The pterygopalatine fossa is an inverted pyramid-shaped space of the viscerocranium, protected by bony structures. Surgical access to this anatomical space is difficult, especially for tumor resection. There are numerous open surgical techniques for accessing this space, but nowadays, minimally-invasive endoscopic approaches are preferred in order to increase postoperative quality of life and reduce postoperative morbidities.

The tumors of the pterygopalatine fossa can be benign or malignant, and can occur primarily in the fossa or as secondary extensions from the surrounding regions through the multiple canals and foramina in its walls. Squamous cell carcinomas of this space have been described to appear as extensions from the nasopharynx, the paranasal sinuses or through perineural extension from the cutaneous branches of the maxillary nerve.

In this paper the authors present a rare case of squamous cell carcinoma of the pterygopalatine fossa, which was excised in an endoscopic transnasal approach after preoperative selective embolization.