1. bookVolume 67 (2018): Issue 2 (July 2018)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2466-4774
First Published
16 Apr 2016
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

A Review of African Swine Fever – Disease that is Now a Big Concern in Europe

Published Online: 06 Aug 2018
Volume & Issue: Volume 67 (2018) - Issue 2 (July 2018)
Page range: 110 - 118
Received: 14 Sep 2017
Accepted: 07 May 2018
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2466-4774
First Published
16 Apr 2016
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Summary

African swine fever (ASF) is a serious disease of domestic and feral swine mainly because of grave clinical course of the disease and its strong socio-economic impact. Not only there is an extremely high mortality (95–100%) around the time of the first outbreak, live-animal, pork meat and other pork product trade is strongly affected on regional and international level. ASF is a species-specific disease; strength of the clinical signs depends on virulence of a viral strain. Exacerbation of body temperature and dysfunction of respiratory system and gastrointestinal tract are most common occurrences. Lesions can be mostly classed as congestive or hemorrhagic. Epidemiologically, ASF varies substantially among regions, countries and continents due to wide panel of different virus genotypes, population of feral swine and other reservoirs of disease, geographical characteristics and social habits of people. ASF is endemic in Sub-Saharan Africa where soft ticks (Argaside) and chronically infected feral swine population serve as reservoirs. It also became endemic in most parts of Russian Federation. Since 1978, ASF is endemic on Sardinia isle, as it was eradicated in all other parts of Europe. First outbreak in Georgia in 2007 has apparently served for transmission to other eastern European countries. Slovenia is currently still ASF-free but disease has already reached some relatively nearby countries (Poland, Romania, Moldova, Czech Republic and Hungary). There is no anti-ASF vaccine currently available ad specific treatment has not been described. Therefore rapid diagnostics and implementation of strict biosecurity measures play a key role in prevention of further transmission.

Keywords

ALVAREZ, A.O., MARCOTEGUI, M.A.: African swine fever - clinical aspects. In: African Swine Fever. (Y. Becker, ed.), Developments in Veterinary Virology, Vol. 3, Springer, Boston, pp.11–20,1987.Search in Google Scholar

ANDERSON, E.C., WILLIAMS, S.M., FISCHER-HOCH, S.P., WILKINSON, P.J.: Arachidonic acid metabolites in the pathophysiology of thrombocytopenia and haemorrhage in acute African swine fever. Res. Vet. Sci., 42:387–394, 1987.Search in Google Scholar

ARIAS, M., SÁNCHEZ-VIZCAÍNO, J.M., MORILLA, A., YOON, K.J., ZIMMERMAN, J.J.: African swine fever. In: Trends in emerging viral infections of swine (A. Morilla, K.J. Yoon, J.J. Zimmerman, eds.). Iowa State Press, Ames, pp.119–124,2002.Search in Google Scholar

BECH-NIELSEN, S., FERNANDEZ, J., MARTINEZ-PEREDA, F., ESPINOSA, J., BONILLA, Q.P., SÁNCHEZ-VIZCAÍNO, J.M.: A case study of an outbreak of African swine fever in Spain. Br. Vet. J., 151(2)203–214,1995.10.1016/S0007-1935(95)80012-3Search in Google Scholar

BELLINI, S., RUTILE, D., GUBERTI, V.: Preventive measures aimed at minimizing the risk of African swine fever virus spread in pig farming systems. Acta Vet. Scand., 58:82,2016. doi: 10.1186/s13028-016-0264-x.10.1186/s13028-016-0264-xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

BELTRÁN-ALCRUDO, D., LUBROTH, J., DEPNER, K., DE LA ROCQUE, S.: African swine fever in the Caucasus. FAO Empres Watch, 1-8,2008.Search in Google Scholar

BLOME, S., GABRIEL, S., BEER, M.: Pathogenesis of African swine fever in domestic pigs and European wild boar. Virus Res., 173:122–130,2013. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2012.10.026.10.1016/j.virusres.2012.10.026Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

BOINAS, F.S., HUTCHINGS, G.H., DIXON, G.H., WILKINSON, P.J.: Characterization of pathogenic and non-pathogenic African swine fever virus isolates from Ornithodoros erraticus inhabiting pig premises in Portugal. J. Gen. Virol., 85(8)2177‒2187,2004.10.1099/vir.0.80058-0Search in Google Scholar

COSTARD, S., MUR, L., LUBROTH, J., SÁNCHEZ-VIZCAÍNO, J.M., PFEIFFER, D.U.: Epidemiology of African swine fever virus. Virus Res., 173(1)191‒197,2013. doi: org/10.1016/j.virusres.2012.10.030.10.1016/j.virusres.2012.10.030Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

DAHLE, J., LIESS, B.: A review on classical swine fever infections in pigs: epizootiology, clinical disease and pathology. Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 15(3)203‒211, 1992.10.1016/0147-9571(92)90093-7Search in Google Scholar

DE TRAY, D.E.: African swine fever in warthogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus). J. Am. Vet. Med Assoc., 130:537‒540,1957.Search in Google Scholar

DIXON, L.K., ESCRIBARO, J.M., MARTINS, C., ROCK, D.L., SALAS, M.L., WILKINSON, P.J.: Asfaviridae. In: Virus Taxonomy (C.M. Fauquet, M.A. Mayo, J. Maniloff, U. Desselberger, L.A. Ball, eds.), Eighth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ICTV, Elsevier/Academic Press, London, UK, pp.135‒43, 2005.Search in Google Scholar

DIXON, L.K., CHAPMAN, D.A.G., NETHERTON, C.L., UPTON, C.: African swine fever replication and genomics. Virus Res., 173(1)3‒14,2013. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2012.10.020.10.1016/j.virusres.2012.10.020Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

EDWARDS, S.: Survival and inactivation of classical swine fever virus. Vet. Microbiol., 73(2)175‒181,2000.10.1016/S0378-1135(00)00143-7Search in Google Scholar

EUROPEAN FOOD SAFETY AUTHORITY (EFSA): EFSA panel on animal health and welfare: Scientific opinion on African swine fever. EFSA J., 8(3)1556,2010. doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1556.10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1556Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

ESCRIBANO, J.M., GALINDO, I., ALONSO, C.: Antibody-mediated neutralization of African swine fever virus: myths and facts. Virus Res., 173(1)110‒121,2013. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2012.10.012.10.1016/j.virusres.2012.10.01223159730Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

FAREZ, S., MORLEY, R.S.: Potential animal health hazards of pork and pork products. Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epiz., 16:65‒78,1997. doi: 10.20506/rst.16.1.992.10.20506/rst.16.1.9929329109Search in Google Scholar

GALLARDO, C., DE LA TORRE REOYO, A., FERNÁNDEZ-PINERO, J., IGLESIAS, I., MUÑOZ, J., ARIAS, L.: African swine fever: a global view of the current challenge. Porcine Health Manag., 21:1,2015. doi: 10.1186/s40813-015-0013-y.10.1186/s40813-015-0013-y538247428405426Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

GALLARDO, C., FERNÁNDEZ-PINERO, J., PELAYO, V., GAZAEV, I., MARKOWSKA-DANIEL, I., PRIDOTKAS, G., NIETO, R., FERNÁNDEZ-PACHECO, P., BOKHAN, S., NEVOLKO, O., DROZHZHE, Z.: Genetic variation among African swine fever genotype II viruses, eastern and central Europe. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 20(9)1544,2014. doi: 10.3201/eid2009.14055410.3201/eid2009.140554417838925148518Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

GOGIN, A., GERMANISOV, V., MALOGOLOVKIN, A., KOLBASOV, D.: African swine fever in the North Caucasus region and the Russian Federation in years 2007-2012. Virus Res., 173:198‒203,2013. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2012.12.007.10.1016/j.virusres.2012.12.00723266725Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

GÓMEZ-VILLAMANDOS, J. C., BAUTISTA, M.J., CARRASCO, L., CABALLERO, M.J., HERVÁS, J., VILLEDA, C.J., WILKINSON, P.J., SIERRA, M.A.: African swine fever virus infection of bone marrow: lesions and pathogenesis. Vet. Pathol., 34:97‒107,1997.Search in Google Scholar

GUINAT, C., REIS, A.L., NETHERTON, C.L., GOATLEY, L., PFEIFFER, D.U., DIXON, L.: Dynamics of African swine fever virus shedding and excretion in domestic pigs infected by intramuscular inoculation and contact transmission. Vet. Res., 45:93,2014. doi: 10.1186/s13567-014-0093-8.10.1186/s13567-014-0093-8418917525256695Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

HAMDY, F.M., DARDIRI, A.H.: Clinical and immunologic responses of pigs to African swine fever virus isolated from the Western Hemisphere. Am. J. Vet. Res., 45(4)711‒714,1984.Search in Google Scholar

JORI, F., BASTOS, A.D.: Role of wild suids in the epidemiology of African swine fever. Ecohealth., 6(2)296-310,2009.10.1007/s10393-009-0248-719915917Search in Google Scholar

MONTGOMERY R.E.: A form of swine fever occurring in British East Africa (Kenya colony). J. Comp. Pathol., 34:159‒191,1921.Search in Google Scholar

MUR, L., IGOLKIN, A., VARENTSOVA, A., PERSHIN, A., REMYGA, S., SHEVCHENKO, I., ZHUKOV, I., SÁNCHEZ-VIZCAÍNO, J.M.: Detection of African swine fever antibodies in experimental and field samples from the Russian Federation: implications for control. Transbound. Emerg. Dis., 63:436‒440,2016. doi:10.1111/tbed.12304.10.1111/tbed.1230425440300Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

MUR, L., MARTÍNEZ-LÓPEZ, B., MARTÍNEZ-AVILÉS, M., COSTARD, S., WIELAND, B., PFEIFFER, D.U., SÁNCHEZVIZCAÍNO, J.M.: Quantitative risk assessment for the introduction of African swine fever virus into the European Union by legal import of live pigs. Transbound. Emerg. Dis., 59(2)134‒144,2012. doi: 10.1111/j.1865-1682.2011.01253.x.10.1111/j.1865-1682.2011.01253.x21831148Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

OĻŠEVSKIS, E., GUBERTI, V., SERŽANTS, M., WESTERGAARD, J., GALLARDO, C., RODZE, I., DEPNER, K.: African swine fever virus introduction into the EU in 2014: experience of Latvia. Res. Vet. Sci., 105:28‒30,2016. doi: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2016.01.006.10.1016/j.rvsc.2016.01.00627033903Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

OULA, C.A.L., ARIAS, M.: 2.8.1. African swine fever. In: Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals (OIE). Paris, World organization for animal health, pp.1069‒82,2008.Search in Google Scholar

PEJSAK, Z., TRUSZCZYŃSKI, M., NIEMCZUK, K., KOZAK, E., MARKOWSKA-DANIEL, I.: Epidemiology of African swine fever in Poland since the detection of the first case. Pol. J. Vet. Sci., 17(4)665‒672,2014.10.2478/pjvs-2014-009725638980Search in Google Scholar

PENRITH, M. L., VOSLOO, W.: Review of African swine fever: transmission, spread and control. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc., 80:58‒62,2009.Search in Google Scholar

PLOWRIGHT, W., PARKER, J.: The stability of African swine fever virus with particular reference to heat and pH inactivation. Arch. Virol., 21(3)383‒402,1967.10.1007/BF012417385628715Search in Google Scholar

ROJO, G., GARCÍA-BEATO, R., VIÑUELA, E., SALAS, M.L., SALAS, J.: Replication of African swine fever virus DNA in infected cells. Virology, 257(2)524‒536,1999.10.1006/viro.1999.970410329562Search in Google Scholar

ROWLANDS, R. J., MICHAUD, V., HEATH, L., HUTCHINGS, G., OURA, C., VOSLOO, W., DWARKA, R., ONASHVILI, T., ALBINA, E., DIXON, L.K.: African swine fever virus isolate, Georgia, 2007. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 14(12)1870‒1874,2008. doi: 10.3201/eid1412.080591.10.3201/eid1412.080591263466219046509Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

SANCHEZ-CORDON, P.J., NUNEZ, A., SALGUERO, F.J., PEDRERA, M., DE MARCO, M.F., GOMEZ-VILLAMANDOS, J.C.: Lymphocyte apoptosis and thrombocytopenia in spleen during classical swine fever: role of macrophages and cytokines. Vet. Pathol., 42(4)477‒488,2005.10.1354/vp.42-4-47716006607Search in Google Scholar

SÁNCHEZ-VIZCAÍNO, J. M., ARIAS NEIRA, M.: African swine fever virus. In: Diseases of Swine (J.J. Zimmerman, L.A. Karriker, A. Ramirez, K.J. Schwartz, G.W. Stevenson, eds.), Iowa State Press, Ames, Iowa, pp. 501‒24,2012.Search in Google Scholar

SÁNCHEZ-VIZCAÍNO, J.M., MUR, L., GOMEZ-VILLAMANDOS, J.C., CARRASCO, L.: An update on the epidemiology and pathology of African swine fever. J. Comp. Pathol., 152(1)9‒21,2015. doi: 10.1016/j.jcpa.2014.09.003.10.1016/j.jcpa.2014.09.00325443146Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

ŚMIETANKA, K., WOŹNIAKOWSKI, G., KOZAK, E., NIEMCZUK, K., FRĄCZYK, M., BOCIAN, Ł., KOWALCZYK, A., PEJSAK, Z.: African swine fever epidemic, Poland, 2014–2015. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 22(7)1201‒1217,2016. doi: 10.3201/eid2207.151708.10.3201/eid2207.151708491816927314611Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

VINUELA, E.: African swine fever virus. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol., 116:151‒170,1985.10.1007/978-3-642-70280-8_83893908Search in Google Scholar

VILLEDA, C.J., WILLIAMS, S.M., WILKINSON, P.J., VIÑUELA, E.: Consumption coagulopathy associated with shock in acute African swine fever. Arch. Virol., 133:467‒475,1993.Search in Google Scholar

WOŹNIAKOWSKI, G., KOZAK, E., KOWALCZYK, A., ŁYJAK, M., POMORSKA-MÓL, M., NIEMCZUK, K., PEJSAK, Z.: Current status of African swine fever virus in a population of wild boar in eastern Poland (2014-2015). Arch. Virol., 161:189‒195,2016.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo