Open Access

Bredemolic acid restores glucose utilization and attenuates oxidative stress in palmitic acid-induced insulin-resistant C2C12 cells


Objective. Due to insulin resistance and oxidative stress that are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), T2DM has become a prevalent metabolic disorder that presents various side effects. However, alternative antidiabetic treatment has commonly been used in treating diabetes mellitus in diabetic patients. In our previous studies, bredemolic acid has been reported as an antidiabetic agent that improves glucose uptake, ameliorates insulin resistance, and oxidative stress in the liver, heart, kidney, and skeletal muscle of prediabetic rats. However, these effects have not been validated in vitro. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the effects of bredemolic acid on insulin-mediated glucose utilization, lipid peroxidation, and the total antioxidant capacity (TOAC) in palmitic acid-induced insulin-resistant C2C12 skeletal muscle cells in vitro.

Methods. Insulin resistance was induced in the skeletal muscle cells after 4 h of exposure to palmitic acid (0.5 mmol/l). Different cell groups were incubated in culture media DMEM supplemented with fetal calf serum (10%), penicillin/streptomycin (1%), and L-glutamine (1%) and then treated with either insulin (4 µg/ml) or bredemolic acid (12.5 mmol/l) or with both. Thereafter, the cells were seeded in 24- or 96-well plates for determination of the cell viability, glucose utilization, glycogen formation, and antioxidant capacity.

Results. The results showed that bredemolic acid significantly improved TOAC and promoted glucose utilization via attenuation of lipid peroxidation and increased glycogen formation in the insulin-resistant cells, respectively.

Conclusion. This study showed that bredemolic acid restored the insulin resistance through improved glucose utilization, glycogen formation, and TOAC in the skeletal muscle cells.