1. bookVolume 51 (2017): Issue 1 (January 2017)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1336-0329
First Published
30 Mar 2016
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Central and peripheral control of food intake

Published Online: 17 Feb 2017
Volume & Issue: Volume 51 (2017) - Issue 1 (January 2017)
Page range: 52 - 70
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1336-0329
First Published
30 Mar 2016
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

The maintenance of the body weight at a stable level is a major determinant in keeping the higher animals and mammals survive. Th e body weight depends on the balance between the energy intake and energy expenditure. Increased food intake over the energy expenditure of prolonged time period results in an obesity. Th e obesity has become an important worldwide health problem, even at low levels. The obesity has an evil effect on the health and is associated with a shorter life expectancy. A complex of central and peripheral physiological signals is involved in the control of the food intake. Centrally, the food intake is controlled by the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and endocannabinoids and peripherally by the satiety and adiposity signals. Comprehension of the signals that control food intake and energy balance may open a new therapeutic approaches directed against the obesity and its associated complications, as is the insulin resistance and others. In conclusion, the present review summarizes the current knowledge about the complex system of the peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of food intake and their potential therapeutic implications in the treatment of obesity.

Keywords

Abdel-Hakim SM, Ibrahim MY, Ibrahim HM, Ibrahim MM. The effect of ghrelin antagonist (D-Lys3) GHRP-6 on ovariectomy-induced obesity in adult female albino rats. Endocr Regul 48, 126-134, 2014.10.4149/endo_2014_03_12625110211Search in Google Scholar

Adachi S, Takiguchi S, Okada K, Yamamoto K, Yamasaki M, Miyata H, Nakajima K, Fujiwara Y, Hosoda H, Kangawa K, Mori M, Doki Y. Eff ects of ghrelin administration aft er total gastrectomy: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled phase II study. Gastroenterology 138, 1312-1320, 2010.10.1053/j.gastro.2009.12.05820060830Search in Google Scholar

Ahima RS, Lazar MA. Adipokines and the peripheral and neural control of energy balance. Mol Endocrinol 22, 1023-1031, 2008.10.1210/me.2007-0529236618818202144Search in Google Scholar

Aja S, Sahandy S, Ladenheim EE, Schwartz GJ, Moran TH. Intracerebroventricular CART peptide reduces food intake and alters motor behavior at a hindbrain site. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 281, R1862-R1867, 2001.10.1152/ajpregu.2001.281.6.R186211705771Search in Google Scholar

Alen F, Ramirez-Lopez MT, Gomez de Heras R, Rodriguez de Fonseca F, Orio L. Cannabinoid receptors and cholecystokinin in feeding inhibition. Vitam Horm 92, 165-196, 2013.10.1016/B978-0-12-410473-0.00007-623601425Search in Google Scholar

Alvarez-Castro P, Pena L, Cordido F. Ghrelin in obesity, physiological and pharmacological considerations. Mini Rev Med Chem 13, 541-552, 2013.10.2174/138955751131304000722931534Search in Google Scholar

Arnold M, Mura A, Langhans W, Geary N. Gut vagal aff erents are not necessary for the eating-stimulatory effect of intraperitoneally injected ghrelin in the rat. J Neurosci 26, 11052-11060, 2006.10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2606-06.2006667467017065447Search in Google Scholar

Baggio LL, Huang Q, Brown TJ, Drucker DJ. Oxyntomodulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 diff erentially regulate murine food intake and energy expenditure. Gastroenterology 127, 546-558, 2004.10.1053/j.gastro.2004.04.06315300587Search in Google Scholar

Baggio LL, Drucker DJ. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors in the brain: controlling food intake and body weight. J Clin Invest 124, 4223-4226, 2014.10.1172/JCI78371419104025202976Search in Google Scholar

Bagnol D, Lu XY, Kaelin CB, Day HE, Ollmann M, Gantz I, Akil H, Barsh GS, Watson SJ. Anatomy of an endogenous antagonist: relationship between Agouti-related protein and proopiomelanocortin in brain. J Neurosci, 19, RC26, 1999.10.1523/JNEUROSCI.19-18-j0004.1999Search in Google Scholar

Banerjee RR, Rangwala SM, Shapiro JS, Rich AS, Rhoades B, Qi Y, Wang J, Rajala MW, Pocai A, Scherer PE, Steppan CM, Ahima RS, Obici S, Rossetti L, Lazar MA. Regulation of fasted blood glucose by resistin. Science 303, 1195-1198, 2004.10.1126/science.1092341Search in Google Scholar

Batterham RL, Le Roux CW, Cohen MA, Park AJ, Ellis SM, Patterson M, Frost GS, Ghatei MA, Bloom SR. Pancreatic polypeptide reduces appetite and food intake in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88, 3989-3992, 2003.10.1210/jc.2003-030630Search in Google Scholar

Benelam B. Satiation, satiety and their eff ects on eating behaviour. Nutr Bull 34, 126-173, 2009.10.1111/j.1467-3010.2009.01753.xSearch in Google Scholar

Bennetzen MF, Wellner N, Ahmed SS, Ahmed SM, Diep TA, Hansen HS, Richelsen B, Pedersen SB. Investigations of the human endocannabinoid system in two subcutaneous adipose tissue depots in lean subjects and in obese subjects before and aft er weight loss. Inter J Obes 35, 1377-1384, 2011.10.1038/ijo.2011.8Search in Google Scholar

Bermudez-Silva FJ, Viveros MP, McPartland JM, Rodriguez de Fonseca F. The endocannabinoid system, eating behavior and energy homeostasis: the end or a new beginning? Pharmacol Biochem Behav 95, 375-382, 2010.10.1016/j.pbb.2010.03.012Search in Google Scholar

Bermudez-Silva FJ, Cardinal P, Cota D. Th e role of the endocannabinoid system in the neuroendocrine regulation of energy balance. J Psychopharmacol 26, 114-124, 2012.10.1177/0269881111408458Search in Google Scholar

Bernardis LL, Bellinger LL. Th e dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus revisited: 1986 update. Brain Res 434, 321-381, 1987.10.1016/0165-0173(87)90004-XSearch in Google Scholar

Blevins JE, Baskin DG. Translational and therapeutic potential of oxytocin as an anti-obesity strategy: insights from rodents, nonhuman primates and humans. Physiol Behav 152, 438-449, 2015.10.1016/j.physbeh.2015.05.023623544026013577Search in Google Scholar

Blevins JE, Graham JL, Morton GJ, Bales KL, Schwartz MW, Baskin DG, Havel PJ. Chronic oxytocin administration inhibits food intake, increases energy expenditure, and produces weight loss in fructose-fed obese rhesus monkeys. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 308, R431-R438, 2015.10.1152/ajpregu.00441.2014434675625540103Search in Google Scholar

Boey D, Lin S, Enriquez RF, Lee NJ, Slack K, Couzens M, Baldock PA, Herzog H, Sainsbury A. PYY transgenic mice are protected against diet-induced and genetic obesity. Neuropeptides 42, 19-30, 2008.10.1016/j.npep.2007.11.00318164057Search in Google Scholar

Boguszewski CL, Paz-Filho G, Velloso LA. Neuroendocrine body weight regulation: integration between fat tissue, gastrointestinal tract, and the brain. Endokrynol Pol 61, 194-206, 2010.Search in Google Scholar

Bray GA, York DA. Studies on food intake of genetically obese rats. Am J Physiol 223, 176-179, 1972.10.1152/ajplegacy.1972.223.1.176Search in Google Scholar

Bray GA, Smith SR, DeJonge L, de Souza R, Rood J, Champagne CM, Laranjo N, Carey V, Obarzanek E, Loria CM, Anton SD, Ryan DH, Greenway FL, Williamson D, Sacks FM. Eff ect of diet composition on energy expenditure during weight loss: the POUNDS LOST Study. Int J Obes (Lond) 36, 448-455, 2012.10.1038/ijo.2011.173Search in Google Scholar

Broberger C, De Lecea L, Sutcliffe JG, Hokfelt T. Hypocretin/Orexin- and melanin-concentrating hormone-expressing cells form distinct populations in the rodent lateral hypothalamus: Relationship to the neuropeptide Y and agouti gene-related protein systems. J Comp Neurol 402, 460-474, 1998.10.1002/(SICI)1096-9861(19981228)402:4<460::AID-CNE3>3.0.CO;2-SSearch in Google Scholar

Burdyga G, Spiller D, Morris R, Lal S, Th ompson DG, Saeed S, Dimaline R, Varro A, Dockray GJ. Expression of the leptin receptor in rat and human nodose ganglion neurones. Neuroscience 109, 339-347, 2002.10.1016/S0306-4522(01)00474-2Search in Google Scholar

Burdyga G, Lal S, Spiller D, Jiang W, Thompson D, Attwood S, Saeed S, Grundy D, Varro A, Dimaline R, Dockray GJ. Localization of orexin-1 receptors to vagal aff erent neurons in the rat and humans. Gastroenterology 124, 129-139, 2003.10.1053/gast.2003.50020Search in Google Scholar

Cabral GA, Griffin-Thomas L. Emerging role of the cannabinoid receptor CB2 in immune regulation: therapeutic prospects for neuroinfl ammation. Expert Rev Mol Med 11, e3, 2009.10.1017/S1462399409000957Search in Google Scholar

Castaneda TR, Tong J, Datta R, Culler M, Tschop MH. Ghrelin in the regulation of body weight and metabolism Front Neuroendocrinol 31, 44-60, 2010.10.1016/j.yfrne.2009.10.008Search in Google Scholar

Chen AS, Marsh DJ, Trumbauer ME, Frazier EG, Guan XM, Yu H, Rosenblum CI, Vongs A, Feng Y, Cao L, Metzger JM, Strack AM, Camacho RE, Mellin TN, Nunes CN, Min W, Fisher J, Gopal-Truter S, MacIntyre DE, Chen HY, Van der Ploeg LH. Inactivation of the mouse melanocortin-3 receptor results in increased fat mass and reduced lean body mass. Nat Genet 26, 97-102, 2000.10.1038/79254Search in Google Scholar

Cohen MA, Ellis SM, Le Roux CW, Batterham RL, Park A, Patterson M, Frost GS, Ghatei MA, Bloom SR. Oxyntomodulin suppresses appetite and reduces food intake in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88, 4696-4701, 2003.10.1210/jc.2003-030421Search in Google Scholar

Cone RD. Anatomy and regulation of the central melanocortin system. Nat Neurosci 8, 571-578, 2005.10.1038/nn1455Search in Google Scholar

Considine RV, Sinha MK, Heiman ML, Kriauciunas A, Stephens TW, Nyce MR, Ohannesian JP, Marco CC, McKee LJ, Bauer TL. Serum immunoreactive-leptin concentrations in normal-weight and obese humans. New Eng J Med 334, 292-295, 1996.10.1056/NEJM199602013340503Search in Google Scholar

Coope A, Milanski M, Araujo EP, Tambascia M, Saad MJ, Geloneze B, Velloso LA. AdipoR1 mediates the anorexigenic and insulin/leptin-like actions of adiponectin in the hypothalamus. FEBS Lett 582, 1471-1476, 2008.10.1016/j.febslet.2008.03.037Search in Google Scholar

Costantini VJ, Vicentini E, Sabbatini FM, Valerio E, Lepore S, Tessari M, Sartori M, Michielin F, Melotto S, Bifone A, Pich EM, Corsi M. GSK1614343, a novel ghrelin receptor antagonist, produces an unexpected increase of food intake and body weight in rodents and dogs. Neuroendocrinol 94, 158-68, 2011.10.1159/000328968Search in Google Scholar

Cota D, Marsicano G, Tschop M, Grubler Y, Flachskamm C, Schubert M, Auer D, Yassouridis A, Thone-Reineke C, Ortmann S, Tomassoni F, Cervino C, Nisoli E, Linthorst AC, Pasquali R, Lutz B, Stalla GK, Pagotto U. The endogenous cannabinoid system aff ects energy balance via central orexigenic drive and peripheral lipogenesis. J Clin Invest 112, 423-431, 2003.10.1172/JCI17725Search in Google Scholar

Cota D, Tschop MH, Horvath TL, Levine AS. Cannabinoids, opioids and eating behavior: the molecular face of hedonism? Brain Res Rev 51, 85-107, 2006.10.1016/j.brainresrev.2005.10.004Search in Google Scholar

Cowley MA, Smith RG, Diano S, Tschop M, Pronchuk N, Grove KL, Strasburger CJ, Bidlingmaier M, Esterman M, Heiman ML, Garcia-Segura LM, Nillni EA, Mendez P, Low MJ, Sotonyi P, Friedman JM, Liu H, Pinto S, Colmers WF, Cone RD, Horvath TL. Th e distribution and mechanism of action of ghrelin in the CNS demonstrates a novel hypothalamic circuit regulating energy homeostasis. Neuron 37, 649-661, 2003.10.1016/S0896-6273(03)00063-1Search in Google Scholar

Cummings DE, Overduin J. Gastrointestinal regulation of food intake. J Clin Invest 117, 13-23, 2007.10.1172/JCI30227171621717200702Search in Google Scholar

Dakin CL, Small CJ, Batterham RL, Neary NM, Cohen MA, Patterson M, Ghatei MA, Bloom SR. Peripheral oxyntomodulin reduces food intake and body weight gain in rats. Endocrinol 145, 2687-2695, 2004.10.1210/en.2003-133815001546Search in Google Scholar

Date Y, Murakami N, Toshinai K, Matsukura S, Niijima A, Matsuo H, Kangawa K, Nakazato M. The role of the gastric aff erent vagal nerve in ghrelin induced feeding and growth hormone secretion in rats. Gastroenterology 123, 1120-1128, 2002.10.1053/gast.2002.3595412360474Search in Google Scholar

Date Y. Ghrelin and the vagus nerve. Methods in Enzymology 514, 261-269, 2012.10.1016/B978-0-12-381272-8.00016-722975058Search in Google Scholar

de Graaf C, Blom WA, Smeets PA, Stafl eu A, Hendriks HF. Biomarkers of satiation and satiety. A J Clin Nutr 79, 946-961, 2004.10.1093/ajcn/79.6.946Search in Google Scholar

Devane WA, Manus L, Breuer A, Pertwee RG, Stevenson LA, Griffi n G, Gibson D, Mandelbaum A, Etinger A, Mechoulam R. Isolation and structure of a brain constituent that binds to the cannabinoid receptor. Science 258, 1946-1949, 1992.10.1126/science.1470919Search in Google Scholar

Dhuria SV, Fine JM, Bingham D, Svitak AL, Burns RB, Baillargeon AM, Panter SS, Kazi AN, Frey WH 2nd, Hanson LR. Food consumption and activity levels increase in rats following intranasal Hypocretin-1. Neurosci Lett 627, 155-159, 2016.10.1016/j.neulet.2016.05.053Search in Google Scholar

Di Marzo V, Bisogno T, De Petrocellis L, Melck D, Orlando P, Wagner JA, Kunos G. Biosynthesis and inactivation of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol in circulating and tumoral macrophages. Eur J Biochem 264, 258-267, 1999.10.1046/j.1432-1327.1999.00631.xSearch in Google Scholar

Di Marzo V, Matias I. Endocannabinoid control of food intake and energy balance. Nat Neurosci 8, 585-589, 2005.10.1038/nn1457Search in Google Scholar

Dube MG, Kalra SP, Kalra PS. Food intake elicited by administration of orexins/hypocretins: identifi cation of hypothalamic sites of action. Brain Res 842, 473-477, 1999.10.1016/S0006-8993(99)01824-7Search in Google Scholar

Fehmann HC, Jiang J, Schweinfurth J, Wheeler MB, Boyd AE 3rd, Goke B. Stable expression of the rat GLP-I receptor in CHO cells: activation and binding characteristics utilizing GLP-I(7-36)-amide, oxyntomodulin, exendin- 4, and exendin(9-39). Peptides 15, 453-456, 1994.10.1016/0196-9781(94)90204-6Search in Google Scholar

Foster-Schubert KE, Cummings DE. Emerging therapeutic strategies for obesity. Endocr Rev 27, 779-793, 2006.10.1210/er.2006-004117122357Search in Google Scholar

Fraley GS, Scarlett JM, Shimada I, Teklemichael DN, Acohido BV, Clift on DK, Steiner RA. Eff ects of diabetes and insulin on the expression of Galanin-like peptide in the hypothalamus of the rate. Diabetes 53, 1237-1242, 2004.10.2337/diabetes.53.5.123715111492Search in Google Scholar

Friedman JM. Modern science versus the stigma of obesity. Nat Med 10, 563-569, 2004.10.1038/nm0604-56315170194Search in Google Scholar

Fujimoto K, Fukagawa K, Sakata T, Tso P. Suppression of food intake by apolipoprotein A-IV is mediated through the central nervous system in rats. J Clin Invest 91, 1830-1833, 1993.10.1172/JCI1163952881658473522Search in Google Scholar

Galic S, Oakhill JS, Steinberg GR. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. Mol Cell Endocrinol 316, 129-139, 2010.10.1016/j.mce.2009.08.01819723556Search in Google Scholar

Garruti G, Cotecchia S, Giampetruzzi F, Giorgino F, Giorgino R. Neuroendocrine deregulation of food intake, adipose tissue and the gastrointestinal system in obesity and metabolic syndrome. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis 17, 193-198, 2008.Search in Google Scholar

Gauthier KM, Baewer DV, Hittner S, Hillard CJ, Nithipatikom K, Reddy DS, Falck JR, Campbell WB. Endotheliumderived 2-arachidonylglycerol: an intermediate in vasodilatory eicosanoid release in bovine coronary arteries. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 288, H1344-H1351, 2005.10.1152/ajpheart.00537.200415528233Search in Google Scholar

Geary N, Le Sauter J, Noh U. Glucagon acts in the liver to control spontaneous meal size in rats. Am J Physiol 264, R116-R122, 1993.10.1152/ajpregu.1993.264.1.R1168430871Search in Google Scholar

Gerozissis K. Brain insulin and feeding: a bi-directional communication. Eur J Pharmacol 490, 59-70, 2004.10.1016/j.ejphar.2004.02.04415094073Search in Google Scholar

Ghatei MA, Uttenthal LO, Christofides ND, Bryant MG, Bloom SR. Molecular forms of human enteroglucagon in tissue and plasma: plasma responses to nutrient stimuli in health and in disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 57, 488-495, 1983.10.1210/jcem-57-3-4886874888Search in Google Scholar

Gonthier MP, Hoareau L, Festy F, Matias I, Valenti M, Bes-Houtmann S, Rouch C, Robert-Da Silva C, Chesne S, Lefebvre d’Hellencourt C, Cesari M, Di Marzo V, Roche R. Identifi cation of endocannabinoids and related compounds in human fat cells. Obesity 15, 837-845, 2007.10.1038/oby.2007.58117426318Search in Google Scholar

Goodman A. Neurobiology of addiction. An integrative review. Biochem Pharmacol 75, 266-322, 2008.10.1016/j.bcp.2007.07.03017764663Search in Google Scholar

Halmos T, Suba I. Role of the brain in the regulation of metabolism and energy expenditure: the central role of insulin, and insulin resistance of the brain. Orv Hetil 152, 83-91, 2011.10.1556/OH.2011.2898121205607Search in Google Scholar

Hankir MK, Parkinson JR, Minnion JS, Addison ML, Bloom SR, Bell JD. Peptide YY 3-36 and pancreatic polypeptide diff erentially regulate hypothalamic neuronal activity in mice in vivo as measured by manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. J Neuroendocrinol 23, 371-380, 2011.10.1111/j.1365-2826.2011.02111.x21251093Search in Google Scholar

Hare KJ. Role of GLP-1 induced glucagon suppression in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Dan Med Bull 57, B4181, 2010.Search in Google Scholar

Hargrave SL, Kinzig KP. Repeated gastric distension alters food intake and neuroendocrine profi les in rats. Physiol Behav 105, 975-981, 2012.10.1016/j.physbeh.2011.11.006Search in Google Scholar

Herisson FM, Waas JR, Fredriksson R, Schioth HB, Levine AS, Olszewski PK. Oxytocin acting in the nucleus accumbens core decreases food intake. J Neuroendocrinol 28, 2016.10.1111/jne.12381Search in Google Scholar

Hillebrand JJ, Geary N. Do leptin and insulin signal adiposity? Forum Nutr 63, 111-122, 2010.10.1159/000264399Search in Google Scholar

Hirako S, Wada N, Kageyama H, Takenoya F, Izumida Y, Kim H, Iizuka Y, Matsumoto A, Okabe M, Kimura A, Suzuki M, Yamanaka S, Shioda S. Autonomic nervous system-mediated eff ects of galanin-like peptide on lipid metabolism in liver and adipose tissue. Sci Rep 6, 21481, 2016.10.1038/srep21481Search in Google Scholar

Hoebel BG. Brain neurotransmitters in food and drug reward. Am J Clin Nutr 42, 1133-1150, 1985.10.1093/ajcn/42.5.1133Search in Google Scholar

Holst JJ. On the physiology of GIP and GLP-1. Horm Metab Res 36, 747-754, 2004.10.1055/s-2004-826158Search in Google Scholar

Honda K, Kamisoyama H, Saito N, Kurose Y, Sugahara K, Hasegawa S. Central administration of glucagon suppresses food intake in chicks. Neurosci Lett 416, 198-201, 2007.10.1016/j.neulet.2007.02.011Search in Google Scholar

Horvath TL. Endocannabinoids and the regulation of body fat: the smoke is clearing. J Clin Invest 112, 323-326, 2003.10.1172/JCI19376Search in Google Scholar

Hotta M, Shibasaki T, Arai K, Demura H. Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 mediates emotional stressinduced inhibition of food intake and behavioral changes in rats. Brain Res 823, 221-225, 1999.10.1016/S0006-8993(99)01177-4Search in Google Scholar

Hou J, Zheng DZ, Zhou JY, Zhou SW. Orexigenic eff ect of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) aft er injection into hypothalamic nuclei in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 37, 989-995, 2010.10.1111/j.1440-1681.2010.05423.x20626417Search in Google Scholar

Huszar D, Lynch CA, Fairchild-Huntress V, Dunmore JH, Fang Q, Berkemeier LR, Gu W, Kesterson RA, Boston BA, Cone RD, Smith FJ, Campfi eld LA, Burn P, Lee F. Targeted disruption of the melanocortin-4 receptor results in obesity in mice. Cell 88, 131-134, 1997.10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81865-6Search in Google Scholar

Iwasaki Y, Kakei M, Nakabayashi H, Ayush EA, Hirano-Kodaira M, Maejima Y, Yada T. Pancreatic polypeptide and peptide YY3-36 induce Ca2+ signaling in nodose ganglion neurons. Neuropeptides 47, 19-23, 2013.10.1016/j.npep.2012.07.00622944736Search in Google Scholar

Jamshidi N, Taylor DA. Anandamide administration into the ventromedial hypothalamus stimulates appetite in rats. Br J Pharmacol 134, 1151-1154, 2001.10.1038/sj.bjp.0704379157306711704633Search in Google Scholar

Jbilo O, Ravinet-Trillou C, Arnone M, Buisson I, Bribes E, Peleraux A, Penarier G, Soubrie P, Le Fur G, Galiegue S, Casellas P. Th e CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant reverses the diet-induced obesity phenotype through the regulation of lipolysis and energy balance. FASEB J19, 1567-1569, 2005.10.1096/fj.04-3177fje16009704Search in Google Scholar

Jequier E, Tappy L. Regulation of body weight in humans. Physiol Rev 79, 451-480, 1999.10.1152/physrev.1999.79.2.45110221987Search in Google Scholar

Jesudason DR, Monteiro MP, McGowan BM, Neary NM, Park AJ, Philippou E, Small CJ, Frost GS, Ghatei MA, Bloom SR. Low-dose pancreatic polypeptide inhibits food intake in man. Br J Nutr 97, 426-429, 2007.10.1017/S000711450733679917313701Search in Google Scholar

Kageyama H, Shiba K, Hirako S, Wada N, Yamanaka S, Nogi Y, Takenoya F, Nonaka N, Hirano T, Inoue S, Shioda S. Anti-obesity eff ect of intranasal administration of galanin-like peptide (GALP) in obese mice. Sci Rep 6, 28200, 2016.10.1038/srep28200491496427323911Search in Google Scholar

Katayama S, Tomonaga S, Sato M, Yamane H, Tsuneyoshi Y, Denbow DM, Furuse M. Norepinephrine does not alter NPY and POMC mRNA expression in neonatal chicks. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 156, 143-146, 2010.10.1016/j.cbpa.2010.01.01120096362Search in Google Scholar

Keenan GS, Brunstrom JM, Ferriday D. Eff ects of meal variety on expected satiation: evidence for a ‘perceived volume’ heuristic. Appetite 89, 10-15, 2015.10.1016/j.appet.2015.01.010437639225599925Search in Google Scholar

Kenny PJ. Common cellular and molecular mechanisms in obesity and drug addiction. Nat Rev Neurosci 12, 638- 651, 2011.10.1038/nrn310522011680Search in Google Scholar

Kim ER, Mizuno TM. Role of neurotensin receptor 1 in the regulation of food intake by neuromedins and neuromedin- related peptides. Neurosci Lett 468, 64-67, 2010.10.1016/j.neulet.2009.10.06419857548Search in Google Scholar

Klok MD, Jakobsdottir S, Drent ML. Th e role of leptin and ghrelin in the regulation of food intake and body weight in humans: a review. Obes Rev 8, 21-34, 2007.10.1111/j.1467-789X.2006.00270.x17212793Search in Google Scholar

Kogan NM, Mechoulam R. Th e chemistry of endocannabinoids. J Endocrinol Invest 29, 3-14, 2006.Search in Google Scholar

Kola B, Farkas I, Christ-Crain M, Wittmann G, Lolli F, Amin F, Harvey-White J, Liposits Z, Kunos G, Grossman AB, Fekete C, Korbonits M. Th e orexigenic eff ect of ghrelin is mediated through central activation of the endogenous cannabinoid system. PLoS One 3, e1797, 2008.10.1371/journal.pone.0001797225843518335063Search in Google Scholar

Koren MS, Holmes MD. Vagus nerve stimulation does not lead to signifi cant changes in body weight in patients with epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav 8, 246-249, 2006.10.1016/j.yebeh.2005.10.00116343997Search in Google Scholar

Kristensen P, Judge ME, Th im L, Ribel U, Christjansen KN, Wulff BS, Clausen JT, Jensen PB, Madsen OD, Vrang N, Larsen PJ, Hastrup S. Hypothalamic CART is a new anorectic peptide regulated by leptin. Nature 393, 72-76, 1998.10.1038/299939590691Search in Google Scholar

Krude H, Biebermann H, Luck W, Horn R, Brabant G, Gruters A. Severe early-onset obesity, adrenal insuffi ciency and red hair pigmentation caused by POMC mutations in humans. Nat Genet 19, 155-157, 1998.10.1038/5099620771Search in Google Scholar

Lateef DM, Washington MC, Raboin SJ, Roberson AE, Mansour MM, Williams CS, Sayegh AI. Duodenal myotomy blocks reduction of meal size and prolongation of intermeal interval by cholecystokinin. Physiol Behav 105, 829-834, 2012.10.1016/j.physbeh.2011.10.01822047890Search in Google Scholar

Lawrence C, Fraley GS. Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a hypothalamic regulator of energy homeostasis and reproduction. Front Neuroendocrinol 32, 1-9, 2011.10.1016/j.yfrne.2010.06.001295089920558195Search in Google Scholar

Lawson EA, Marengi DA, DeSanti RL, Holmes TM, Schoenfeld DA, Tolley CJ. Oxytocin reduces caloric intake in men. Obesity (Silver Spring) 23, 950-956, 2015.10.1002/oby.21069441474825865294Search in Google Scholar

le Roux CW, Batterham RL, Aylwin SJ, Patterson M, Borg CM, Wynne KJ, Kent A, Vincent RP, Gardiner J, Ghatei MA, Bloom SR. Attenuated peptide YY release in obese subjects is associated with reduced satiety. Endocrinology 147, 3-8, 2006.10.1210/en.2005-097216166213Search in Google Scholar

Lee H K, Choi EB, Pak CS. Th e current status and future perspectives of studies of cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonists as anti-obesity agents. Curr Top Med Chem 9, 482-503, 2009.10.2174/156802609788897844Search in Google Scholar

Leibowitz SF. Paraventricular nucleus: a primary site mediating adrenergic stimulation of feeding and drinking. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 8, 163-175, 1978.10.1016/0091-3057(78)90333-7Search in Google Scholar

Liddle RA, Goldfine ID, Rosen MS, Taplitz RA, Williams JA. Cholecystokinin bioactivity in human plasma. Molecular forms, responses to feeding, and relationship to gallbladder contraction. J Clin Invest 75, 1144-1152, 1985.10.1172/JCI111809Search in Google Scholar

Lin S, Boey D, Herzog H. NPY and Y receptors: lessons from transgenic and knockout models. Neuropeptides 38, 189-200, 2004.10.1016/j.npep.2004.05.005Search in Google Scholar

Lin S, Shi YC, Yulyaningsih E, Aljanova A, Zhang L, Macia L, Nguyen AD, Lin EJ, During MJ, Herzog H, Sainsbury A. Critical role of arcuate Y4 receptors and the melanocortin system in pancreatic polypeptide-induced reduction in food intake in mice. PLoS One 4, e8488, 2009.10.1371/journal.pone.0008488Search in Google Scholar

Little TJ, Pilichiewicz AN, Russo A, Phillips L, Jones KL, Nauck MA, Wishart J, Horowitz M, Feinle-Bisset C. Effects of intravenous glucagon-like peptide-1 on gastric emptying and intragastric distribution in healthy subjects: relationships with postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91, 1916-1923, 2006.10.1210/jc.2005-2220Search in Google Scholar

Lutz TA. Control of food intake and energy expenditure by amylin-therapeutic implications. Int J Obes (Lond) 33, S24-S27, 2009.10.1038/ijo.2009.13Search in Google Scholar

Maejima T, Hashimoto K, Yoshida T, Aiba A, Kano M. Presynaptic inhibition caused by retrograde signal from metabotropic glutamate to cannabinoid receptors. Neuron 31, 463-475, 2001.10.1016/S0896-6273(01)00375-0Search in Google Scholar

Martin CK, Bellanger DE, Rau KK, Coulon S, Greenway FL. Safety of the Ullorex oral intragastric balloon for the treatment of obesity. J Diabetes Sci Technol 1, 574-581, 2007.10.1177/193229680700100416276964219885121Search in Google Scholar

Martin KA, Mani MV, Mani A. New targets to treat obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Eur J Pharmacol 763, 64-74, 2015.10.1016/j.ejphar.2015.03.093457331726001373Search in Google Scholar

Mastorakos G, Zapanti E. Th e hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the neuroendocrine regulation of food intake and obesity: the role of corticotropin releasing hormone. Nutr Neurosci 7, 271-280, 2004.10.1080/10284150400020516Search in Google Scholar

Matias I, Bisogno T, Di Marzo V. Endogenous cannabinoids in the brain and peripheral tissues: regulation of their levels and control of food intake. Int J Obes (Lond) 30, S7-S12, 2006.10.1038/sj.ijo.0803271Search in Google Scholar

Matsuda K, Kojima K, Shimakura S, Wada K, Maruyama K, Uchiyama M, Kikuyama S, Shioda S. Corticotropinreleasing hormone mediates α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-induced anorexigenic action in goldfish. Peptides 29, 1930-1936, 2008.10.1016/j.peptides.2008.06.028Search in Google Scholar

McGowan MK, Andrews KM, Grossman SP. Chronic intrahypothalamic infusions of insulin or insulin antibodies alter body weight and food intake in the rat. Physiol Behav 51, 753-766, 1992.10.1016/0031-9384(92)90112-FSearch in Google Scholar

Mechoulam R, Ben-Shabat S, Hanus L, Ligumsky M, Kaminski NE, Schatz AR, Gopher A, Almog S, Martin BR, Compton DR, Pertwee RG, Griffi n G, Bayewitch M, Barg J, Vogel Z. Identifi cation of an endogenous 2-monoglyceride present in canine gut, that binds to cannabinoid receptors. Biochem Pharmacol 50, 83-90, 1995.10.1016/0006-2952(95)00109-DSearch in Google Scholar

Meguid MM, Glade MJ, Middleton FA. Weight regain aft er Roux-en-Y: a signifi cant 20% complication related to PYY. Nutrition 24, 832-842, 2008.10.1016/j.nut.2008.06.027Search in Google Scholar

Mentlein R, Gallwitz B, Schmidt WE. Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV hydrolyses gastric inhibitory polypeptide, glucagonlike peptide-1(7-36) amide, peptide histidine methionine and is responsible for their degradation in human serum. Eur J Biochem 214, 829-835, 1993.10.1111/j.1432-1033.1993.tb17986.xSearch in Google Scholar

Meyer-Lindenberg A, Domes G, Kirsch P, Heinrichs M. Oxytocin and vasopressin in the human brain: social neuropeptides for translational medicine. Nat Rev Neurosci 12, 524-538, 2011.10.1038/nrn3044Search in Google Scholar

Mihaly E, Fekete C, Legradi G, Lechan RM. Hypothalamic dorsomedial nucleus neurons innervate thyrotropinreleasing hormone- synthesizing neurons in the paraventricular nucleus. Brain Res 891, 20-31, 2001.10.1016/S0006-8993(00)03094-8Search in Google Scholar

Moore CJ, Johnson ZP, Higgins M, Toufexis D, Wilson ME. Antagonism of corticotrophin-releasing factor type 1 receptors attenuates caloric intake of free feeding subordinate female rhesus monkeys in a rich dietary environment. J Neuroendocrinol 27, 33-43, 2015.10.1111/jne.12232430945925674637Search in Google Scholar

Moran TH, Baldessarini AR, Salorio CF, Lowery T, Schwartz GJ. Vagal aff erent and eff erent contributions to the inhibition of food intake by cholecystokinin. Am J Physiol 272, R1245-R1251, 1997.10.1152/ajpregu.1997.272.4.R1245Search in Google Scholar

Moran TH, Katz LF, Plata-Salaman CR, Schwartz GJ. Disordered food intake and obesity in rats lacking cholecystokinin A receptors. Am J Physiol 274, R618-R625, 1998.10.1152/ajpregu.1998.274.3.R618Search in Google Scholar

Moriarty P, Dimaline R, Thompson DG, Dockray GJ. Characterization of cholecystokininA and cholecystokininB receptors expressed by vagal aff erent neurons. Neuroscience 79, 905-913, 1997.10.1016/S0306-4522(96)00675-6Search in Google Scholar

Morton GJ, Thatcher BS, Reidelberger RD, Ogimoto K, Wolden-Hanson T, Baskin DG, Schwartz MW, Blevins JE. Peripheral oxytocin suppresses food intake and causes weight loss in diet-induced obese rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 302, E134-E144, 2012.10.1152/ajpendo.00296.2011332808722008455Search in Google Scholar

Nakagawa A, Satake H, Nakabayashi H, Nishizawa M, Furuya K, Nakano S, Kigoshi T, Nakayama K, Uchida K. Receptor gene expression of glucagon-like peptide-1, but not glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, in rat nodose ganglion cells. Auton Neurosci 110, 36-43, 2004.10.1016/j.autneu.2003.11.00114766323Search in Google Scholar

Nelson DW, Sharp JW, Brownfield MS, Raybould HE, Ney DM. Localization and activation of glucagon-like peptide-2 receptors on vagal aff erents in the rat. Endocrinology 148, 1954-1962, 2007.10.1210/en.2006-123217234710Search in Google Scholar

Nogueiras R, Veyrat-Durebex C, Suchanek PM, Klein M, Tschop J, Caldwell C, Woods SC, Wittmann G, Watanabe M, Liposits Z, Fekete C, Reizes O, Rohner-Jeanrenaud F, Tschop MH. Peripheral, but not central, CB1 antagonism provides food intake-independent metabolic benefi ts in diet-induced obese rats. Diabetes 57, 2977-2991, 2008.10.2337/db08-0161257039418716045Search in Google Scholar

Nutt DJ, Lingford-Hughes A, Erritzoe D, Stokes PR. The dopamine theory of addiction: 40 years of highs and lows. Nat Rev Neurosci 16, 305-312, 2015.10.1038/nrn393925873042Search in Google Scholar

Ochner CN, Barrios DM, Lee CD, Pi-Sunyer FX. Biological mechanisms that promote weight regain following weight loss in obese humans. Physiol Behav 15, 106-113, 2013.10.1016/j.physbeh.2013.07.009379714823911805Search in Google Scholar

Okada S, York DA, Bray GA, Mei J, Erlanson-Albertsson C. Diff erential inhibition of fat intake in two strains of rat by the peptide enterostatin. Am J Physiol 262, R1111-R1116, 1992.10.1152/ajpregu.1992.262.6.R11111621866Search in Google Scholar

Ott V, Finlayson G, Lehnert H, Heitmann B, Heinrichs M, Born J, Hallschmid M. Oxytocin reduces reward-driven food intake in humans. Diabetes 62, 3418-3425, 2013.10.2337/db13-0663Search in Google Scholar

Overduin J, Gibbs J, Cummings DE, Reeve JR Jr. CCK-58 elicits both satiety and satiation in rats while CCK-8 elicits only satiation. Peptides 54, 71-80, 2014.10.1016/j.peptides.2014.01.008Search in Google Scholar

Pagano C, Rossato M, Vettor R. Endocannabinoids, adipose tissue and lipid metabolism. J Neuroendocrinol 20, 124-129, 2008.10.1111/j.1365-2826.2008.01690.xSearch in Google Scholar

Pagotto U, Marsicano G, Cota D, Lutz B, Pasquali R. The emerging role of the endocannabinoid system in endocrine regulation and energy balance. Endocr Rev 27, 73-100, 2006.10.1210/er.2005-0009Search in Google Scholar

Palmiter RD. Is dopamine a physiologically relevant mediator of feeding behavior? Trends Neurosci 30, 375-381, 2007.10.1016/j.tins.2007.06.004Search in Google Scholar

Parker JA, McCullough KA, Field BC, Minnion JS, Martin NM, Ghatei MA, Bloom SR. Glucagon and GLP-1 inhibit food intake and increase c-fos expression in similar appetite regulating centres in the brainstem and amygdala. Int J Obes (Lond) 37, 1391-1398, 2013.10.1038/ijo.2012.227Search in Google Scholar

Paz-Filho GJ, Volaco A, Suplicy HL, Radominski RB, Boguszewski CL. Decrease in leptin production by the adipose tissue in obesity associated with severe metabolic syndrome. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol 53, 1088-1095, 2009.10.1590/S0004-27302009000900005Search in Google Scholar

Pelleymounter MA, Cullen MJ, Wellman CL. Characteristics of BDNF-induced weight loss. Exp Neurol 131, 229-238, 1995.10.1016/0014-4886(95)90045-4Search in Google Scholar

Pfluger PT, Kampe J, Castaneda TR, Vahl T, D’Alessio DA, Kruthaupt T, Benoit SC, Cuntz U, Rochlitz HJ, Moehlig M, Pfeiff er AF, Koebnick C, Weickert MO, Otto B, Spranger J, Tschop MH. Eff ect of human body weight changes on circulating levels of peptide YY and peptide YY3-36. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92, 583-588, 2007.10.1210/jc.2006-142517119001Search in Google Scholar

Pocai A, Carrington PE, Adams JR, Wright M, Eiermann G, Zhu L, Du X, Petrov A, Lassman ME, Jiang G, Liu F, Miller C, Tota LM, Zhou G, Zhang X, Sountis MM, Santoprete A, Capito’ E, Chicchi GG, Th ornberry N, Bianchi E, Pessi A, Marsh DJ, SinhaRoy R. Glucagon-like peptide 1/glucagon receptor dual agonism reverses obesity in mice. Diabetes 58, 2258-2266, 2009.10.2337/db09-0278275020919602537Search in Google Scholar

Pomorska DK, do-Rego JC, do-Rego JL, Zubrzycka M, Janecka A. Opioid and cannabinoid system in food intake. Curr Pharm Des 22, 1361-1370, 2016.10.2174/138161282266616012511414426806346Search in Google Scholar

Potes CS, Turek VF, Cole RL, Vu C, Roland BL, Roth JD, Riediger T, Lutz TA. Noradrenergic neurons of the area postrema mediate amylin’s hypophagic action. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 299, R623-R631, 2010.10.1152/ajpregu.00791.200920554938Search in Google Scholar

Pothos EN, Hernandez L, Hoebel BG. Chronic food deprivation decreases extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens: implications for a possible neurochemical link between weight loss and drug abuse. Obes Res 3, 525S-529S, 1995.10.1002/j.1550-8528.1995.tb00222.x8697053Search in Google Scholar

Powley TL, Chi MM, Baronowsky EA, Phillips RJ. Gastrointestinal tract innervation of the mouse: aff erent regeneration and meal patterning aft er vagotomy. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 289, R563-R574, 2005.10.1152/ajpregu.00167.200515831767Search in Google Scholar

Qin X, Tso P. Th e role of apolipoprotein AIV in the control of food intake. Curr Drug Targets 6, 145-151, 2005.10.2174/138945005317454115777185Search in Google Scholar

Quarta C, Bellocchio L, Mancini G, Mazza R, Cervino C, Braulke LJ, Fekete C, Latorre R, Nanni C, Bucci M, Clemens LE, Heldmaier G, Watanabe M, Leste-Lassere T, Maitre M, Tedesco L, Fanelli F, Reuss S, Klaus S, Srivastava RK, Monory K, Valerio A, Grandis A, De Giorgio R, Pasquali R, Nisoli E, Cota D, Lutz B, Marsicano G, Pagotto U. CB(1) signaling in forebrain and sympathetic neurons is a key determinant of endocannabinoid actions on energy balance. Cell Metab 11, 273-285, 2010.10.1016/j.cmet.2010.02.01520374960Search in Google Scholar

Quarta C, Mazza R, Obici S, Pasquali R, Pagotto U. Energy balance regulation by endocannabinoids at central an peripheral levels. Trends Mol Med 17, 518-526, 2011.10.1016/j.molmed.2011.05.00221816675Search in Google Scholar

Raffan E, Dennis RJ, O’Donovan CJ, Becker JM, Scott RA, Smith SP, Withers DJ, Wood CJ, Conci E, Clements DN, Summers KM, German AJ, Mellersh CS, Arendt ML, Iyemere VP, Withers E, Soder J, Wernersson S, Andersson G, Lindblad-Toh K, Yeo GS, O’Rahilly S. A Deletion in the canine POMC gene is associated with weight and appetite in obesity-prone labrador retriever dogs. Cell Metab 23, 893-900, 2016.10.1016/j.cmet.2016.04.012487361727157046Search in Google Scholar

Ratner C, Skov LJ, Raida Z, Bachler T, Bellmann-Sickert K, Le Foll C, Sivertsen B, Dalboge LS, Hartmann B, Beck-Sickinger AG, Madsen AN, Jelsing J, Holst JJ, Lutz TA, Andrews ZB, Holst B. Eff ects of peripheral neurotensin on appetite regulation and its role in gastric bypass surgery. Endocrinology 157, 3482-3492, 2016.10.1210/en.2016-132927580810Search in Google Scholar

Ravinet Trillou C, Delgorge C, Menet C, Arnone M, Soubrie P. CB1 cannabinoid receptor knockout in mice leads to leanness, resistance to diet induced obesity and enhanced leptin sensitivity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 28, 640-648, 2004.10.1038/sj.ijo.080258314770190Search in Google Scholar

Rehfeld JF. Th e new biology of gastrointestinal hormones. Physiol Rev 78, 1087-1108, 1998.10.1152/physrev.1998.78.4.1087Search in Google Scholar

Riedy CA, Chavez M, Figlewicz DP, Woods SC. Central insulin enhances sensitivity to cholecystokinin. Physiol Behav 58, 755-760, 1995.10.1016/0031-9384(95)00108-USearch in Google Scholar

Ritter RC. Gastrointestinal mechanisms of satiation for food. Physiol Behav 81, 249-273, 2004.10.1016/j.physbeh.2004.02.012Search in Google Scholar

Rohner-Jeanrenaud F, Craft LS, Bridwell J, Suter TM, Tinsley FC, Smiley DL, Burkhart DR, Statnick MA, Heiman ML, Ravussin E, Caro JF. Chronic central infusion of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART 55-102): eff ects on body weight homeostasis in lean and high-fat-fed obese rats. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 26, 143-149, 2002.10.1038/sj.ijo.0801863Search in Google Scholar

Rorato R, Miyahara C, Antunes-Rodrigues J, Elias LL. Tolerance to hypophagia induced by prolonged treatment with a CB1 antagonist is related to the reversion of anorexigenic neuropeptide gene expression in the hypothalamus. Regul Pept 182, 12-18, 2013.10.1016/j.regpep.2012.12.004Search in Google Scholar

Roth JD, Hughes H, Kendall E, Baron AD, Anderson CM. Antiobesity eff ects of the beta-cell hormone amylin in diet-induced obese rats: eff ects on food intake, body weight, composition, energy expenditure, and gene expression. Endocrinology 147, 5855-5864, 2006.10.1210/en.2006-0393Search in Google Scholar

Sandoval D, Cota D, Seeley RJ. Th e integrative role of CNS fuel-sensing mechanisms in energy balance and glucose regulation. Annu Rev Physiol 70, 513-535, 2008.10.1146/annurev.physiol.70.120806.095256Search in Google Scholar

Santoso P, Maejima Y, Kumamoto K, Takenoshita S, Shimomura K. Central action of ELABELA reduces food intake and activates arginine vasopressin and corticotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Neuroreport 26, 820-826, 2015.10.1097/WNR.0000000000000431Search in Google Scholar

Sawchenko PE, Swanson LW. Localization, localization, and plasticity of corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactivity in rat brain. Fed Proc 44, 221-227, 1985.Search in Google Scholar

Scheen AJ, Van Gaal LG, Despres JP, Pi-Sunyer X, Golay A, Hanotin C. Rimonabant improves cardiometabolic risk profi le in obese or overweight subjects: overview of RIO studies. Rev Med Suisse 2, 1916-1923, 2006.Search in Google Scholar

Schwartz GJ. Th e role of gastrointestinal vagal aff erents in the control of food intake: current prospects. Nutrition 16, 866-873, 2000.10.1016/S0899-9007(00)00464-0Search in Google Scholar

Schwartz GJ. Brainstem integrative function in the central nervous system control of food intake. Forum Nutr 63, 141-151, 2010.10.1159/00026440219955782Search in Google Scholar

Sekino A, Ohata H, Mano-Otagiri A, Arai K, Shibasaki T. Both corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 and type 2 are involved in stress-induced inhibition of food intake in rats. Psychopharmacology 176, 30-38, 2004.10.1007/s00213-004-1863-1Search in Google Scholar

Silvestri C, Di Marzo V. Th e endocannabinoid system in energy homeostasis and the etiopathology of metabolicSearch in Google Scholar

disorders. Cell Metab 17, 475-490, 2013.10.1016/j.cmet.2013.03.001Search in Google Scholar

Simpson CW, Dicara L. Estradiol Inhibition of Catecholamine Elicited Eating in the Female Rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1, 413-419, 1973.10.1016/0091-3057(73)90007-5Search in Google Scholar

Smith GP. Satiation: from gut to brain. Oxford University Press, New York, USA. PP 291, 1998.10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195105155.001.0001Search in Google Scholar

Sterl K, Wang S, Oestricker L, Wallendorf MJ, Patterson BW, Reeds DN, Wice BM. Metabolic responses to xenin-25 are altered in humans with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Peptides 82, 76-84, 2016.10.1016/j.peptides.2016.06.001495856527288245Search in Google Scholar

Strubbe JH, Woods SC. Th e timing of meals. Psychol Rev 111, 128-141, 2004.10.1037/0033-295X.111.1.12814756590Search in Google Scholar

Sun Y, Wang P, Zheng H, Smith RG. Ghrelin stimulation of growth hormone release and appetite is mediated through the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101, 4679-4684, 2004.10.1073/pnas.030593010138480615070777Search in Google Scholar

Suzuki K, Simpson K A, Minnion JS, Shillito JC, Bloom SR. Th e role of gut hormones and the hypothalamus in appetite regulation. Endocrinol J 57, 359-372, 2010.10.1507/endocrj.K10E-077Search in Google Scholar

Takenoya F, Hirayama M, Kageyama H, Funahashi H, Kita T, Matsumoto H, Ohtaki T, Katoh S, Takeuchi M, Shioda S. Neuronal interactions between galanin-like-peptide- and orexin- or melanin-concentrating hormonecontaining neurons. Regul Pept 126, 79-83, 2005.10.1016/j.regpep.2004.10.00415620418Search in Google Scholar

Talsania T, Anini Y, Siu S, Drucker DJ, Brubaker PL. Peripheral exendin-4 and peptide YY (3-36) synergistically reduce food intake through diff erent mechanisms in mice. Endocrinology 146, 3748-3756, 2005.10.1210/en.2005-047315932924Search in Google Scholar

Tam J, Vemuri VK, Liu J, Batkai S, Mukhopadhyay B, Godlewski G, Osei-Hyiaman D, Ohnuma S, Ambudkar SV, Pickel J, Makriyannis A, Kunos G. Peripheral CB1 cannabinoid receptor blockade improves cardiometabolic risk in mouse models of obesity. J Clin Invest 120, 2953-6629, 2010.10.1172/JCI42551291219720664173Search in Google Scholar

Tanda G, Di Chiara G. A dopamine- ⊠1 opioid link in the rat ventral tegmentum shared by palatable food (Fonzies) and non-psychostimulant drugs of abuse. Eur J Neurosci 10, 1179-1187, 1998.10.1046/j.1460-9568.1998.00135.x9753186Search in Google Scholar

Tedesco L, Valerio A, Cervino C, Cardile A, Pagano C, Vettor R, Pasquali R, Carruba MO, Marsicano G, Lutz B, Pagotto U, Nisoli E. Cannabinoid type 1 receptor blockade promotes mitochondrial biogenesis through endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in white adipocytes. Diabetes 57, 2028-2036, 2008.10.2337/db07-1623249467018477809Search in Google Scholar

Thienel M, Fritsche A, Heinrichs M, Peter A, Ewers M, Lehnert H, Born J, Hallschmid M. Oxytocin’s inhibitory eff ect on food intake is stronger in obese than normal-weight men. Int J Obes (Lond) 40, 1707-1714, 2016.10.1038/ijo.2016.149511606327553712Search in Google Scholar

Trujillo ME, Scherer PE. Adipose tissue-derived factors: impact on health and disease. Endocr Rev 27, 762-778, 2006.10.1210/er.2006-003317056740Search in Google Scholar

Tso P, Sun W, Liu M. Gastrointestinal satiety signals IV. Apolipoprotein A-IV. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 286, G885-G890, 2004.10.1152/ajpgi.00511.200315132947Search in Google Scholar

Verty AN, McGregor IS, Mallet PE. Paraventricular hypothalamic CB (1) cannabinoid receptors are involved in the feeding stimulatory eff ects of Delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol. Neuropharmacology 49, 1101-1109, 2005. 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2005.03.02516098995Search in Google Scholar

Verty AN, Boon WM, Mallet PE, McGregor IS, Oldfi eld BJ. Involvement of hypothalamic peptides in the anorectic action of the CB receptor antagonist rimonabant (SR 141716). Eur J Neurosci 29, 2207-2216, 2009.10.1111/j.1460-9568.2009.06750.x19490094Search in Google Scholar

Verty AN, Stefanidis A, McAinch AJ, Hryciw DH, Oldfield B. Anti-obesity eff ect of the CB2 receptor agonist JWH- 015 in diet-induced obese mice. PLoS One 10, e0140592, 2015.10.1371/journal.pone.0140592465449626588700Search in Google Scholar

Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Baler RD. Reward, dopamine and the control of food intake: implications for obesity. Trends Cogn Sci 15, 37-46, 2011.10.1016/j.tics.2010.11.001312434021109477Search in Google Scholar

Wallenius K, Jansson JO, Wallenius V. Th e therapeutic potential of interleukin-6 in treating obesity. Expert Opin Biol Th er 3, 1061-1070, 2003.10.1517/14712598.3.7.1061Search in Google Scholar

Washington MC, Coggeshall J, Sayegh AI. Cholecystokinin-33 inhibits meal size and prolongs the subsequent intermeal interval. Peptides 32, 971-977, 2011.10.1016/j.peptides.2011.02.007Search in Google Scholar

Whitcomb DC, Puccio AM, Vigna SR, Taylor IL, Hoffman GE. Distribution of pancreatic polypeptide receptors in the rat brain. Brain Res 760, 137-149, 1997.10.1016/S0006-8993(97)00295-3Search in Google Scholar

Wielinga PY, Alder B, Lutz TA. Th e acute eff ect of amylin and salmon calcitonin on energy expenditure. Physiol Behav 91, 212-217, 2007.10.1016/j.physbeh.2007.02.01217428511Search in Google Scholar

Wodowska J, Ciosek J. [Galanin-like peptide (GALP): localization, receptors and biological function]. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online) 69, 1067-1076, 2015.Search in Google Scholar

Woods SC, Lotter EC, McKay LD, Porte D Jr. Chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of insulin reduces food intake and body weight of baboons. Nature 282, 503-505, 1979.10.1038/282503a0116135Search in Google Scholar

Woods SC, Seeley RJ, Baskin DG, Schwartz MW. Insulin and the blood-brain barrier. Curr Pharm Des 9, 795-800, 2003.10.2174/138161203345532312678878Search in Google Scholar

Woods SC. Signals that infl uence food intake and body weight. Physiol Behav 86, 709-716, 2005.10.1016/j.physbeh.2005.08.06016260007Search in Google Scholar

Wynne K, Stanley S, McGowan B, Bloom S. Appetite control. J Endocrinol 184, 291-318, 2005.10.1677/joe.1.0586615684339Search in Google Scholar

Wynne K, Park AJ, Small CJ, Meeran K, Ghatei MA, Frost GS, Bloom SR. Oxyntomodulin increases energy expenditure in addition to decreasing energy intake in overweight and obesehumans: a randomized controlled trial. Int J Obes (Lond) 30, 1729-1736, 2006.10.1038/sj.ijo.080334416619056Search in Google Scholar

Xu B, Goulding EH, Zang K, Cepoi D, Cone RD, Jones KR, Tecott LH, Reichardt LF. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulates energy balance downstream of melanocortin-4 receptor. Nat Neurosci 6, 736-742, 2003.10.1038/nn1073271010012796784Search in Google Scholar

Young A, Denaro M. Roles of amylin in diabetes and in regulation of nutrient load. Nutrition 14, 524-527, 1998.10.1016/S0899-9007(98)00044-6Search in Google Scholar

Yu Y, South T, Wang Q, Huang XF. Diff erential expression of hypothalamic CART mRNA in response to body weight change following diff erent dietary interventions. Neurochem Int 52, 1422-1430, 2008.10.1016/j.neuint.2008.03.00318455834Search in Google Scholar

Zac-Varghese S, Tan T, Bloom SR. Hormonal interactions between gut and brain. Discov Med 10, 543-552. 2010.Search in Google Scholar

Zhang H, Wu C, Chen Q, Chen X, Xu Z, Wu J, Cai D. Treatment of obesity and diabetes using oxytocin or analogs in patients and mouse models. PLoS One 8, e61477, 2013.10.1371/journal.pone.0061477365897923700406Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo