1. bookVolume 12 (2016): Issue 2 (December 2016)
Journal Details
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
access type Open Access

Anti-Romani Terrorism in Europe

Published Online: 17 Oct 2016
Volume & Issue: Volume 12 (2016) - Issue 2 (December 2016)
Page range: 69 - 91
Journal Details
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year

This article analyzes terrorism against the Roma in Europe. It identifies acts of terrorism in violence that targets the largest stateless nation on the continent and categorizes this terrorism according to current research methods. Focusing on events in both Western and Eastern Europe, the article analyses and compares the most significant terrorist acts against the Roma of recent years. It concludes that anti-Romani terrorism is heterogeneous in terms of tactics, strategies, and ideological justification, yet can usually be subsumed into the broadly conceived category of far-right terrorism. The variety of attacks suggests that terrorist acts are an offshoot of the broad spectrum of anti-Romani activity, and are influenced by contemporary trends in inter-ethnic violence.


Albert, Gwendolyn (2012): Bulgaria: Man dies as result of bombing of Euroroma office, Romea 1 August 2012, http://www.romea.cz/en/news/world/bulgaria-man-dies-as-result-of-bombing-of-euroroma-office (14 October 2014).Search in Google Scholar

Alter Media (2015): Deloto za bombata v snadanski skalypen proces, http://www.altermedia.bg/news/view/261/deloto-za-bombata-v-sandanski-skalypen-proces, 23 March 2015 (20 December 2015).Search in Google Scholar

Amnesty International (2014): “We ask for justice,” Europe’s failure to protect Roma from racist violence, http://www.amnesty.eu/content/assets/Reports/08042014_Europes_failure_to_protect_Roma_from_racist_violence.pdf (12 October 2014).Search in Google Scholar

Antifaschistisches Autorenkollektiv (1996): Drahtzieher im braunen Netz. Ein aktueller Überblick über den Neonazi-Untergrund in Deutschland und Österreich, Konkret Literatur Verlag.Search in Google Scholar

APA (2013): Franz Fuchs: Die Chronologie des Bomben-Terrors, Salzburger Nachrichten, 3 December 2013: http://www.salzburg.com/nachrichten/oesterreich/politik/sn/artikel/franz-fuchs-die-chronologie-des-bomben-terrors-85059/ (4 June 2014).Search in Google Scholar

Apostolova, Vetina (2014): Kriminalniyat razuznavach B. Vasilev. Informator na policiyata posochi chetirimata arestuvani za bombata pred ofisa na Evroroma v Sandanski, Struma, 26 June 2014, http://struma.bg/news/26446/1/1/Kriminalniyat-razuznavach-B-Vasilev-Informator-na-policiyata-posochi-chetirimata-arestuvani-za-bombata-pred-ofisa-na-Evroroma-v-Sandanski.html (14 October 2014).Search in Google Scholar

Athena Institute (2013): Identified domestic extremist groups, available at http://www.athenaintezet.hu/en/hate_groups/ (20 October 2014).Search in Google Scholar

Backes, Uwe (2012): Formen und Transnationale Netze im Vergleich. Rechtsterroristische Kristallisationsfelder in Europa. Politische Studien 63 (443): 56–67.Search in Google Scholar

Bundespräsident des Republik Österreich (2015): Erinnerung an das Oberwart-Attentat 1995 und die vier Opfer von Hass und Diskriminierung, http://www.bundespraesident.at/newsdetail/artikel/-dc2ee14e6c/ (20 December 2015).Search in Google Scholar

François-Xavier Bagnoud Center for Health and Human Rights at Harvard University (2014): Accelerating patterns of anti-Roma violence in Hungary, https://cdn2.sph.harvard.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/2014/02/FXB-Hungary-Report_Released-February-4-2014.pdf (accessed 20 December 2015).Search in Google Scholar

Berwick, Andrew (2011). 2083 – A European Declaration of Independence, De Laude Novae Militae.Search in Google Scholar

BLIC (2015): Duceto izrigina v syda na deloto za bombenija atentat v Sandanski, 28 January 2015, http://www.blitz.bg/news/article/316299.Search in Google Scholar

Bötticher, Astrid – Mareš, Miroslav (2012): Extremismus. Theorien – Konzepte – Formen, Oldenbourg Verlag.10.1524/9783486714357Search in Google Scholar

Bötticher, Astrid – Mareš, Miroslav (2013): Europaweite militante rechtsextremistische Netzwerke und Organisationen. Kriminalistik, 67 (10): 602–609.Search in Google Scholar

Breen—Smyth, Marie (2009): Racism and violence in Northern Ireland: Romanian Roma driven out of Belfast, e-International Relations, July 1st 2009, available at http://www.e-ir.info/2009/07/01/racism-and-violence-in-northern-ireland-romanian-roma-families-driven-out-of-belfast/ (11 October 2014).Search in Google Scholar

Bulgarski Nacionalni Sojuz (2014): Vazhno. Kampania: Objektivnost za momtseeta ot Sandanski, 12 July 2012, available at http://bgns.net (12 October 2014).Search in Google Scholar

European Association for the Defense of Human Rights (2012): Roma people in Europe in the 21st century: violence, exclusion, insecurity, available at: http://www.aedh.eu/plugins/fckedi-tor/userfiles/file/Discriminations%20et%20droits%20des%20minorit%C3%A9s/AEDH%20Roma%20REPORT%2017_4_2013(1).pdf (13 July 2014).Search in Google Scholar

European Roma Rights Center (2012b): Attacks against Roma in Bulgaria: September 2011–September 2012, available at: http://www.errc.org/cms/upload/file/attacks-list-in-bulgaria.pdf (13 July 2014).Search in Google Scholar

European Roma Rights Center (2012a): Attacks against Roma in Hungary: January 2008–Sep-tember 2012, available at: http://www.errc.org/cms/upload/file/attacks-list-in-hungary.pdf (13 July 2014).Search in Google Scholar

European Roma Rights Center (2012c): Factsheet: Roma Rights in Jeopardy, available at http://www.errc.org/cms/upload/file/factsheet-roma-rights-record.pdf (13 July 2014).Search in Google Scholar

European Union (2015): EU and Roma, available at: http://ec.europa.eu/justice/discrimination/roma/index_en.htm (20 December 2015).Search in Google Scholar

Graborsky, Peter – Stohl, Michael (2010): Crime and Terrorism, Sage.10.4135/9781446269190Search in Google Scholar

Hartleb, Florian (2013): “Einsamer-Wolf-Terrorismus” – Neue Dimension oder drastischer Einzelfall? Was lernen wir aus dem Fall “Breivik” in Norwegen? SIAK-Journal 9 (4), 77–95: available at 21 June 2014, available at: http://www.bmi.gv.at/cms/BMI_SIAK/4/2/1/2013/ausgabe_4/files/Hartleb_4_2013.pdf (12 January 2015).Search in Google Scholar

Human Right Firsts (2008): 2008 Hate Crimes Survey, Human Rights Firsts.Search in Google Scholar

Holbrook, Donald and Taylor, Max (2013): Introduction, in Holbrook, Donald – Currie, P. M and Taylor, M., eds., Extreme Right-Wing Political Violence and Terrorism, 1–13, Bloomsbury.Search in Google Scholar

Ivan, Ana Maria (2005): Securitate Austria, available at http://www.ami25.at/securitate-austria/index.php (20 December 2014).Search in Google Scholar

Jakoubek, Marek (2008): Geneze Romů a Baršova ontologie per acclamationem aneb Debata pokračuje. In Jakoubek, Marek and Budilová, Lenka, eds.: Romové a Cikáni – Neznámí i známí. Interdisciplinární pohled, 257–288, Leda.Search in Google Scholar

Juříček, Ludvík – Rožňák, Petr (2014): Bezpečnost, hrozby a rizika v 21. století. Key Publishing.Search in Google Scholar

K. B. I. (2013): Háromszor Életfogytiglan. Zsaru, 14. August 2013, 4–5.Search in Google Scholar

Kraus, Josef (2014): Íránský státní terorismus, Centrum pro studium demokracie a kultury.Search in Google Scholar

Kučera, Michal (2011): Les violences contre les Roms en République tchéque. Revue des sciences sociales 46 (1): 102–113.10.3406/revss.2011.1405Search in Google Scholar

Kúria (2016): A Kúria pontot tett az egész országot felkavaró ügyre, 13 January 2016, available at http://lb.hu/hu/sajto/kuria-pontot-tett-az-egesz-orszagot-felkavaro-ugyre (17 January 2016).Search in Google Scholar

Laryš, Martin –Mareš, Miroslav (2015): Right-Wing Extremist Violence in the Russian Federation. Europe-Asia Studies 63 (1): 129–154.Search in Google Scholar

Laqueur, Walter (2001): The New Terrorism. Fanaticism and the Arms of Mass Destruction, Phoenix Press.Search in Google Scholar

Mareš, Miroslav (2005): Terorismus v ČR. Brno: Centrum strategických studií.Search in Google Scholar

Mareš, Miroslav (2011): Terrorism-Free Zone in East Central Europe? Strategic Environment, Risk Tendencies, and Causes of Limited Terrorist Activities in the Visegrad Group Countries. Terrorism and Political Violence 23 (2): 233–253.10.1080/09546553.2010.529389Search in Google Scholar

Mareš, Miroslav (2012):Vigilantism against the Roma in East Central Europe, in Backes, Uwe and Moreau, Patrick, eds.: The Extreme Right in Europe. Current Trends and Perspectives, 281–296, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.10.13109/9783666369223.281Search in Google Scholar

Mareš, Miroslav (2014): Leadership and Right-Wing Extremist Violence: Case Studies from the Czech Territory. In Milosevic Marko and Rekawek Kacper, eds: Perseverance of Terrorism: Focus on Leaders, 103–110, IOS Press.Search in Google Scholar

Mareš, Miroslav – Tvrdá, Kateřina (2014): New forms of manifestation of extremist violence: Case study of East Central Europe. In Poczik, Szilveszter (ed.): Annual EENeT Conference 2012 in Budapest/HU. New Catalysts for Violent Extremism and Terrorism – Smoke on the Horizon?, 11–15, European Expert Network on Terrorism Issues.Search in Google Scholar

Martin, Gus (2013): Understanding Terrorism. Challenges, Perspectives and Issues, 3rd Edition, Sage.Search in Google Scholar

Martón, Peter (2011): Anti-terrorism in the Visegrad Framework: Less is More and Better. In Rękawek Kacper, eds.: Nonmilitary aspects of security in V4 countries —prospects for co-operation, Polski Instytut Spraw Międzynarodowych, 11–25, available at https://www.pism.pl/files/?id_plik=8600 (13 April 2013).Search in Google Scholar

Mayer, Gregor – Odehnal, Bernhard (2010): Aufmarsch. Die Rechte Gefahr aus Osteuropa. Res-idenz Verlag.Search in Google Scholar

McAuley, James W (2013): Ulster Loyalist and Extreme Right-Wing Politics. In Taylor, Max – Currie, P. M. and Holbrook, Donald (eds.): Extreme Right-Wing Political Violence and Terrorism, 85–103, Bloomsbury.Search in Google Scholar

Mudde, Cas (2005): Central and Eastern Europe Racist Extremism in Central and Eastern Europe, in Mudde, Cas: Racist Exremism in Central and Eastern Europe, 267–285, Routledge.10.4324/9780203002377Search in Google Scholar

Müller, Thomas (2006): Einführung in die kriminalpsychologische Tatortanalyse. Fallbeispiel der Bajuwarischen Befreiungsarmee (BBA) (Teil 3), SIAK-Journal, 3 (3), 30–3, available at: http://www.bmi.gv.at/cms/BMI_SIAK/4/2/1/2006/ausgabe_3/files/Mueller_3_2006.pdf (12 January 2015).Search in Google Scholar

Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (2014): Situation Assessment Report on Roma in Ukraine and the Impact of Current Crisis. (20 December 2015), https://www.osce.org/odihr/124494?download=true.Search in Google Scholar

Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (2015): Bias against Roma and Sinti (20 December 2015), http://hatecrime.osce.org/what-hate-crime/bias-against-roma-and-sinti.Search in Google Scholar

Pape, Markus (2016): Analýza: Verdikt maďarského soudu je pravomocný. Za rasistické vraždy potvrdil doživotní tresty, Romea, 17 January 2016, available at http://www.romea.cz/cz/zpra-vodajstvi/verdikt-madarskeho-soudu-je-pravomocny-za-rasisticke-vrazdy-potvrdil-dozivotni-tresty (17 January 2016).Search in Google Scholar

Pečínka, Pavel (2009): Romské strany a politici v Evropě, Doplněk.Search in Google Scholar

Policie České republiky (2011): Shromáždění nebylo oznámené, http://www.policie.cz/clanek/shromazdeni-nebylo-oznamene.aspx (12 June 2013).Search in Google Scholar

Ravndal, Jacob Aasland (2015): Thugs or Terrorists? A Typology of Right-Wing Extremism and Violence in Western Europe. Journal for Deradicalisation 1 (3): 1: available at http://journals.sfu.ca/jd/index.php/jd/article/view/16 (20 December 2015).Search in Google Scholar

Republik Österreich. Bundesministerium des Inneres (1999): Staatsschutzbericht 1998, available at http://www.bmi.gv.at/cms/bmi_verfassungsschutz/verfassungsschutzbericht_1998.pdf (14 January 2015).Search in Google Scholar

Scheid, Hans-Christian (2001): Franz Fuchs—Doch kein Einzeltäter, Styria Premium.Search in Google Scholar

Schmid, Alex P. (2011): The Definition of Terrorism, in Schmid, Alex P., eds: The Routledge Handbook of Terrorism Research, 39–98, Routledge.10.4324/9780203828731Search in Google Scholar

Souleimanov, Emil (2006): Terorismus ve světle geneze ideologie a technologie soudobých konfliktů, in Souleimanov, Emil, eds.: Terorismus. Válka proti státu, 13–63, Eurolex.Search in Google Scholar

Sprinzak, Ehud (1995): Right-Wing Terrorism in a Comparative Perspective: The Case of Split Delegitimization, in Bjørgo, Tjore, eds.: Terror From the Extreme Right, 17–43, Frank Cass.10.1080/09546559508427284Search in Google Scholar

Stojarová, Věra (2014): The Far Rigt in the Balkans, Manchester University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Strmiska, Maxmilián (2001): Terorismus a demokracie. Pojetí a typologie subverzivního teroristického násilí v soudobých demokraciích, Masarykova univerzita.Search in Google Scholar

Tozzer, Kurt and Zelsacher, Günter (1995): Bombenspuren. Briefbomben und politischer Terror. Holzhausen.Search in Google Scholar

Transnational Terrorism, Security & Rule of Law (2008): 20th Century Right Wing Groups in Europe. Prone to Extremism or Terrorism?, COT Institute for Safety, Security and Crisis Management: available at http://www.transnationalterrorism.eu/tekst/publications/Rightwing%20terrorism.pdf (7 June 2013).Search in Google Scholar

UN Security Council (2004): UN Security Council Resolution 1566 (2004), available at http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N04/542/82/PDF/N0454282.pdf?OpenElement (6 June 2013).Search in Google Scholar

United States Department of State (2013): Country Reports on Terrorism 2012, available at: http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/210204.pdf (6 June 2013).Search in Google Scholar

Vágvölgyi, András B. (2014): Diskopartisanen. Eine Serie von Terroranschlägen und die Rolle von Justizwesen, Gesellschaft und Medien in Ungarn, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, available at: http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/dialog/10958.pdf (20 December 2014).Search in Google Scholar

Vejvodová, Petra (2014): Transnational Forms of Contemporary Neo-Nazi Activity in Europe from the Perspective of Czech Neo-Nazis, Muni Press.Search in Google Scholar

Yıldız, Yeşim Yaprak (2015): Nowhere to Turn: The Situation of Dom Refugees from Syria in Turkey, European Roma Rights Centre, available at http://kemalvuraltarlan.tripod.com/we-bonmediacontents/nowhere-to-turn-september-2015.pdf (20 December 2015).Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo