1. bookVolume 25 (2017): Issue 4 (December 2017)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2199-6202
First Published
30 Jul 2013
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Wind farms and rural tourism: A Portuguese case study of residents’ and visitors’ perceptions and attitudes

Published Online: 29 Dec 2017
Volume & Issue: Volume 25 (2017) - Issue 4 (December 2017)
Page range: 248 - 256
Received: 17 Nov 2016
Accepted: 08 Jun 2017
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2199-6202
First Published
30 Jul 2013
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

Residents’ and visitors’ perceptions of and attitudes towards existing wind farms, as well as the perceived impact of wind farms on tourism, are examined in this article with reference to a built heritage site in the Portuguese countryside. Based on a set of semi-structured interviews, the paper sheds light on the positive impact that the community’s or local actors’ involvement in the constitution, management and decision-making processes has on the residents’ perceptions and attitudes regarding wind farms, and also on the trade-off with the perceived effect of wind farms on local tourism. Moreover, it shows that although most visitors criticised the proximity of wind turbines to medieval architecture, a clear majority of them accepted their presence and virtually all of them stated that these facilities had no impact on their choice of destination.

Keywords

ABRAM, S. (2003): The rural gaze. In: Cloke, P. [ed.]: Country Visions (pp. 31–48). Harlow, Pearson Education Limited.Search in Google Scholar

AFONSO, A., MENDES, C. (2010): Energía eólica y paisajes protegidos: Controversias en el parque natural de montesinho. Nimbus, 25–26: 5–19.Search in Google Scholar

AFONSO, A., MENDES, C. (2012): Wind power in the Portuguese landscape: Global concerns and local costs. In: Welz, G., Sperling, F., Blum, E. [eds.]: Negotiating Environmental Conflicts. Local Communities, Global Policies (pp. 127–142). Frankfurt, Goethe-University.Search in Google Scholar

AITCHISON, C. (2012): Tourism Impacts of Wind Farms. Edinburgh, University of Edinburgh.Search in Google Scholar

AITKEN, M. (2009): Wind power planning controversies and the construction of “expert” and “lay” knowledges. Science as Culture, 18(1): 47–64.10.1080/09505430802385682Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

ARNSTEIN, S. (1969): A ladder of citizen participation. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 35(4): 216–224.10.1080/01944366908977225Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

ASSEMBLEIA MUNICIPAL DO SABUGAL (2010): Acta No. 2, Sessão ordinária realizada no dia 30 de abril. Sabugal, Assembleia Municipal do Sabugal.Search in Google Scholar

BARRY, J., ELLIS, G., ROBINSON, C. (2008): Cool rationalities and hot air: A rhetorical approach to understanding debates on renewable energy. Global Environmental Politics, 8(2): 67–98.10.1162/glep.2008.8.2.67Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

BELL, D., GRAY, T., HAGGETT, C. (2005): The “social gap” in wind farm siting decisions: Explanations and policy responses. Environmental Politics, 14(4): 460–477.10.1080/09644010500175833Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

BREUKERS, S., WOLSINK, M. (2007): Wind power implementation in changing institutional landscapes: An international comparison. Energy Policy, 35(5): 2737–2750.10.1016/j.enpol.2006.12.004Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

BRITTAN JR., G. (2001): Wind, energy, landscape: Reconciling nature and technology. Philosophy and Geography, 4(2): 169–184.10.1080/10903770124626Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

BROEKEL, T., ALFKEN, C. (2015): Gone with the wind? The impact of wind turbines on tourism demand. Energy Policy, 86: 506–519.10.1016/j.enpol.2015.08.005Search in Google Scholar

CLARKE, S. (2009): Balancing environmental and cultural impact against the strategic need for wind power. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 15(2–3): 175–191.10.1080/13527250902890688Search in Google Scholar

COWELL, R. (2010): Wind power, landscape and strategic, spatial planning – The construction of ‘acceptable locations’ in Wales. Land Use Policy, 27(2): 222–232.10.1016/j.landusepol.2009.01.006Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

DAUGSTAD, K. (2008): Negotiating landscape in rural tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 35(2): 402–426.10.1016/j.annals.2007.10.001Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

DELICADO, A., FIGUEIREDO, E., SILVA, L. (2016): Community perceptions of renewable energies in Portugal: Impacts on environment, landscape and local development. Energy Research & Social Science, 13: 84–93.10.1016/j.erss.2015.12.007Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

DELICADO, A., JUNQUEIRA, L., FONSECA, S., TRUNINGER, M., SILVA, L., HORTA, A., FIGUEIREDO, E. (2014): Not in anyone’s backyard? Civil society attitudes towards wind power at the national and local level. Science & Technology Studies, 27(2): 49–71.10.23987/sts.55324Search in Google Scholar

DELICADO, A., SILVA, L., JUNQUEIRA, L., HORTA, A., FONSECA, S., TRUNINGER, M. (2013): Ambiente, paisagem, património e economia: Os conflitos em torno de parques eólicos em Portugal. Revista Crítica de Ciências Sociais, 100: 11–36.10.4000/rccs.5198Search in Google Scholar

DELICADO, A., TRUNINGER, M., FIGUEIREDO, E., SILVA, L., JUNQUEIRA, J., HORTA, A., FONSECA, S., NUNES, M. J., SOARES, F. (2015): Terras de Sol e de Vento. Dinâmicas Sociotécnicas e Aceitação Social das Energias Renováveis em Portugal. Lisbon, Imprensa de Cięncias Sociais.Search in Google Scholar

DEVINE-WRIGHT, P. (2005): Beyond NIMBYism: Towards an integrated framework for understanding public perceptions of wind energy. Wind Energy, 8(2): 125–139.10.1002/we.124Search in Google Scholar

DEVINE-WRIGHT, P. (2009): Rethinking NIMBYism: The role of place attachment and place identity in explaining place-protective action. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 19(6): 426–441.10.1002/casp.1004Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

DEVINE-WRIGHT, P., HOWES, Y. (2010): Disruption to place attachment and the protection of restorative environments: A wind energy case study. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30(3): 271–280.10.1016/j.jenvp.2010.01.008Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

DEVLIN, E. (2002): Factors affecting public acceptance of wind turbines in Sweden. Lund, Lunds Universitet.Search in Google Scholar

DIREÇÃO GERAL DE ENERGIA E GEOLOGIA (2012): Renováveis. Estatísticas Rápidas, No. 93. Lisbon, DGEG.Search in Google Scholar

DIREÇÃO GERAL DE ENERGIA E GEOLOGIA (2016): Renováveis. Estatísticas Rápidas, No. 137. Lisbon, DGEG.Search in Google Scholar

EUROPEAN COMMISSION (2007): Special Eurobarometer 65.3. Energy Technologies: Knowledge, Perception, Measures. Brussels, European Commission.Search in Google Scholar

EUROPEAN COMMISSION (2010): Europe 2020. A European Strategy for Smart, Sustainable and Inclusive Growth. COM (2010): 2020. Brussels, European Commission.Search in Google Scholar

EUROPEAN COMMISSION (2012): Standard Eurobarometer 77. Brussels, European Commission.Search in Google Scholar

FIRESTONE, J., BATES, A., KNAPP, L. (2015): See me, feel me, touch me, heal me: wind turbines, culture, landscapes, and sound impressions. Land Use Policy, 46: 241–249.10.1016/j.landusepol.2015.02.015Search in Google Scholar

FRANTÁL, B., KUNC, J. (2011): Wind turbines in tourism landscapes: Czech experience. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(2): 499–519.10.1016/j.annals.2010.10.007Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

FRANTÁL, B., PASQUALETTI, M., VAN DER HORST, D. (2014): New trends and challenges for energy geographies: Introduction to the special issue. Moravian Geographical Reports, 22(2): 2–6.10.2478/mgr-2014-0006Search in Google Scholar

FRANTÁL, B., URBÁNKOVÁ, R. (2017): Energy tourism: An emerging field of study, Current Issues in Tourism, 20(13): 1395–1412.10.1080/13683500.2014.987734Search in Google Scholar

FRISVOLL, S., FORBORD, M., BLEKESAUNE, A. (2016): An empirical investigation of tourists’ consumption of local food in rural tourism. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 16(1): 76–93.10.1080/15022250.2015.1066918Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

FROLOVA, M., PRADOS, M. J., NADAI, A. [eds.]. (2015): Renewable Energies and European Landscapes: Lessons from Southern European Cases. Dordrecht, Springer.10.1007/978-94-017-9843-3Search in Google Scholar

GARROD, G., WORNELL, R., YOUELL, R. (2006): Reconceptualising rural resources as countryside capital: The case of rural tourism. Journal of Rural Studies, 22(1): 117–128.10.1016/j.jrurstud.2005.08.001Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

GONÇALVES, M. (2002): Implementation of EIA directives in Portugal. How changes in civic culture are challenging political and administrative practice. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 22(3): 249–269.10.1016/S0195-9255(02)00005-7Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

GROOTHUIS, P., GROOTHUIS, J., WHITEHEAD, J. (2008): Green vs. green: Measuring the compensation required to site electrical generation windmills in a viewshed. Energy Policy, 36(4): 1545–1550.10.1016/j.enpol.2008.01.018Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

HAGGETT, C., FUTÁK-CAMPBELL, B. (2011): Tilting at windmills? Using discourse analysis to understand the attitude-behaviour gap in renewable energy conflicts. Mekhanizm Rehuluvannya Economiky, 1(51): 207–220.Search in Google Scholar

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY (2015): World Energy Outlook 2015. Paris: OECD / IEA.Search in Google Scholar

JERPÅSEN, G., LARSEN, K. (2011): Visual impact of wind farms on cultural heritage: A Norwegian case study. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 31(3): 206–215.10.1016/j.eiar.2010.12.005Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

LIMA, M. (2004): Images of the public in the debates about risk: Consequences for participation. Portuguese Journal of Social Sciences, 2(3): 149–163.10.1386/pjss.2.3.149/1Search in Google Scholar

LOTHIAN, A. (2008): Scenic perceptions of the visual effects of wind farms on South Australian landscapes. Geographical Research, 46(2): 196–207.10.1111/j.1745-5871.2008.00510.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

MOLNAROVA, K., SKLENICKA, P. STIBOREK, J., SVOBODOVA, K., SALEK, M. BRABEC, E. (2012): Visual preferences for wind turbines: Location, numbers and respondent characteristics. Applied Energy, 92: 269–278.10.1016/j.apenergy.2011.11.001Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

MUNDAY, M., BRISTOW, G., COWELL, R. (2011): Wind farms in rural areas: How far do community benefits from wind farms represent a local economic development opportunity? Journal of Rural Studies, 27(1): 1–12.10.1016/j.jrurstud.2010.08.003Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

PASQUALETTI, M. (2004): Wind power: Obstacles and opportunities. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 46(7): 22–38.10.1080/00139150409604395Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

PASQUALETTI, M. (2011): Opposing wind energy landscapes: A search for common cause. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 101(4): 907–917.10.1080/00045608.2011.568879Search in Google Scholar

PASQUALETTI, M., GIPE, P., RIGHTER, R. (2002): A landscape of power. In: Pasqualetti, M., Gipe, P., Righter, R. [eds.]: Wind Power in View: Energy Landscapes in a Crowded World (pp. 3–16). San Diego, Academic Press.10.1016/B978-012546334-8/50001-2Search in Google Scholar

RIDDINGTON, G., MCARTHUR, D., HARRISON, T., GIBSON, H. (2010): Assessing the economic impact of wind farms on tourism in Scotland: GIS, surveys and policy outcomes. International Journal of Tourism Research, 12(3): 237–252.10.1002/jtr.750Search in Google Scholar

SELMAN, P. (2010): Learning to love the landscapes of carbon-neutrality. Landscape Research, 35(2): 157–171.10.1080/01426390903560414Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

SILVA, L. (2009): Casas no Campo. Etnografia do Turismo Rural em Portugal. Lisbon, Imprensa de Cięncias Sociais.Search in Google Scholar

SILVA, L. (2014): The two opposing impacts of heritage making on local communities: Residents’ perceptions: A Portuguese case. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 20(6): 616–633.10.1080/13527258.2013.828650Search in Google Scholar

SILVA, L., LEAL, J. (2015): Rural tourism and national identity building in contemporary Europe: Evidence from Portugal. Journal of Rural Studies, 38: 109–119.10.1016/j.jrurstud.2015.02.005Search in Google Scholar

SMIL, V. (2010): Energy Transitions: History, Requirements, Prospects. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.Search in Google Scholar

SOUSA, A., KASTENHOLZ, E. (2015): Wind farms and the rural tourism experience – problem or possible productive integration? The views of visitors and residents of a Portuguese village. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 23(8–9): 1236–1256.10.1080/09669582.2015.1008499Search in Google Scholar

SOWERS, J. (2006): Fields of opportunity: Wind machines return to the plains. Great Plains Quarterly, 26(2): 99–112.Search in Google Scholar

THAYER, R., FREEMAN, C. (1987): Altamont: Public perceptions of a wind energy landscape. Landscape and Urban Planning, 14: 379–398.10.1016/0169-2046(87)90051-XOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

TOKE, D. (2005): Community wind power in Europe and in the UK. Wind Engineering, 29(3): 301–308.10.1260/030952405774354886Search in Google Scholar

TOKE, D., BREUKERS, S., WOLSINK, M. (2008): Wind power deployment outcomes: How can we account for the differences? Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 12(4): 1129–1147.10.1016/j.rser.2006.10.021Search in Google Scholar

URRY, J. (1992): The tourist gaze and the “environment”. Theory, Culture & Society, 9: 1–26.10.1177/026327692009003001Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

VAN DER HORST, D. (2007): NIMBY or not? Exploring the relevance of location and the politics of voiced opinions in renewable energy siting controversies. Energy Policy, 35(5): 270–2714.10.1016/j.enpol.2006.12.012Search in Google Scholar

VAN DER HORST, D., TOKE, D. (2010): Exploring the landscape of wind farm developments; local area characteristics and planning process outcomes in rural England. Land Use Policy, 27(2): 214–221.10.1016/j.landusepol.2009.05.006Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

WALKER, G, DEVINE-WRIGHT, P. (2008): Community renewable energy: What should it mean? Energy Policy, 36(2): 497–500.10.1016/j.enpol.2007.10.019Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

WALMSLEY, D. (2003): Rural tourism: A case of lifestyle-led opportunities. Australian Geographer, 34(1): 61–72.10.1080/00049180320000066155Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

WARREN, C., LUMSDEN, C., O’DOWD, S., BIRNIE, R. (2005): “Green On Green”: Public perceptions of wind power in Scotland and Ireland. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 48(6): 853–875.10.1080/09640560500294376Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

WARREN, C., MCFADYEN, M. (2010): Does community ownership affect public attitudes to wind energy? A case study from south-west Scotland. Land Use Policy, 27(2): 204–213.10.1016/j.landusepol.2008.12.010Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

WOLSINK, M. (1989): Attitudes and expectancies about wind turbines and wind farms. Energy Engineering, 13(4): 196–206.Search in Google Scholar

WOLSINK, M. (2006): Invalid theory impedes our understanding: A critique on the persistence of the language of NIMBY. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 31(1): 85–91.10.1111/j.1475-5661.2006.00191.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

WOLSINK, M. (2007): Planning of renewables schemes: Deliberative and fair decision-making on landscape issues instead of reproachful accusations of non-cooperation. Energy Policy, 35(5): 2692–2704.10.1016/j.enpol.2006.12.002Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

WOODS, M. (2003): Deconstructing rural protest: the emergence of a new social movement. Journal of Rural Studies, 19(3): 309–325.10.1016/S0743-0167(03)00008-1Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

WOODS, M. (2011): Rural (Key Ideas in Geography). Oxon and New York, Routledge.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo