Open Access

The incidence of insomnia among employed and unemployed individuals


Introduction: Insomnia is a complex disorder and requires knowledge of the subjective feelings of the patient. The incidence of insomnia varies depending on the classification and definition used in the study, and usually oscillates between 4–48%. Insomnia lowers quality of life (QoL), which translates into poorer functioning at social and professional levels.

The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of insomnia among employed and unemployed individuals with regard to their sociodemographic and socioeconomic data, to analyze the relationship between insomnia, depressive symptoms and chronic diseases, and to assess how insomnia affects QoL.

Materials and methods: This survey-based study included 597 people. The following questionnaires were used: the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS), Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI), the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), and a self-developed questionnaire.

Results: Insomnia was found in 17.75% (n = 106; p ≤ 0.001) of respondents. There was a statistically significant relationship between insomnia and sex (p = 0.006). Insomnia was more common in women (20.83%; n = 75), people over 56 years of age (27.08%; n = 26; p ≤ 0.001), and those unemployed (26.37%; n = 53; p ≤ 0.001). A statistically significant relationship was demonstrated between depression and insomnia assessed by the AIS (p ≤ 0.001).

Conclusions: 1. Insomnia was more common in unemployed individuals. 2. Insomnia was more common in those with hyper-tension, irrespective of their employment status. Therefore, primary care physicians should use the AIS as part of screening among chronically ill patients. 3. Insomnia was accompanied by depressive symptoms in all groups analyzed in this study, irrespective of their employment status. 4. Insomnia is a serious public and mental health problem. The AIS should be used as part of workers’ periodic health examinations, since ignoring the problem of insomnia decreases QoL.

Publication timeframe:
4 times per year
Journal Subjects:
Medicine, Basic Medical Science, other, Clinical Medicine, Surgery, Public Health