1. bookVolume 61 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)
Journal Details
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Open Access

Psychoactive plants used in designer drugs as a threat to public health

Published Online: 05 Jun 2015
Volume & Issue: Volume 61 (2015) - Issue 2 (June 2015)
Page range: 73 - 86
Journal Details
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year

1. Westermeyer J. Historical and social context of psychoactive substance use disorders. In: Frances RJ, Miller SI, Mack AH (eds.). Clinical textbook of addictive disorders. 3rd ed. New york. The Guilford Press, 2005:16-34.Search in Google Scholar

2. European Commission (2008). Eurobarometer: young people and drugs among 15-24 year olds.Analytical report. Dublin, Ireland (http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/flash/fl_233_en.pdf), accessed 13.06.2008.Search in Google Scholar

3. Boys A, Marsden J, Strang J. Understanding reasons for drug use amongst young people: a functional perspective. Health Educ Res 2001; 16(4):457-469.10.1093/her/16.4.45711525392Search in Google Scholar

4. Wang SH, Chen WC, Lew-Ting Cy, Chen Cy, Chen WJ. Running away experience and psychoactive substance use among adolescents in Taiwan: multi-city street outreach survey. BMC Public Health 2010; 10:29. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-29. 10.1186/1471-2458-10-29282370020089181Search in Google Scholar

5. Stawicka E. Nadużywanie substancji psychoaktywnych przez dzieci i młodzież. Post N Med 2006; 6:333-340.Search in Google Scholar

6. Hibell B, Guttomrmsson U, Ahlström S, Balakireva O, Bjarnason T, Kokkevi A et al. Substance use among students in 36 European countries. The 2011 ESPAD Report 2012. www.espad.org/uploads/espad_reports/2011/the_2011_espad_report_full_2012_10_29.pdf.Search in Google Scholar

7. Malczewski A, Misiurek A, Bukowska, B, Chojecki D, Jabłoński P, Kidawa M et al. National Report 2013, Poland: new developments, trends and in-depth information on selected issues. Krajowe Biuro ds. Przeciwdziałania Narkomanii.Search in Google Scholar

8. Ustawa z dnia 29 lipca 2005 r. o przeciwdziałaniu narkomanii, Dz.U. z 2005 r. Nr 179, poz. 1485.Search in Google Scholar

9. Ustawa z dnia 20 marca 2009 r. o zmianie ustawy o przeciwdziałaniu narkomanii, Dz.U. z 2009 r. Nr 63, poz. 520.Search in Google Scholar

10. Główny Inspektorat Sanitarny, Departament Nadzoru nad środkami Zastępczymi. Raport Głównego Inspektora Sanitarnego w sprawie środków zastępczych - trzy lata zwalczania dopalaczy w Polsce, 2013.Search in Google Scholar

11. Malczewski A. Młodzież a substancje psychoaktywne. In: Raport CBOS - Młodzież 2013. Warszawa 2014.Search in Google Scholar

12. Jeet K, Tomar S, Thakur N. Antipyretic activity of whole aerial part from Argyreia nervosa. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012; 4 (4):76-77.Search in Google Scholar

13. Paulke A, Kremer Ch, Wunder C , Achenbach J, Djahanschiri B, Elias A et al. Argyreia nervosa (Burm. f.): receptor profiling of lysergic acid amide and other potential psychedelic LSD-like compounds by computational and binding assay approaches. J Ethnopharmacol 2013; 148 (2):492-497.10.1016/j.jep.2013.04.04423665164Search in Google Scholar

14. Subramoniam A, Madhavachandran V, Ravi K, Anuja VS. Aphrodisiac property of the elephant creeper Argyreia nervosa. J Endocrinol Reprod 2007; 11(2):82-85.Search in Google Scholar

15. Joseph A, Mathew S, Skaria BP, Sheeja EC. Medicinal uses and biological activities of Argyreia speciosa sweet (Hawaiian Baby Woodrose) - an overview. Indian J Nat Prod Res 2011; 2(3):286-291.Search in Google Scholar

16. Padhi M, Mahapatra S, Panda J, Mishra NK. Traditional uses and phytopharmacological aspects of Argyreia nervosa. J Adv Pharm Res 2013; 4(1):23-32.Search in Google Scholar

17. Kremer C, Paulke A., Wunder C, Toennes SW. Variable adverse effects in subjects after ingestion of equal doses of Argyreia nervosa seeds. For Sci Intern 2012; 214:e6-e8.10.1016/j.forsciint.2011.06.02521803515Search in Google Scholar

18. Bojer EW, Chao JM, Marderosian AH. Ergoline alkaloidal constituents of Hawaiian baby woodrose, Argyreia nervosa (Burm. f.). J Pharm Sc. 1973; 62:588-591.Search in Google Scholar

19. Borsutzky M, Passie T, Paetzold W, Emrich HM, Schneider U. Hawaiian baby woodrose: (Psycho-) pharmacological effects of the seeds of Argyreia nervosa. A case-orientated demonstration. Nervenarzt 2002; 73(9):892-896.10.1007/s00115-002-1374-412215884Search in Google Scholar

20. Klinke HB, Müller IB , Steffenrud S, Dahl-SØrensen R. Two cases of lysergamide intoxication by ingestion of seeds from Hawaiian Baby Woodrose. For Sci Int 2010; 197:e1-e5.10.1016/j.forsciint.2009.11.01720018470Search in Google Scholar

21. Juszczak GR, Swiergiel AH. Recreational use of D-lysergamide from the seeds of Argyreia nervosa, Ipomoea tricolor, Ipomoea violacea, and Ipomoea purpurea in Poland. J Psych Drugs 2013; 45(1):79-93.10.1080/02791072.2013.76357023662334Search in Google Scholar

22. Sklerov J, Tevine B, Moore K.A, King T, Fowler D. Fatal intoxication following the ingestion of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine in an Ayahuasca preparation. J Anal Toxicol 2005; 29(8):838-23. Samoylenko V, Rahmana MM, Tekwani BL, Tripathi LM, Wang yH, Khan SI et al. Banisteriopsis caapi, a unique combination of MAO inhibitory and antioxidative constituents for the activities relevant to neurodegenerative disorders and Parkinson’s disease. J Ethnopharmacol 2010; 127:357-367.10.1016/j.jep.2009.10.030282814919879939Search in Google Scholar

24. Callaway JC, Glacus S, Brito MD, Neves ES. Phytochemical analyses of Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis. J Psychoactive Drugs 2005; 37(2):145-150.10.1080/02791072.2005.1039979516149327Search in Google Scholar

25. Serrano-Dueñas M, Cardozo-Pelaez F, Sánchez-Ramos JR. Effects of Banisteriopsis caapi extract on Parkinson’s disease. Sci Rev Altern Med 2001; 5(3):139-134.Search in Google Scholar

26. Segura-Cobos D, Venegas-Flores H, Baiza-Gutman LA, Vázquez-Cruz B. Antinociceptive and anti-Inflammatory effects of the methanol extract of Calea zacatechichi leaves and its fractions. Pharmacologyonline 2010; 2:1100-1110.Search in Google Scholar

27. Bachliński R, Duszyńska A, Kowalczuk A, Szmajke A, Łozak A. Zastosowanie metody GC-MS do charakterystyki Calea zacatechichi i Psychotria viridis - roślin kontrolowanych ustawą o przeciwdziałaniu narkomanii. Problemy Kryminalistyki 2013; 279(1):15-21.Search in Google Scholar

28. Rodrigues E, Carlini EA. Plants with possible psychoactive effects used by the Krahô Indians, Brazil. Rev Bras Psiquiatr 2006; 28(4):277-282.10.1590/S1516-44462006005000014Search in Google Scholar

29. Mayagoita L, Diaz JL, Contreas CM. Psychopharmacologic analysis of an alleged oneirogenic plant: Calea zacatechichi J Ethnopharmacol 1986; 18(3): 229-243.Search in Google Scholar

30. Cox G, Rampes H. Adverse effects of khat: a review. Adv Psych Treat 2003; 9:456-463.10.1192/apt.9.6.456Search in Google Scholar

31. Pantelis C, Hindler CG, Taylor JC. Use and abuse of khat (Catha edulis): a review of the distribution, pharmacology, side effects and a description of psychosis attributed to khat chewing. Psychol Med 1989; 19(3):657-668.10.1017/S00332917000242592572026Search in Google Scholar

32. Al-Habori M. The potential adverse effects of habitual use of Catha edulis (khat). Exp Opin Drug Saf 2005; 4(6):1129-1138.10.1517/14740338.4.6.114516255671Search in Google Scholar

33. De Felice LJ, Glennon RA, Negus S. Synthetic cathinones: Chemical phylogeny, physiology and neuropharmacology. Life Sci 2014; 97:20-26.10.1016/j.lfs.2013.10.029394489724231923Search in Google Scholar

34. Wabe NT, Mohammed MA. What science says about khat (Catha edulis Forsk)? Overview of chemistry, toxicology and pharmacology. J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(1):29-37.10.5455/jeim.221211.rw.005Search in Google Scholar

35. Basker GV. A review on hazards of Khat chewing. Int J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci 2013; 5(3):74-77.Search in Google Scholar

36. Lumbreras EL, Ferrer-Gallego PP, Deltoro V, Ferrando I, Ortis DG. Echinopsis pachanoi (Britton & Rose) H. Friedrich & G D. Rowley (Cactaceae) primera cita como alóctona en España. Bouteloua 2013; 16:34-35.Search in Google Scholar

37. Kvist LP, Moraes M. Plantas psicoactivas. In: Moraes MR, Øllgaard B, Kvist LP, Borchesnius F, Balslev H. (eds.) Botánica Económica de los Andes Centrales, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, La Paz, 2006: 294-312.Search in Google Scholar

38. Halberstadt AL, Geyer MA. Serotonergic hallucinogens as translational models relevant to schizophrenia. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2013; 16(10):2165-2180.10.1017/S1461145713000722392897923942028Search in Google Scholar

39. Crosby DM, McLaughlin JL. Cactus Alkaloids. XIX. Crystallization of mescaline HC1 and 3-methoxytyramine HC1 from Trichocereus pachanoi. Lloydia 1973; 36(4):416-418.Search in Google Scholar

40. O’Mahony CS. Psychoactive substances manual (ed. 1.1). South Tipparary, UK: Health Service Executive 2010.Search in Google Scholar

41. Bienvenu E, Amabeoku GJ, Eagles PK, Scott G, Springfield EP. Anticonvulsant activity of aqueous extract of Leonotis leonurus. Phytomedicine 2002; 9:217-223.10.1078/0944-7113-0010312046862Search in Google Scholar

42. Oyedemi SO, yakubu MT, Afolayan AJ. Antidiabetic activities of aqueous leaves extract of Leonotis leonurus in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. J Med Plants Res 2011; 5(1):119-125.Search in Google Scholar

43. Wua H, Lia J, Fronczeke R, Ferreiraa D. Labdane diterpenoids from Leonotis leonurus. Phytochem 2013; 91:229-235.10.1016/j.phytochem.2012.02.021339046422445074Search in Google Scholar

44. Jimoh FO, Adedapo AA, Afolayan AJ. Comparison of the nutritional value and biological activities of the acetone, methanol and water extracts of the leaves of Solanum nigrum and Leonotis leonorus. Food Chem Toxicol 2010; 48:964-971.10.1016/j.fct.2010.01.00720079394Search in Google Scholar

45. Jakubowska I, Choma J. Właściwości i oznaczanie substancji o działaniu psychoaktywnym. Biuletyn WAT 2013; 62 (2):123-143.Search in Google Scholar

46. Popoola OK, Elbagory AM, Farouk A. Hussein A. Marrubiin. Molecules 2013; 18:9049-9060.10.3390/molecules18089049626982223899837Search in Google Scholar

47. Souza RSO, Albuquerque UP, Monteiro JM, Amorim ELC. Jurema-Preta (Mimosa tenuiflora [Willd] Poir): a review of its traditional use, phytochemistry and pharmacology. Braz Arch Biol Technol 2008; 51:937-947 10.1590/S1516-89132008000500010Search in Google Scholar

48. Silva VA, Gonçalves GF, Pereira MS, Gomes IF, Freitas AF, Diniz MF et al. Assessment of mutagenic, antimutagenic and genotoxicity effects of Mimosa tenuiflora. Brazil J Pharmacog 2013; 23(2):329-334.10.1590/S0102-695X2013005000014Search in Google Scholar

49. Zippel J, Deters A, Hensel A. Arabinogalactans from Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poiret bark as active principles for wound-healing properties: specific enhancement of dermal fibroblast activity and minor influence on HaCaT keratinocytes. J Ethnopharmacol 2009; 124:391-396.10.1016/j.jep.2009.05.03419505559Search in Google Scholar

50. Pimentel LA, Correa FR, Gardner D, Panter KE, Dantas AF, Medeiros MRT et al. Mimosa tenuiflora as a cause of malformations in ruminants in the northeastern Brazilian semiarid rangelands. Vet Pathol 2007; 44(6):928-931.10.1354/vp.44-6-92818039908Search in Google Scholar

51. Medeiros RM, de Figueiredo AP, Benício TM, Dantas FP, Riet-Correa F. Teratogenicity of Mimosa tenuiflora seeds to pregnant rats. Toxicon 2008; 51(2): 316-319.10.1016/j.toxicon.2007.06.01218078971Search in Google Scholar

52. Simonienko K, Waszkiewicz N, Szulc A. Roślinne środki odurzające - aktualnie obowiązująca lista w Polsce. Psychiatria Polska 2013; 47(3):499-510.Search in Google Scholar

53. Nicasio Mdel P, Villarreal ML, Gillet F, Bensaddek L, Fliniaux MA. Variation in the accumulation levels of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in micropropagated trees and in in vitro cultures of Mimosa tenuiflora. Nat Prod Res 2005; 19(1):61-67.10.1080/1478641041000165886015700647Search in Google Scholar

54. Harizal SN, Mansor SM, Hasnan J, Tharakan JK, Abdullah J. Acute toxicity study of the standardarized methanolic extract of Mitragyna speciosa Korth in rodent. J Ethnopharmacol 2010; 131(2):404-409.10.1016/j.jep.2010.07.01320643198Search in Google Scholar

55. Kumarnsit E, Keawpradub N, Nuankaew W. Acute and long-term effects of alkaloid extract of Mitragyna speciosa on food and water intake and body weight in rats. Fitoterapia 2006; 77 (5): 339-345.10.1016/j.fitote.2006.04.00616781828Search in Google Scholar

56. Compton DM, Garcia C, Kamaratos A, Johnson BG, Wedge T. An examination of the consequences of chronic exposure to Mitragyna speciosa during adolescence on learning and memory in adulthood. J Phytopharmacol 2014; 3(5):300-309.10.31254/phyto.2014.3501Search in Google Scholar

57. Takayama H. Chemistry and pharmacology of analgesic indole alkaloids from the rubiaceous plant, Mitragyna speciosa. Chem Pharm Bull 2004; 52(8):916-928.10.1248/cpb.52.91615304982Search in Google Scholar

58. Karinen R, Fosen JT, Rogde S, Vindenes V. An accidental poisoning with mitragynine. Forensic Sci Int 2014; 245:e29-e32.10.1016/j.forsciint.2014.10.025Search in Google Scholar

59. Agnihotri VK, ElSohly HN, Khan SI, Smillie TJ, Khan IA, Walker LA. Antioxidant constituents of Nymphaea caerulea flowers. Phytochemistry 2008; 69(10):2061-2066.10.1016/j.phytochem.2008.04.009Search in Google Scholar

60. Emboden WA. Transcultural use of narcotic water lilies in ancient Egyptian and Maya drug ritual [Abstract]. J Ethnopharmacol 1981; 3(1):39-83.10.1016/0378-8741(81)90013-1Search in Google Scholar

61. Lavanya N, Senthil Kumar KL, Karthiyayini T. Pharmacognistical studies on seeds of Nymphaea caerulea. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2011; 2(2):28-35.Search in Google Scholar

62. Kowalczuk A, Łozak A, Fijałek ZE. Aktywność biologiczna surowców roślinnych objętych Ustawą o przeciwdziałaniu narkomanii. Przegląd Medyczny Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego i Narodowego Instytutu Leków w Warszawie 2012; 3:318-333.Search in Google Scholar

63. Aslam N, Wani AA, Nawchoo IA, Bhat MA. Distribution and medicinal importance of Peganum harmala. A review. Int J Adv Res 2014; 2(2):751-755.Search in Google Scholar

64. Moloudizargari M, Mikaili P, Aghajanshakeri S, Asghari MH, Shayegh J. Pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Peganum harmala and its main alkaloids. Pharmacogn Rev 2013; 7(14):199-212.10.4103/0973-7847.120524384199824347928Search in Google Scholar

65. Hemmateenjad B, Abbaspour A, Maghami H, Miri R, Panjehshahin MR. Partial least squares-based multivariate spectral calibration method for simultaneous determination of beta-carboline derivatives in Peganum harmala seed extracts. Anal Chim Acta 2006; 575(2):290-299.10.1016/j.aca.2006.05.09317723604Search in Google Scholar

66. Mohamed AHS, AL-Jammali SMJ, Naki ZJ. Effect of repeated administration of Peganum harmala alcoholic extract on the liver and kidney in Albino mice: A histo-pathological study. J Sci Innov Res 2013; 2 (3):585-597.Search in Google Scholar

67. yuruktumen A, Karaduman S, Bengi F, Flower J. Syrian rue tea: a recipe for disaster. Clin Toxico (Phila) 2008; 46(8):749-752.10.1080/1556365070132320518803088Search in Google Scholar

68. Tabudravu JN, Jaspars M. Anticancer activities of constituents of kava (Piper methysticum). South Pacific J Natur Sci 2005; 23:26-29.Search in Google Scholar

69. Shi y, Dong JW, Zhao JH, Tang LN, Zhang JJ. Herbal insomnia medications that target GABAergic systems: a review of the psychopharmacological evidence. Curr Neuropharmacol 2014, 12(3):289-302.10.2174/1570159X11666131227001243402345924851093Search in Google Scholar

70. Johnston E, Rogers H. Introduction. In: Johnston E, Rogers H (eds.) Hawaiian Awa: views of an ethnobotanical treasure. Hawaii. Association for Hawaiian Awa 2006:1-7. Search in Google Scholar

71. Jackson MC. The active ingredients in ‘Awa (Kava, Piper methysticum). In: Jonston E, Rogers H (eds.) Hawaiian Awa: views of an ethnobotanical treasure. Hawaii. Association for Hawaiian Awa 2006:16-18.Search in Google Scholar

72. Ujváry I. Psychoactive natural products: overview of recent developments. Ann Ist Super Sanita 2014; 50(1):12-27.Search in Google Scholar

73. Jussofie A, Schmiz A, Hiemke C. Kavapyrone enriched extract from Piper methysticum as modulator of the GABA binding site in different regions of rat brain. Psychopharmacology 1994; 116(4):469-474.10.1007/BF022474807701051Search in Google Scholar

74. Nowak G. Surowce roślinne o działaniu przeciwlękowym i antydepresyjnym. Herba Polonica 2009; (55)1:84-97.Search in Google Scholar

75. Riba J, Valle M, Urbano G, yritia M, Morte A, Barbanoj MJ. Human pharmacology of ayahuasca: subjective and cardiovascular effects, monoamine metabolite excretion, and pharmacokinetics. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2003; 306(1):73-83.10.1124/jpet.103.04988212660312Search in Google Scholar

76. Osmond H. Ololiuqui: the ancient Aztec narcotic remarks on the effects of Rivea corymbosa (Ololiuqui). J Ment Sci 1955; 101 (424):526-537.10.1192/bjp.101.424.52613263846Search in Google Scholar

77. Piekoszewski W, Florek E. Dopalacze. Przegl Lek 2009; 66(10):861-865.Search in Google Scholar

78. Rech MA, Donahey E, Cappiello Dziedzic JM, Oh L, Greenhalgh E. New drugs of abuse. Pharmacotherapy 2015; 35(2):189-197.10.1002/phar.152225471045Search in Google Scholar

79. Cunningham CW, Rothman RB, Prisinzano TE. Neuropharmacology of the naturally occurring κ-opioid hallucinogen salvinorin A. Pharmacol Rev 2011; 63(2):316-347.10.1124/pr.110.003244308245021444610Search in Google Scholar

80. Orton E, Liu R. Salvinorin A. A mini review of physical and chemical properties affecting its translation from research to clinical applications in humans. Transl Perioper Pain Med 2014;1(1):9-11.Search in Google Scholar

81. Antonio T, Childers SR, Rothman RB, Dersh CM, King C, Kuehne M et al. Effect of Iboga alkaloids on μ-opioid receptor-coupled G protein activation. PLoS One 2013; 8 (10): e77262. doi:10.1371/journal. pone.0077262.Search in Google Scholar

82. Bulling S, Schicker K, Zhang yW, Steinkellner T, Stockner T, Gruber CW et al. The mechanistic basis for noncompetitive ibogaine inhibition of serotonin and dopamine transporters. J Biol Chem 2012; 287(22):18524-18534. 10.1074/jbc.M112.343681336576722451652Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD