Open Access

Simulation Research of Motion of Lightweight Wheeled Mobile Robot on Various Types of Soft Ground – A Case Study


A problem of influence of three types of soft ground on longitudinal motion of a lightweight four-wheeled mobile robot is considered. Kinematic structure, main design features of the robot and its dynamics model are described. A numerical model was elaborated to simulate the dynamics of the robot’s multi-body system and the wheel-ground interaction, taking into account the soil deformation and stresses occurring on the circumference of the wheel in the area of contact with the deformable ground. Numerical analysis involving four velocities of robot motion and three cases of soil (dry sand, sandy loam, clayey soil) is performed. Within simulation research, the motion parameters of the robot, ground reaction forces and moments of force, driving torques, wheel sinkage and slip parameters of wheels were calculated. Aggregated research results as well as detailed results of selected simulations are shown and discussed. As a result of the research, it was noticed that wheel slip ratios, wheels’ sinkage and wheel driving torques increase with desired velocity of motion. Moreover, it was observed that wheels’ sinkage and driving torques are significantly larger for dry sand than for the other investigated ground types.