Open Access

Interplay between cardiovascular and thyroid dysfunctions: A review of clinical implications and management strategies


Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and thyroid dysfunction are two of the most prevailing disorders in the world that are closely interlinked. Actions of thyroid hormones are mediated via thyroid receptors present in the myocardium and the vascular tissue. Primary mechanism that links thyroid dysfunction with CVD is the modification of cardiovascular risk factors (dyslipidemia, blood pressure, coagulation parameters, etc.) resulting in endothelial and left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction.

Both overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism may cause adverse alterations in cardiac function. Hyperthyroidism gives rise to palpitation, atrial fibrillation, systolic hypertension, and heart failure, whereas hypothyroidism increases diastolic hypertension, pericardial effusion, and the risk of ischemic heart disease via altering lipid and coagulation parameters. Early recognition and treatment of thyroid dysfunction may prevent adverse cardiovascular events in patients with or without pre-existing CVD.

Certain cardiac conditions and medications can cause alterations in thyroid function that may predispose an individual to higher morbidity and mortality. In certain situations, thyroid dysfunction treatment may have cardiovascular benefits. This study deals with the interplay between cardiovascular and thyroid dysfunctions associated with clinical implications and management strategies.