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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1802-1115
Pierwsze wydanie
26 Jun 2014
Częstotliwość wydawania
2 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 13 (2019): Zeszyt 1 (June 2019)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1802-1115
Pierwsze wydanie
26 Jun 2014
Częstotliwość wydawania
2 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

6 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Relation of economic and environmental indicators to the European Union Emission Trading System: a spatial analysis

Data publikacji: 02 Jul 2019
Zakres stron: 1 - 15

Abstrakt

Abstract

The main goal of this contribution is to evaluate the development of CO2 emissions and selected economic indicators of EU28 countries in the period from 2005 to 2015, and to capture geographical pattern and spatial distribution of countries emitting pollution. This will be performed within the context of the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS), which has represented a major scheme in Europe to cope with CO2 emissions since 2005. The actual situation in the field of the EU ETS is described and key scientific studies focusing on the EU ETS are presented. Based on a broad set of indicators we examine and evaluate possible geographical pattern in the development of selected indicators within the EU and provide detailed spatial analysis of economic and environmental data of EU28 countries, with the use of (geo)visual analysis of spatial data and spatial statistics (grouping analysis). The preliminary results of the (geo)visual analysis show that CO2 emissions within EU countries were decreasing in the selected period 2005–2015, with some exceptions (e.g. Iceland and Latvia). As the development of CO2 emissions in all EU countries is not similar, the other economic and environmental indicators were included (e.g. GDP, Investments) into the analysis in order to reveal a common (geographical) pattern and explain the current situation. Based on grouping/cluster analysis, it is possible to form territorial groups of EU states with similar development, which are almost perfectly in the line with current EU member states strategies of CO2 emissions trade. The current auction markets are well in tune with geographical and economic characteristics of particular EU countries. Results of grouping analysis of all indicators in 2015 using six K-nearest neighbours underline current separate auction markets for Germany, the United Kingdom and Poland.It indicates that the system of emission auctions has logical background and the markets represent natural platforms for emission trading, corresponding to both economic and spatial characteristics of particular countries/polluters. Presented approach thus brings valuable information for policymakers both on the national and international level for the next phases of EU ETS scheme planning.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Spatial analysis
  • Emission Trading System
  • Economic indicators
  • Cluster analysis
  • EU28
Otwarty dostęp

Factors Influencing Walking Distance to the Preferred Public Transport Stop in selected urban centres of Czechia

Data publikacji: 02 Jul 2019
Zakres stron: 16 - 30

Abstrakt

Abstract

One of the ways of improving the attractiveness of public transport is to bring it closer to its potential users. A long walking distance from a stop is often one of the critical factors limiting its more frequent and extensive use. Studies dealing with the accessibility of transport networks usually work only with the closest stop. This article analyses the actual walking distance from the place of residence to the preferred stop. The survey used a questionnaire method and was conducted in two cities in the Czech Republic—Ostrava and Olomouc. Based on the results of the study, the average walking distance was assessed and the impact of demographic characteristics (gender, age, education, number of members in the household, economic activity, the presence of a child in the household, and car ownership), transport behavior (preferred mode of transportation, car convenience and opinions on public transport), and urban characteristics (prevailing housing type) on the walking distance were analyzed. The main findings prove a significant impact on walking distance by a number of these factors, but the preferred use of a car for commuting or unemployment does not significantly affect walking distance.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Walking distance
  • public transport
  • questionnaire
  • public transport stop
  • Ostrava
  • Olomouc
Otwarty dostęp

Urban travel characteristics in relation with jobs-housing balance and accessibility: results of a survey in Lahore, Pakistan

Data publikacji: 02 Jul 2019
Zakres stron: 31 - 54

Abstrakt

Abstract

The circumstances of the relations of jobs-housing balance and urban travel behavior are not clear in emerging and developing countries. There are limited reliable data suitable for testing the hypotheses regarding the associations of the neighborhood-level number of employment opportunities in these countries. This manuscript summarizes the results of an explorative survey undertaken in Lahore, Pakistan to support empirical analyses testing these hypotheses. The survey was undertaken in spring 2018 in six neighborhoods of Lahore and collected the data of 417 respondents. The short questionnaire applied in the survey facilitated generation of 15 individual and household, socioeconomic, and mobility-related variables of different types. Moreover, 9 land use variables as well as jobs-housing ratios were estimated for each respondent within his/her 600-meter street-network pedestrian shed. The produced dataset reveals preliminary descriptive statistics about the relations of employment and travel behavior, particularly commuting, in a less-studied context of Pakistan. It is found that a decent job-housing balance at neighborhood scale alone cannot affect the travel pattern much in the Pakistani context. It needs to be supplemented with other planning interventions, mainly the accessibility to an integrated and efficient mass public transportation system, discouraging private car based policies and promotion of sustainable non-motorized travel modes. In the future, production of disaggregate mobility and land use data will add value to urban transportation research in the Global South.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Urban transport
  • Land use planning
  • Jobs-housing balance
  • Accessibility
  • Lahore
Otwarty dostęp

The lawn grew too quickly! Perception of rural idyll by Czech amenity migrants

Data publikacji: 02 Jul 2019
Zakres stron: 55 - 67

Abstrakt

Abstract

The arrival of amenity migrants has significant impacts for many rural areas in economic, environmental and social terms. While the causes of relocation from cities to remote rural localities can be generally understood as attempts to change the way of life, the consequences of this phenomenon are relatively diverse. Perception of rural space from the migrant´s point of view stems partly from the so-called rural idyll, which shapes the image of the countryside across society, especially through media, tourism and recreation. This study aims to discover links between rural idyll and motivational factors of the Czech amenity migrants. Semi-structured interviews with the Czech amenity migrants have been used in order to uncover the social dimension of the phenomenon of rural idyll. Emphasis has been put both on the genesis of their relationship to the rural environment, but also on the consistency and differences between expectations and the reality of rural life. I identify the key role of tourism and recreation in shaping the initial perception of rural space, whereas the role of media is rather implicit. In the perception of amenity migrants, the initial image of rural space differed only slightly when the physical environment of rural space is considered but a mismatch is found between initial ideas about rural communities and their real experience after moving there.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Amenity migration
  • Rural idyll
  • Czechia
Otwarty dostęp

Improving the quality of life in cities using community gardens: from benefits for members to benefits for all local residents

Data publikacji: 02 Jul 2019
Zakres stron: 68 - 78

Abstrakt

Abstract

Recent effects of globalization, urbanization and climate change have resulted in an increasing interest in the quality of life in cities and seeking pathways for its improvement. At the same time, there are changes in society and lifestyles that may challenge or facilitate these pathways. Community gardens (CGs) represent an effort to provide more sustainable urban economies, while reflecting on the public demand for cultivation of own crops. However, members of CGs may not perceive all the benefits that CGs provide for their surroundings. Using two case studied from Czechia (CG Kuchyňka and CG Vidimova in Prague) the aim of this paper is a comparison of the benefits perceived by community garden members and the evaluated net social benefits of community gardens in cities for all local residents. Through a questionnaire survey, the paper answers the research question of the benefits of community gardens perceived by community garden members. An economic assessment based on cost-benefit analysis was made to answer the question of the value of the net social benefits of community gardens in cities. Our comparison shows that the net social benefits are higher than perceived by their members. Net present benefits of EUR 31 550 for CG Kuchyňka and EUR 1 175 for CG Vidimova were quantified in a 50-year horizon. This economic analysis should contribute to greater support for community gardens by city governments and spatial planners.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Community garden
  • Cost benefit analysis
  • Ecosystem services
  • Spatial planning
  • Czechia
Otwarty dostęp

Empirical verification of the relationship between creative life orientations of the creative class and the creative city

Data publikacji: 02 Jul 2019
Zakres stron: 79 - 85

Abstrakt

Abstract

In the last few years there has been a fundamental change in the approach to the issue of creativity in economics, and it is increasingly referred that the era of the economics of creativity has started. Currently, it is claimed that no matter how much knowledge one possesses, it is important how it is creatively processed and how it will be used. Both theoreticians and practitioners agree on its role as a source of competitive advantage in the micro and macroeconomic sphere. The aim of the article is to consider cognitive, theoretical and methodological as well as empirical issues (questionnaire research) on the development of creative life orientations of the creative class in creative cities. The research results allow us to present a recommendation for managers managing creative cities. They are for example: tolerance for new and unknown things; cooperation that are made by outstanding individuals and social support, acceptance of creativity and creators.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Creative cities
  • Creative life orientations
  • Sociologic inquiry
  • Poland
6 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Relation of economic and environmental indicators to the European Union Emission Trading System: a spatial analysis

Data publikacji: 02 Jul 2019
Zakres stron: 1 - 15

Abstrakt

Abstract

The main goal of this contribution is to evaluate the development of CO2 emissions and selected economic indicators of EU28 countries in the period from 2005 to 2015, and to capture geographical pattern and spatial distribution of countries emitting pollution. This will be performed within the context of the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS), which has represented a major scheme in Europe to cope with CO2 emissions since 2005. The actual situation in the field of the EU ETS is described and key scientific studies focusing on the EU ETS are presented. Based on a broad set of indicators we examine and evaluate possible geographical pattern in the development of selected indicators within the EU and provide detailed spatial analysis of economic and environmental data of EU28 countries, with the use of (geo)visual analysis of spatial data and spatial statistics (grouping analysis). The preliminary results of the (geo)visual analysis show that CO2 emissions within EU countries were decreasing in the selected period 2005–2015, with some exceptions (e.g. Iceland and Latvia). As the development of CO2 emissions in all EU countries is not similar, the other economic and environmental indicators were included (e.g. GDP, Investments) into the analysis in order to reveal a common (geographical) pattern and explain the current situation. Based on grouping/cluster analysis, it is possible to form territorial groups of EU states with similar development, which are almost perfectly in the line with current EU member states strategies of CO2 emissions trade. The current auction markets are well in tune with geographical and economic characteristics of particular EU countries. Results of grouping analysis of all indicators in 2015 using six K-nearest neighbours underline current separate auction markets for Germany, the United Kingdom and Poland.It indicates that the system of emission auctions has logical background and the markets represent natural platforms for emission trading, corresponding to both economic and spatial characteristics of particular countries/polluters. Presented approach thus brings valuable information for policymakers both on the national and international level for the next phases of EU ETS scheme planning.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Spatial analysis
  • Emission Trading System
  • Economic indicators
  • Cluster analysis
  • EU28
Otwarty dostęp

Factors Influencing Walking Distance to the Preferred Public Transport Stop in selected urban centres of Czechia

Data publikacji: 02 Jul 2019
Zakres stron: 16 - 30

Abstrakt

Abstract

One of the ways of improving the attractiveness of public transport is to bring it closer to its potential users. A long walking distance from a stop is often one of the critical factors limiting its more frequent and extensive use. Studies dealing with the accessibility of transport networks usually work only with the closest stop. This article analyses the actual walking distance from the place of residence to the preferred stop. The survey used a questionnaire method and was conducted in two cities in the Czech Republic—Ostrava and Olomouc. Based on the results of the study, the average walking distance was assessed and the impact of demographic characteristics (gender, age, education, number of members in the household, economic activity, the presence of a child in the household, and car ownership), transport behavior (preferred mode of transportation, car convenience and opinions on public transport), and urban characteristics (prevailing housing type) on the walking distance were analyzed. The main findings prove a significant impact on walking distance by a number of these factors, but the preferred use of a car for commuting or unemployment does not significantly affect walking distance.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Walking distance
  • public transport
  • questionnaire
  • public transport stop
  • Ostrava
  • Olomouc
Otwarty dostęp

Urban travel characteristics in relation with jobs-housing balance and accessibility: results of a survey in Lahore, Pakistan

Data publikacji: 02 Jul 2019
Zakres stron: 31 - 54

Abstrakt

Abstract

The circumstances of the relations of jobs-housing balance and urban travel behavior are not clear in emerging and developing countries. There are limited reliable data suitable for testing the hypotheses regarding the associations of the neighborhood-level number of employment opportunities in these countries. This manuscript summarizes the results of an explorative survey undertaken in Lahore, Pakistan to support empirical analyses testing these hypotheses. The survey was undertaken in spring 2018 in six neighborhoods of Lahore and collected the data of 417 respondents. The short questionnaire applied in the survey facilitated generation of 15 individual and household, socioeconomic, and mobility-related variables of different types. Moreover, 9 land use variables as well as jobs-housing ratios were estimated for each respondent within his/her 600-meter street-network pedestrian shed. The produced dataset reveals preliminary descriptive statistics about the relations of employment and travel behavior, particularly commuting, in a less-studied context of Pakistan. It is found that a decent job-housing balance at neighborhood scale alone cannot affect the travel pattern much in the Pakistani context. It needs to be supplemented with other planning interventions, mainly the accessibility to an integrated and efficient mass public transportation system, discouraging private car based policies and promotion of sustainable non-motorized travel modes. In the future, production of disaggregate mobility and land use data will add value to urban transportation research in the Global South.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Urban transport
  • Land use planning
  • Jobs-housing balance
  • Accessibility
  • Lahore
Otwarty dostęp

The lawn grew too quickly! Perception of rural idyll by Czech amenity migrants

Data publikacji: 02 Jul 2019
Zakres stron: 55 - 67

Abstrakt

Abstract

The arrival of amenity migrants has significant impacts for many rural areas in economic, environmental and social terms. While the causes of relocation from cities to remote rural localities can be generally understood as attempts to change the way of life, the consequences of this phenomenon are relatively diverse. Perception of rural space from the migrant´s point of view stems partly from the so-called rural idyll, which shapes the image of the countryside across society, especially through media, tourism and recreation. This study aims to discover links between rural idyll and motivational factors of the Czech amenity migrants. Semi-structured interviews with the Czech amenity migrants have been used in order to uncover the social dimension of the phenomenon of rural idyll. Emphasis has been put both on the genesis of their relationship to the rural environment, but also on the consistency and differences between expectations and the reality of rural life. I identify the key role of tourism and recreation in shaping the initial perception of rural space, whereas the role of media is rather implicit. In the perception of amenity migrants, the initial image of rural space differed only slightly when the physical environment of rural space is considered but a mismatch is found between initial ideas about rural communities and their real experience after moving there.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Amenity migration
  • Rural idyll
  • Czechia
Otwarty dostęp

Improving the quality of life in cities using community gardens: from benefits for members to benefits for all local residents

Data publikacji: 02 Jul 2019
Zakres stron: 68 - 78

Abstrakt

Abstract

Recent effects of globalization, urbanization and climate change have resulted in an increasing interest in the quality of life in cities and seeking pathways for its improvement. At the same time, there are changes in society and lifestyles that may challenge or facilitate these pathways. Community gardens (CGs) represent an effort to provide more sustainable urban economies, while reflecting on the public demand for cultivation of own crops. However, members of CGs may not perceive all the benefits that CGs provide for their surroundings. Using two case studied from Czechia (CG Kuchyňka and CG Vidimova in Prague) the aim of this paper is a comparison of the benefits perceived by community garden members and the evaluated net social benefits of community gardens in cities for all local residents. Through a questionnaire survey, the paper answers the research question of the benefits of community gardens perceived by community garden members. An economic assessment based on cost-benefit analysis was made to answer the question of the value of the net social benefits of community gardens in cities. Our comparison shows that the net social benefits are higher than perceived by their members. Net present benefits of EUR 31 550 for CG Kuchyňka and EUR 1 175 for CG Vidimova were quantified in a 50-year horizon. This economic analysis should contribute to greater support for community gardens by city governments and spatial planners.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Community garden
  • Cost benefit analysis
  • Ecosystem services
  • Spatial planning
  • Czechia
Otwarty dostęp

Empirical verification of the relationship between creative life orientations of the creative class and the creative city

Data publikacji: 02 Jul 2019
Zakres stron: 79 - 85

Abstrakt

Abstract

In the last few years there has been a fundamental change in the approach to the issue of creativity in economics, and it is increasingly referred that the era of the economics of creativity has started. Currently, it is claimed that no matter how much knowledge one possesses, it is important how it is creatively processed and how it will be used. Both theoreticians and practitioners agree on its role as a source of competitive advantage in the micro and macroeconomic sphere. The aim of the article is to consider cognitive, theoretical and methodological as well as empirical issues (questionnaire research) on the development of creative life orientations of the creative class in creative cities. The research results allow us to present a recommendation for managers managing creative cities. They are for example: tolerance for new and unknown things; cooperation that are made by outstanding individuals and social support, acceptance of creativity and creators.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Creative cities
  • Creative life orientations
  • Sociologic inquiry
  • Poland

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