Open Access

Resource-based induced conflict and socio-economic effects on crop and cattle farmers in Nigeria


This study investigated the socio‑economic effects of crop and cattle farmers’ natural resource‑based conflicts in Osun State, Nigeria. A total of 228 crop and cattle farmers were sampled in six communities (Ila, Faje, Esa‑Oke, Esa‑Odo, Patara and Adana), using a multistage sampling procedure. The data were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics such as Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC), Chi square and independent t‑test (at α0.05). Majority (73.7%, 100%) of crop and cattle farmers, respectively, were male. Accessibility of natural resources and damage/stealing of crops were identified as major causes of the conflicts. Crime and criminality, and poor training on conflict prevention and resolution were rated as major constraint to conflict resolution. Sustainable land management practices and alternative fodder production for crop and cattle farmers, respectively, were identified as major climate smart training needs to mitigate conflicts. Reduction in quality of social relationships and interruption in education of children for crop farmers; and displacement and reduction in quality of social relationships for cattle farmers were the major social effects suffered. Reduction of agricultural outputs and inability to repay loan were the most common economic effects suffered by the respondents. Causes of conflict, farm/herd size and years of respondents’ experience significantly related with overall socio-economic effects, while constraints to conflict resolution mechanisms (t = −2.672, p = 0.008), methods of conflict resolution (t = −6.649, p = 0.000) and socio-economic effects (t = 3.317, p = 0.008) differed among the respondents. Furthermore, the effect of the conflict was more severe among the crop farmers than among cattle farmers. Based on these new findings it is essential that a coordinated effort between religious institutions, the government, and non-governmental organisations give the ongoing efforts more momentum and include convincing herders to consider other options for producing livestock under ranching system for a more effective and sustainable livelihood practices.

Publication timeframe:
Volume Open
Journal Subjects:
Life Sciences, Plant Science