1. bookVolume 9 (2016): Issue 3-4 (December 2016)
Journal Details
First Published
19 Jun 2009
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
access type Open Access

Review Article. Organochlorine pesticides, their toxic effects on living organisms and their fate in the environment

Published Online: 17 May 2017
Volume & Issue: Volume 9 (2016) - Issue 3-4 (December 2016)
Page range: 90 - 100
Received: 14 Jan 2016
Accepted: 22 Jul 2016
Journal Details
First Published
19 Jun 2009
Publication timeframe
4 times per year

Organochlorine (OC) pesticides are synthetic pesticides widely used all over the world. They belong to the group of chlorinated hydrocarbon derivatives, which have vast application in the chemical industry and in agriculture. These compounds are known for their high toxicity, slow degradation and bioaccumulation. Even though many of the compounds which belong to OC were banned in developed countries, the use of these agents has been rising. This concerns particularly abuse of these chemicals which is in practice across the continents. Though pesticides have been developed with the concept of target organism toxicity, often non-target species are affected badly by their application. The purpose of this review is to list the major classes of pesticides, to understand organochlorine pesticides based on their activity and persistence, and also to understand their biochemical toxicity.


Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry - Chlordane (1997) In ATSDRs Toxicological Profi les on CD-ROM [CD-ROM]; Lewis Publishers: Boca Raton, FL, 1997.Search in Google Scholar

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (1999) Toxicological Profi le for Pentachlorophenol (Update) (Draft). Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA .Search in Google Scholar

Airaksinen R, Rantakokko P, Eriksson JG, Blomstedt P, Kajantie E, Kiviranta H. (2011). Association between type 2 diabetes and exposure to persistent organic pollutants. Diabetes Care 34(9): 1972-1979.Search in Google Scholar

Aktar MW, Sengupta D, Chowdhury A. (2009). Impact of pesticides use in agriculture: their benefi ts and hazards. Interdisciplinary Toxicology 2(1): 1-12.Search in Google Scholar

Arrebola JP, González-Jiménez A, Fornieles-González C, Artacho-Cordón F, Olea N, Escobar-Jiménez F, Fernández-Soto ML. (2015). Relationship between serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and markers of insulin resistance in a cohort of women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus. Environmental Research 136: 435-440.Search in Google Scholar

Augustijn-Beckers PW, Hornsby AG, Wauchope RD. (1994). Additional Properties Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, SCS/ARS/CES Pesticide Properties Database for Environmental Decisionmaking II 137.10.1007/978-1-4612-2662-8_1Search in Google Scholar

Baldwin BC, Bray MF, Geoghegan MJ. (1966). the microbial decomposition of paraquat. Biochemical Journal 101: 15Search in Google Scholar

Bano M, Bhatt DK. (2010). Ameliorative eff ect of a combination of vitamin-E, vitamin- C α-lipoic acid and stilbene resveratrol on lindane induced toxicity in mice olfactory lobe and cerebrum. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 8: 48-150.Search in Google Scholar

Briz V, Molina-Molina JM, Sánchez-Redondo S, Fernández MF, Grimalt JO, Olea N, Rodríguez-Farré E, Suñol C. (2011). Diff erential estrogenic eff ects of the persistent organochlorine pesticides dieldrin, endosulfan and lindane in primary neuronal cultures. Toxicological Sciences 120(2): 413-27.Search in Google Scholar

Castillo LE, Martinez E, Ruepert C, Savage C, Gilek M, Pinnock M, Solis E. (2006). Water quality and macroinvertebrate community response following pesticide applications in a banana plantation, Limon, Costa Rica. Science of the Total Environment 367: 418-32.Search in Google Scholar

Chao Y, Hamel C, Vujanovic V, Gan Y. (2011). Fungicide: Mode of action and possible impact on non-target microorganisms. IRSN Ecology. Article ID 130239. http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2011/130289.10.5402/2011/130289Search in Google Scholar

Chávez-Almazán LA, Diaz-Ortiz J, Alarcón-Romero M, Dávila-Vazquez G, Saldarriaga-Noreña H, Waliszewski SM. (2014). Organochlorine pesticide levels in breast milk in Guerrero, Mexico. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 93(3): 294-298.Search in Google Scholar

Coronado GD, Thompson B, Strong L, Griffi th WC, Islas I. (2004). Agricultural task and exposure to organophosphate pesticides among farmworkers. Environmental Health Perspectives 112: 142-147.Search in Google Scholar

Cummings AM, Gray LE Jr. (1989). Antifertility eff ect of methoxychlor in female rats: dose- and time-dependent blockade of pregnancy. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 97(3): 454-62.Search in Google Scholar

De Lorenzo ME, Scott GI, Ross PE. (2001).Toxicity of pesticides to aquatic microorganisms: a review. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 20: 84-98. Search in Google Scholar

Environews Forum. (1999). Killer environment. Environmental Health Perspectives 107: A62.Search in Google Scholar

Evan H, Matt B, Kate J. (2007). The Fate and Eff ect of Gyphosphate on Amphibians. Final Report ENAC 202.Search in Google Scholar

FAO. (2005). Proceedings of the Asia Regional Workshop, Regional Offi ce for Asia and the Pacifi c, Bangkok.Search in Google Scholar

Forns J, Lertxundi N, Aranbarri A, Murcia M, Gascon M, Martinez D, Grellier J, Lertxundi A, Julvez J, Fano E, Goñi F, Grimalt JO, Ballester F, Sunyer J, Ibarluzea J. (2012). Prenatal exposure to organochlorine compounds and neuropsychological development up to two years of life. Environment International 45: 72-77.Search in Google Scholar

Frankart C, Eullaffroy P, Vernet G. (2003). Comparative eff ects of four herbicides on non-photochemical fl uorescence quenching in Lemna minor. Environmental and Experimental Botany 49: 159-68.Search in Google Scholar

Freire C, Lopez-Espinosa MJ, Fernández M, Molina-Molina JM, Prada R, Olea N. (2011). Prenatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides and TSH status in newborns from Southern Spain. Science of the Total Environment 409(18): 3281-3287.Search in Google Scholar

Freire C, Koifman RJ, Sarcinelli PN, Simões Rosa AC, Clapauch R, Koifman S. (2013). Long-term exposure to organochlorine pesticides and thyroid status in adults in a heavily contaminated area in Brazil. Environmental Research 127: 7-1510.1016/j.envres.2013.09.001Search in Google Scholar

Freire C, Koifman RJ, Sarcinelli PN, Rosa AC, Clapauch R, Koifman S. (2014). Association between serum levels of organochlorine pesticides and sex hormones in adults living in a heavily contaminated area in Brazil. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 217(2-3): 370-37810.1016/j.ijheh.2013.07.012Search in Google Scholar

Fry DM. (1995). Reproductive eff ects in birds exposed to pesticides and industrial chemicals. Environmental Health Perspectives 103(Suppl 7): 165-171.Search in Google Scholar

Funderburk HH. (1969). Diquit and paraquat. In PC Kearney and DD Kaufman (ed.) Degradation of herbicides. Marcel Dekker, New York. 283-298.Search in Google Scholar

Funderburk Jr HH, Bozarth GA. (1967). Review of the metabolism and decmpostion of diquat and paraquat. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 15: 563-567.Search in Google Scholar

Gilman AP, Peakall DB, Hallett DJ, Fox GA, Norstrom RJ. (1979). Herring gulls (Larus argentatus) as monitors of contamination in the Great lakes. In: Peter, F., Timmins, P. and Perry, D. (eds.) Animals as monitors of environmental pollutants. Proceedings of the symposium on pathobiology of environmental pollutants: Animal models and wildlife as monitors. Washington DC: National Academy of Sciences 280-289.Search in Google Scholar

Goel A, Aggarwal P. (2007). Pesticide Poisoning. The National Medical Journal of India 20: 182-191.Search in Google Scholar

Grande M, Andersen S, Berge D. (1994). Eff ects of pesticides on fi sh. Norwegian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 13: 195-209.Search in Google Scholar

Guo H, Jin Y, Cheng Y, Leaderer B, Lin S, Holford TR, Qiu J, Zhang Y, Shi K, Zhu Y, Niu J, Bassig BA, Xu S, Zhang B, Li Y, Hu X, Chen Q, Zheng T. (2014). Prenatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides and infant birth weight in China. Chemosphere 110: 1-7.Search in Google Scholar

Gupta PK. (2004). Pesticide exposure-Indian scene. Toxicology 198: 83- 90.Search in Google Scholar

Henríquez-Hernández LA, Luzardo OP, Zumbado M, Camacho M, Serra-Majem L, Álvarez-León EE, Boada LD. (2014). Blood pressure in relation to contamination by polychlorobiphenyls and organochlorine pesticides: Results from a population-based study in the Canary Islands (Spain) Environmental Research 135: 48-54.10.1016/j.envres.2014.05.036Search in Google Scholar

Hernández LM, Fernández MA, Jiménez B, Ma J González, García JF. (1994). Organochlorine pollutants in meats and cow’s milk from Madrid (Spain). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 52: 246 - 253.Search in Google Scholar

Hong S, Hwang J, Kim JY, Shin KS, Kang SJ. (2014). Heptachlor induced nigral dopaminergic neuronal loss and Parkinsonism-like movement defi cits in mice. Experimental & Molecular Medicine 46(2): e80Search in Google Scholar

Jacobson JL, Jacobson SW. (1996). Intellectual Impairment in Children Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Utero. New England Journal of Medicine 335(11): 783-789.Search in Google Scholar

Kaiser J. (2000). Endocrine disrupters: Panel cautiously confi rms low-dose effects. Science 290: 695-697.Search in Google Scholar

Kannan K, Tanabe S, Borrell A, Aguilar A, Focardi S, Tatsukawa R. (1993). Isomer specifi c analysis and toxic evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyls in food stuff s from India and their implications on human dietary exposure. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry 40: 158.Search in Google Scholar

Kajiwara N, Kannan K, Muraoka M, Watanabe M, Takahashi S, Gulland F, Olsen H, Blankenship AL, Jones PD, Tanabe S, Giesy JP. (2001). Organochlorine Pesticides, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and Butyltin Compounds in Blubber and Livers of Stranded California Sea Lions, Elephant Seals, and Harbor Seals from Coastal California. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 41(1) : 90-99.Search in Google Scholar

Kim D, Ryu HY, Lee JH, Lee JH, Lee YJ, Kim HK, Jang DD, Kim HS, Yoon HS. (2013). Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in Korean human milk: contamination levels and infant risk assessment. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B 48(4): 243-250.Search in Google Scholar

Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J. (1996). Casarett & Doull’s toxicology. The basic science of poisons, Fifth edition, McGraw - Hill: New York.Search in Google Scholar

Klinčić D, Herceg Romanić S, Matek Sarić M, Grzunov J, Dukić B. (2014). Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human milk samples from two regions in Croatia. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 37(2): 543-52.Search in Google Scholar

Konradsen F, Van der Hoek, Cole W, Hutchinson DC, Daisley GH, Singh S, Eddleston M. (2003). Reducing acute poisoning in developing countries-options for restricting the availability of pesticides. Toxicology 192: 249-261.Search in Google Scholar

Kumar J, Lind L, Salihovic S, van Bavel B, Ingelsson E, Lind PM. (2014a). Persistent organic pollutants and liver dysfunction biomarkers in a populationbased human sample of men and women. Environmental Research 134: 251-256.10.1016/j.envres.2014.07.023Search in Google Scholar

Kumar J, Monica Lind P, Salihovic S, van Bavel B, Lind L, Ingelsson E. (2014b). Infl uence of persistent organic pollutants on oxidative stress in population- based samples. Chemosphere 114: 303-309.10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.05.013Search in Google Scholar

Lakshmi A. (1993). Pesticides in India: Risk assessment to aquatic ecosystem. Science of Environment (1).10.1016/S0048-9697(05)80025-7Search in Google Scholar

Lallas P. (2001). Reproductive Eff ects in Birds Exposed to Pesticides and Industrial Chemicals. The Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants. American Journal of International Law 95: 692-708.Search in Google Scholar

Langer P, Ukropec J, Kocan A, Drobna B, Radikova Z, Huckova M, Imrich R,Gasperikova D, Klimes I, Trnovec T. (2014). Obesogenic and diabetogenic impact of high organochlorine levels (HCB, p,p’-DDE, PCBs) on inhabitants in the highly polluted Eastern Slovakia. Endocrine Regulations 48(1): 17-24.Search in Google Scholar

Lee DH, Lee IK, Song K, Steffes M, Toscano W, Baker BA, Jacobs DR. (2006). A strong dose-response relation between serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and diabetes: Results from the National Health and Examination Survey, 1999-2002. Diabetes Care 29: 1638-1644.Search in Google Scholar

Lee D, Jacobs DR, Porta M. (2007). Association of serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants with the prevalence of learning disability and attention defi cit disorder. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 61: 591-596.Search in Google Scholar

Lee S, Kim S, Lee HK, Lee IS, Park J, Kim HJ, Lee JJ, Choi G, Choi S, Kim S,Kim SY, Choi K, Kim S, Moon HB. (2013). Contamination of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in breast milk in Korea: time-course variation, infl uencing factors, and exposure assessment. Chemosphere 93(8): 1578-1585.Search in Google Scholar

Li C, Cheng Y, Tang Q, Lin S, Li Y, Hu X, Nian J, Gu H,Lu Y, Tang H, Dai S, Zhang H, Jin C, Zhang H, Jin Y, Jin Y. (2014). The association between prenatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides and thyroid hormone levels in new borns in Yancheng, China. Environment International 129: 47-51.Search in Google Scholar

Liess M, Brown C, Dohmen P, Duquesne S, Heimbach F, Kreuger J. (2005). Effects of Pesticides in the Field-EPIF. Brussels, Belgium: SETAC Press.Search in Google Scholar

Mancini F (2005) Acute pesticide poisoning among female and male cotton growers in India. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health 11: 221-232.10.1179/oeh.2005.11.3.221Search in Google Scholar

Mathew LL. (2012). Organochloride Pesticide Toxicity.Drugs, Diseases and Procedures. Medscape References.Search in Google Scholar

Meeker JD, Altshul L, Hauser R. (2007). Serum PCBs, p,p/ -DDEand HCB predict thyroid hormone levels in men. Environmental Research 104: 296-304.Search in Google Scholar

Mitra A, Chatterjee C, Mandal FB. (2011). Synthetic Chemical Pesticides and Their Eff ects on Birds. Research Journal in Environmental Toxicology 5: 81-96.Search in Google Scholar

Monkiedje A, Spiteller M. (2002). Eff ect of phenylamide fungicides, mefenoxam and metalaxyl on the microbiological properties of a sandy loam and a sandy clay soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils 35: 393-398.Search in Google Scholar

National Academy of Sciences. (1975). Pest Control: An Assessment of Present and Alternative Technologies. 4 Volumes. Washington DC.Search in Google Scholar

Pandey N, Gundevia F, Prem AS, Ray PK. (1990). Studies on the genotoxicity of endosulfan, an organochlorine insecticide in mammalian germ cells. Mutation Research 242(1): 1-7.Search in Google Scholar

Pearce PA, Elliott JE, Peakall DB, Norstrom RJ. (1989). Organochlorine contaminants in eggs of seabirds in the northwest Atlantic, 1968-1984. Environmental Pollution 56: 217-235.Search in Google Scholar

Penell J, Lind L, Salihovic S, van Bavel B, Lind PM. (2014). Persistent organic pollutants are related to the change in circulating lipid levels during a 5 year follow-up Environmental Research 134: 190-197.10.1016/j.envres.2014.08.00525173051Search in Google Scholar

Pesando D, Robert S, Huitorel P, Gutknecht E, Pereira L, Girard JP, Ciapa B. (2004). Eff ects of methoxychlor, dieldrin and lindane on sea urchin fertilization and early development. Aquatic Toxicology 66(3): 225-239.Search in Google Scholar

Peterson ME, Talcot PA. (2006). Small Animal Toxicology, 2nd ed.; Elsevier: St. Louis, 2006; pp 526-527, 941-949.Search in Google Scholar

Phang W, Funk S, Steinwand B, Leighton T. (1996). The Second Revised HED Chapter of the Reregistration Eligibility Decision Document (RED) for Dicofol USEPA.Search in Google Scholar

Pimentel D. (1995). Amounts of pesticides reaching target pests: Environmental impacts and ethics. J Agric Environ Ethics 8(1): 17-29.Search in Google Scholar

Quijano R. (2002). Endosulfan poisoning in Kasaragod, Kerala, India, Report on a fact fi nding mission, PANSearch in Google Scholar

Rajendran S. (2003). “Environment and health aspects of pesticides use In Indian agriculture” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Environment and Health, Chennai, India, 15-17 December, 2003. Martin J. Bunch, V. Madha Suresh and T. Vasantha Kumaran, eds., 353 - 373Search in Google Scholar

Reigert JR, Roberts JR. (1999). Organophosphate Insecticides. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings, 5th ed.; U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Offi ce of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Offi ce of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Offi ce 5: 34-40Search in Google Scholar

Remor AP, Totti CC, Moreira DA, Dutra GP, Heuser VD, Boeira JM. (2009). Occupational exposure of farm workers to pesticides: biochemical parameters and evaluation of genotoxicity, Environment International 35: 273-278.10.1016/j.envint.2008.06.01118678410Search in Google Scholar

Rusiecki JK, Baccarelli A, Bollati V, Tarantini L, Mooore LE, Bonefeld-Jorgenson EC. (2008). Global DNA hypomethylation is associated with high serum- persistent organic pollutants in Greenlandic unit. Environmental Health Perspectives 116: 1547-1552.Search in Google Scholar

Sabbah S, Bouguerra M. (1997). Organochlorine Pesticides in cow milk from Tunisia. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 6: 359 - 364.Search in Google Scholar

Sagiv SK, Thurston SW, Bellinger DC, Tolbert PE, Altshul LM, Korrick SA. (2010). Prenatal organochlorine exposure and behaviours associated with attention defi cit hyperactivity disorder in school-aged children. American Journal of Epidemiology 171(5) : 593-601.Search in Google Scholar

Sahoo DK, Roy A, Chainy GB. (2008). Protective eff ect of vitamin E and curcumin on L- thyroxine-induced rat testicular oxidative stress. Chemical and Biological Interactions 176: 121-8.Search in Google Scholar

Sarah BA, Yeboah PO, Golow A. (2011). Levels of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) Tissues. Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences 3(4): 350-357.Search in Google Scholar

Saunders L, Kadhel P, Costet N, Rouget F, Monfort C, Thomé JP, Guldner L, Cordier S, Multigner L. (2014). Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus among French Caribbean women chronically exposed to chlordecone. Environment International 68: 171-176.Search in Google Scholar

Schwinn FJ, Staub T. (1987). Phenylamides and other fungicides against Oomycetes. In Modern Selective Fungicides, ed. H Lyr,pp. 259-73. Jena: VEB Gustav Fischer.Search in Google Scholar

Sinaii N, Cleary SD, Ballweg ML, Niewman LK, Stratton P. (2002). High rates of autoimmune and endocrine disorders, fi bromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome and atopic disease among women with endometriosis: A survey analysis. Human Reproduction 17(10): 2715-2724 .Search in Google Scholar

Singh N, Sharma A, Dwivedi P, Patil R, Kumar M. (2007). Citrinin and endosulfan induced teratogenic eff ects in Wistar rats. Journal of Applied Toxicology 27(2): 143-151.Search in Google Scholar

Smith A, Jong HM. (2001). Distribution of organochlorine pesticides in soils from South Korea. Chemosphere 43(2): 137-140.Search in Google Scholar

Sohail E, Waseem A, Chae WL, Jong JL, Imitiaz H. (2004). Endocrine Disrupting Pesticides: A Leading Cause of Cancer among Rural People in Pakistan. Experimental Oncology 26(2): 98-105.Search in Google Scholar

Susan S, Sania P. (1999). Endosulfan - A review of its toxicity and its eff ects on the endocrine system WWF (World Wild Life Fund - Canada).Search in Google Scholar

Steenland K, Mora AM, Barr DB, Juncos J, Roman N, Wesseling C. (2014). Organochlorine chemicals and neurodegeneration among elderly subjects in Costa Rica. Environmental Research 134: 205-209.Search in Google Scholar

Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. (2009). Report of the Persistent Organic Pollutants Review Committee on the work of its fi fth meeting. UNEP/POPS /POPRC.5 /10/ Add.2.Search in Google Scholar

Subramaniam K, Solomon Jebakumar RD. (2006). Organochlorine pesticides BHC and DDE in human blood in and around Madurai, India. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry 21(2): 169-172.Search in Google Scholar

Su Y, Dai Y, Lin Y, Gao X, Han Y, Zhao B. (2012). Serum organochlorine pesticide residues and risk of gallstone disease: a case-control study in Xiamen. Annals of Epidemiology 22(8): 592-59710.1016/j.annepidem.2012.05.00222695391Search in Google Scholar

Sumida K, Saito K, Oeda K, Yakabe Y, Otsuka M, Matsumoto H, et al (2007). A comparative study of gene expression profi les in rat liver after administration of alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane and lindane. Journal of Toxicological Sciences 32: 261-88.Search in Google Scholar

Torres-Sánchez L, Schnaas L, Cebrián ME, Hernández M. del C, Valencia EO, Hernández RMG, López-Carrillo L. (2009). Prenatal Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) exposure and neurodevelopment: A follow-up from 12 to 30 months of age. Neurotoxicology 30(6): 1162-1165.Search in Google Scholar

Tsipi D, Triantafyllou M, Hiskia A. (1999). Determination of organochlorine pesticides residues in honey applying solid-phase extraction with RP - C18 material. Analyst 124 : 473-47510.1039/a809724k10605876Search in Google Scholar

Turyk ME, Anderson HA, Freels S, Chatterton Jr R, Needham LL, Patterson Jr DG, Steenport DN, Knobeloch L, Imm P, Persky VW. (2006). Associations oforganochlorines with endogenous hormones in male Great Lakes fi sh consumers and nonconsumers. Environmental Research 102: 299-307.Search in Google Scholar

USEPA. (1975). DDT- A review of scientifi c and economic aspects of the decision to ban its use as a pesticide ; EPA 540/1- 75-022; U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Offi ce of Pesticide Programs, U. S. Government Printing Offi ce: Washington, DC.Search in Google Scholar

USEPA. (1996). EPA/600/P-96/001F September 1996 PCBs: Cancer Dose-Response Assessment and Application to Environmental Mixtures. http: // www.epa.gov/epawaste/hazard/tsd/pcbs/pubs/pcb.pdfSearch in Google Scholar

USEPA. (2000). Environmental Risk Assessment for Diazinon ; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Offi ce of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Offi ce of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Offi ce: Washington, DC.Search in Google Scholar

USEPA. (2003). Health Eff ects Support Document for Aldrin/Dieldrin, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Offi ce of Water (4304T), Health and Ecological Criteria Division, Washington, DC 20460Search in Google Scholar

USEPA. (2010). Endosulfan. The Health Eff ects Divion’s Human Health Risk Assessment. EPA DP Barcode: D372569. June 2010. Docket No.: EPA-HQOPP-2002-0262-0178; http://www.regulations.govSearch in Google Scholar

Veil JF. (1990). Public health impact of pesticides used in agriculture, Geneva, Switzerland. WHO (World Health Organization).Search in Google Scholar

Videla LA, Tapia G, Varela P, Cornejo P, Guerrero J, Israel Y. (2004). Eff ects of acute gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane intoxication in relation to the redox regulation of nuclear factor-kappaB, cytokine gene expression, and liver injury in the rat. Antioxidant Redox Signaling 6: 471-480.Search in Google Scholar

Vijaya Padma V, Sowmya P, Arun FT, Baskaran R, Poornima P. (2011). Protective eff ect of gallic acid against lindane induced toxicity in experimental rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology 49: 991-99810.1016/j.fct.2011.01.00521219962Search in Google Scholar

Viltos AJ. (1952). Biological activation of sodium 2(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)ethylsulfate by Bacillus cereus var. mycoides, Contrb. Boyce Thompson Inst. 16: 435-438.Search in Google Scholar

Wagner SL. (1997). Diagnosis and treatment of organophosphate and carbamate intoxication. Human Health Eff ects of Pesticides 12: 239-249.Search in Google Scholar

Wasseling C, Aragón A, Castillo L, Corriols M, Chaverri F, de la Cruz E, Keifer M, Monge P, Partanen TJ, Ruepert C, van Wendel de Joode B. (2001). Hazardous pesticides in Central America. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health 7(4): 287-94.Search in Google Scholar

Wolff MS, Toniolo PG, Lee EW, Rivera M, Dubin N. (1993). Blood levels of organochlorine residues and risk of breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 21: 648-52.Search in Google Scholar

World Health Organization. (1979). DDT and its derivatives. Environmental Health Criteria. Geneva, Switzerland, 1979; Vol. 9.Search in Google Scholar

Xu X, Dailey AB, Talbott EO, Ilacqua VA, Kearney G, Asal AR. (2010). Associations of serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides with breast cancer and prostate cancer in U.S. adults. Environmental Health Perspectives 118: 60-66.Search in Google Scholar

Yang JH, Lee YM, Bae SG, Jacobs DR Jr, Lee DH. (2012). Associations between organochlorine pesticides and vitamin D defi ciency in the U.S. population. PLoS One 7(1): e30093.Search in Google Scholar

Zaki MA, Taylor HF, Wain RL. (1967). Studies with 35-Diiodo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile (ioxynil) and related compounds in soil and plants. Annals of Applied Biology 59: 481-491. Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo