel. https://www.nachhaltigkeit.at/thema/archiv-thema-des-monats/archiv-2010/monatsthema-0910-weinbau-im-klima-wandel. Last viewed on August 23, 2016.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo