1. bookVolume 62 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2668-7763
First Published
13 Aug 2013
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Diet, Smoking and Family History as Potential Risk Factors in Acne Vulgaris – a Community-Based Study

Published Online: 20 May 2016
Volume & Issue: Volume 62 (2016) - Issue 2 (June 2016)
Page range: 173 - 181
Received: 22 Nov 2015
Accepted: 05 Jan 2016
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2668-7763
First Published
13 Aug 2013
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of practices and attitudes towards lifestyle in adolescence as risk or protective factors, for both the acne occurrence and lesions’ severity.

Methods. A cross-sectional study based on a self-reported questionnaire was conducted during 4 months on 148 high school students, aged 16-20 years, in a high school community of Tîrgu Mureș. Acne prevalence and severity, demographic and anthropometric characteristics, the family history of acne vulgaris, smoking behavior and the weekly intake of certain food categories supposed to increase the risk of acne vulgaris were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed in terms of Odds ratio, Confidence Interval and Chi-square (p<0.05) methods.

Results. In the investigated community, acne prevalence was found of 47.30%, while 78 subjects (control group) had no facial acne lesions. In acne group: 57.1% had family history of acne, 62.9% were smokers, 22.9% were overweight or obese and 84.3% did not receive any dietary information from specialists. 41.4% were not fish consumers, while 74.3% rarely or never were eating fruits and vegetables. Statistically significant differences between the two analyzed groups were found in terms of sweets, carbonated drinks, dietary fat, white bread, fish, fruits and vegetables weekly intake.

Conclusions. Family history, smoking behavior, excessive dietary fat, sweets, carbonated drinks and white bread could be considered as risk factors in acne vulgaris. An increased weekly intake of fish, vegetables and fruits, may have a protective effect in acne development or severity.

Keywords

1. Barkley LD. Acne, its Etiology, Pathology and Treatment. New York, NY: GP Putnam’s Sons. 1885.Search in Google Scholar

2. Koo J. The psychosocial impact of acne: patients’ perceptions. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1995;32:S26-S30.10.1016/0190-9622(95)90417-4Search in Google Scholar

3. Tan J, Vasey K, Fung K. Beliefs and perceptions of patients with acne. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001;44:439-445.10.1067/mjd.2001.111340Search in Google Scholar

4. Koldovsky O. Hormones in milk. Vitam Horm. 1995;50:77-149.10.1016/S0083-6729(08)60655-XSearch in Google Scholar

5. Chen W, Thiboutot D, Zouboulis CC. Cutaneous androgen metabolism: basic research and clinical perspectives. J Invest Dermatol. 2002;119:992-1007.10.1046/j.1523-1747.2002.00613.xSearch in Google Scholar

6. Rosenfield R. Ovarian and adrenal function in polycystic ovary syndrome. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1999;28:265-293.10.1016/S0889-8529(05)70070-0Search in Google Scholar

7. Rosenfield R. Polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin resistant hyperinsulinemia. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001;45:S95-S104.10.1067/mjd.2001.11743011511859Search in Google Scholar

8. Davidovici BB, Wolf R. The role of diet in acne: facts and controversies. Clin Dermatol. 2010;28:12–16.10.1016/j.clindermatol.2009.03.01020082944Search in Google Scholar

9. Hoyt G, Hickey MS, Cordain L. Dissociation of the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to whole and skimmed milk. Br J Nutr. 2005;93(2):175-177.10.1079/BJN20041304Search in Google Scholar

10. Hoppe C, Molgaard C, Michaelsen KF. Cow’s milk and linear growth in industrialized and developing countries. Annu Rev Nutr. 2006;26:131-173.10.1146/annurev.nutr.26.010506.10375716848703Search in Google Scholar

11. Melnik BC. Evidence for acne-promoting effects of milk and other insulinotrophic dairy products. Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program. 2011;67:131-145.10.1159/00032558021335995Search in Google Scholar

12. Burris J, Rietkerk, Woolf K. Acne: The Role of Medical Nutrition Therapy. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013;113:416-430.10.1016/j.jand.2012.11.01623438493Search in Google Scholar

13. Melnik BC. Dietary intervention in acne: Attenuation of increased mTORC1 signaling promoted by Western diet. Dermatoendocrinol. 2012;1:20-32.10.4161/derm.19828340898922870349Search in Google Scholar

14. Melnik BC, Schmitz G. Role of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, hyperglycemic food and milk consumption in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. Exp Dermatol. 2009;18:833-841.10.1111/j.1600-0625.2009.00924.x19709092Search in Google Scholar

15. Smith TM, Gilliland K, Clawson GA, Thiboutot D. IGF-1 induces SREBP-1 expression and lipogenesis in SEB-1 sebocytes via activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway. J Invest Dermatol. 2008;128:1286-1293.10.1038/sj.jid.5701155290286617989724Search in Google Scholar

16. Crave JC, Lejeune H, Brebant C, Baret C, Pugeat M. Differential effects of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 on the production of plasma steroid-binding globulins by human hepatoblastoma-derived (Hep G2) cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995;8:1283-1289.Search in Google Scholar

17. Ben-Amitiai D, Laron Z. Effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 deficiency or administration on the occurrence of acne. J Eur Acad Dermatol. 2011;25:950-954.10.1111/j.1468-3083.2010.03896.x21054577Search in Google Scholar

18. Liu B, Lee HY, Weinzimer SA et al. Direct functional interaction between insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 and retinoid X receptor-alpha regulate transcriptional signaling and apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:33607-33613.10.1074/jbc.M00254720010874028Search in Google Scholar

19. Vora S, Ovhal A, Jerajani H, Nair N, Chakrabortty A. Correlation of facial sebum to serum insulin-like growth factor-1 in patients with acne. Br J Dermatol. 2008;159:990-991.10.1111/j.1365-2133.2008.08764.x18652583Search in Google Scholar

20. Pappas A, Anthonavage M, Gordon J. Metabolic fate and selective utilization of major fatty acids in human sebaceous gland. J Invest Dermatol. 2002;118:164–171.10.1046/j.0022-202x.2001.01612.x11851890Search in Google Scholar

21. Wolf R, Matz H, Orion E. Acne and Diet. Clin Dermatol. 2004;22:387–393.10.1016/j.clindermatol.2004.03.00715556724Search in Google Scholar

22. Lewis RA, Austen KF, Soberman RJ. Leukotrienes and other products of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. Biochemistry and relation to pathobiology in human diseases. N Engl J Med. 1990;323:645-655.10.1056/NEJM1990090632310062166915Search in Google Scholar

23. Zouboulis CHC, Saborowski A, Boschnakow A. Zileuton, an oral 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, directly reduces sebum production. Dermatology. 2005;210:36-38.10.1159/00008148115604543Search in Google Scholar

24. Gannon MC, Nuttall FQ, Westphal SA, Seaquist ER. The effect of fat and carbohydrate on plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide and triglycerides in normal male subjects. J Am Coll Nutr. 1993;12:36-41.10.1080/07315724.1993.107182808440816Search in Google Scholar

25. Bhathena SJ, Berlin E, Judd JT et al. Effects of omega 3 fatty acids and vitamin E on hormones involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in men. Dermatology. 1991;54:684-688.Search in Google Scholar

26. Li Y, Seifert MF, Ney DM et al. Dietary conjugated linolenic acids alter serum IGF-1 and IGF binding protein concentrations and reduce bone formation in rats fed (n-6) or (n-3) fatty acids. J Bone Miner Res. 1999;14:1153-1162.10.1359/jbmr.1999.14.7.115310404015Search in Google Scholar

27. Szumilas M. Explaining Odds Ratios. J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010;19: 227–229.Search in Google Scholar

28. Ghodsi SZ, Orawa H, Zouboulis CC. Prevalence, severity, and severity risk factors of acne in high school pupils: a community-based study. J Invest Dermatol. 2009;129:2136-2141.10.1038/jid.2009.4719282841Search in Google Scholar

29. Shen Y, Wang T, Zhou C, et al. Prevalence of acne vulgaris in Chinese adolescents and adults: a community-based study of 17,345 subjects in six cities. Acta Derm Venereol. 2012;92:40-44.10.2340/00015555-116421710106Search in Google Scholar

30. Purvis D, Robinson E, Watson P. Acne prevalence in secondary students and their perceived difficulty in accessing acne treatment. N Z Med J. 2004;117:1-8.Search in Google Scholar

31. Di Landro A, Cazzaniga S, Parazzini F, et al. Family history, body mass index, selected dietary factors, menstrual history, and risk of moderate to severe acne in adolescents and young adults. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012;67:1129-1135.10.1016/j.jaad.2012.02.01822386050Search in Google Scholar

32. Wolkenstein P, Misery L, Amici JM et al. PSS4 Acne and Lifestyle: Results of a Survey on a Representative Sample of the French Population. Value in Health. 2012;15:A568.10.1016/j.jval.2012.08.2051Search in Google Scholar

33. Capitanio B, Sinagra JL, Ottaviani M et al. Acne and smoking. Dermatoendocrinol. 2009;1:129–135.10.4161/derm.1.3.9638283590520436880Search in Google Scholar

34. Capitanio B, Sinagra JL, Bordignon V et al. Underestimated clinical features of postadolescent acne. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010;63:782–788.10.1016/j.jaad.2009.11.02120619486Search in Google Scholar

35. Klaz I, Kochba I, Shohat T, Zarka S, Brenner S. Severe Acne Vulgaris and Tobacco Smoking in Young Men. Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 2006;126:1749–1752.10.1038/sj.jid.570032616645586Search in Google Scholar

36. Cordain L, Lindeberg S, Hurtado M et al. Acne vulgaris: a disease of Western civilization. Arch Dermatol. 2002;138:1584-1590.10.1001/archderm.138.12.158412472346Search in Google Scholar

37. Abedamowo CA, Spiegelman D, Berkey CS et al. Milk consumption and acne in adolescent girls. Dermatol Online J. 2006;12:1.Search in Google Scholar

38. Abedamowo CA, Spiegelman D, Berkey CS et al. Milk consumption and acne in teenaged boys. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;58:787-793.10.1016/j.jaad.2007.08.049439169918194824Search in Google Scholar

39. Anderson PC. Foods as the cause of acne. Am Fam Physician. 1971;3:102-103.Search in Google Scholar

40. Law M, Chuh A, Molinari N, Lee A. An investigation of the association between diet and occurrence of acne: A rational approach from a traditional Chinese medicine perspective. Clin Exper Dermatol. 2009;35:31-35.10.1111/j.1365-2230.2009.03360.x19549242Search in Google Scholar

41. Katta R, Desai SP. Diet and Dermatology. The Role of Dietary Intervention in Skin Disease. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2014;7:46-51.Search in Google Scholar

42. Grant JD, Anderson PC. Chocolate as a cause of acne: A dissenting view. Missouri Med. 1965;62:459-460.Search in Google Scholar

43. Fulton J, Plewig G, Kligman A. Effect of chocolate on acne vulgaris. JAMA. 1969;210:2071-2074.10.1001/jama.1969.03160370055011Search in Google Scholar

44. Smith RN, Mann NJ, Braue A et al. A low-glycemic-load diet improves symptoms in acne vulgaris patients: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86:107–115.10.1093/ajcn/86.1.10717616769Search in Google Scholar

45. Smith RN, Braue A, Varigos GA et al. The effect of a low glycemic load diet on acne vulgaris and the fatty acid composition of skin surface triglycerides. J Dermatol Sci. 2008;50:41–52.10.1016/j.jdermsci.2007.11.00518178063Search in Google Scholar

46. Halvorsen JA, Dalgard F, Thoresen M, Bjertness E, Lien L. Is the association between acne and mental distress influenced by diet? Results from a cross-sectional population study among 3775 late adolescents in Oslo, Norway. BMC Public Health. 2009;9:340.10.1186/1471-2458-9-340275178019758425Search in Google Scholar

47. Wei B, Pang Y, Zhu H et al. The epidemiology of adolescent acne in North East China. J Eur Acad Dermatol. 2010;24:953-957.10.1111/j.1468-3083.2010.03590.x20337811Search in Google Scholar

48. Rietkerk JW, Woolf K. Relationships of Self-Reported Dietary Factors and Perceived Acne Severity in a Cohort of New York Young Adults. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014;114:384-392.10.1016/j.jand.2013.11.01024412232Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo