Zeszyty czasopisma

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Tom 20 (2019): Zeszyt 3 (September 2019)

Tom 20 (2019): Zeszyt 2 (June 2019)

Tom 20 (2019): Zeszyt 1 (March 2019)

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Tom 19 (2018): Zeszyt 3 (September 2018)

Tom 19 (2018): Zeszyt 2 (June 2018)

Tom 19 (2018): Zeszyt 1 (March 2018)

Tom 18 (2017): Zeszyt 4 (December 2017)

Tom 18 (2017): Zeszyt 3 (September 2017)

Tom 18 (2017): Zeszyt 2 (June 2017)

Tom 18 (2017): Zeszyt 1 (March 2017)

Tom 17 (2016): Zeszyt 4 (December 2016)

Tom 17 (2016): Zeszyt 3 (September 2016)

Tom 17 (2016): Zeszyt 2 (June 2016)

Tom 17 (2016): Zeszyt 1 (March 2016)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2353-8627
Pierwsze wydanie
30 Mar 2016
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 22 (2021): Zeszyt 4 (December 2021)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2353-8627
Pierwsze wydanie
30 Mar 2016
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

8 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Refeeding syndrome in patients with anorexia nervosa - case reports

Data publikacji: 17 Jan 2022
Zakres stron: 239 - 246

Abstrakt

Abstract

Introduction: Refeeding syndrome RS is a life-threatening acute hormonal and metabolic disorder that occurs in patients with moderate or severe malnutrition as a result of improperly administered nutritional therapy.

Material and method: The aim of this study is to describe the cases of two female patients suffering from anorexia nervosa, who developed a refeeding syndrome after starting nutritional therapy. Additionally, the available literature was reviewed in order to characterize the issue, including negative consequences and prevention of the refeeding syndrome.

Results: In both cases, the development of the refeeding syndrome was found in the patients, resulting from the excessive supply of energy and nutritional substrates in a short time, preceded by a previous, months long period of starvation and exhaustion of the organism (both patients had a decrease in the body mass index - BMI - to the value of about 14 kg / m2). In patient 1, the symptoms concerned mainly the cardiovascular system: a significant increase in the concentration of N-terminal B-type natriuretic propeptide (NT-proBNP) and tachycardia, as well as a decrease in the concentration of inorganic phosphates and hypokalemia. On the other hand, in the case of patient 2, symptoms such as confusion or deep disturbances of consciousness, which led to hospitalization in the intensive care unit, dominated the clinical picture.

Conclusions: Refeeding syndrome may develop during nutritional rehabilitation, especially in the case of a sudden, inadequately planned supply of nutrients. Particular care should be taken in patients with extremely low BMI when reintroducing nutrition.

The presented case reports draw attention to the possibility of cardiological complications and mental disorders of the realimentation syndrome, and indicate the behavior of patients (eating excessive food) that may lead to the development of the refeeding syndrome.

Słowa kluczowe

  • anorexia nervosa
  • refeeding syndrome
  • hypophosphataemia
  • hypokalemia
  • malnutrition
Otwarty dostęp

Inkblots as a cultural phenomenon: On the centenary of the Rorschach test

Data publikacji: 21 Jan 2022
Zakres stron: 247 - 269

Abstrakt

AbstractIntroduction

Approved or not, the Hermann Rorschach test can be considered more than just a test to a clinical trial. Reflection on it as a broader phenomenon may yield what is the most valuable: better knowledge of human nature.

Objective

This article aims to present the dual nature of Rorschach's inkblots: as a test of “guessing” the meaning of signs and as a test of perception.

Method

Narrative literature review on the meaning and interpretation of the Rorschach test.

Results

The nature and reception of inkblots. The inkblots have a dual nature: they require visual perception, and at the same time they are signs, whose meanings are extracted in the process of interpretation. This process is largely subject to cultural determinants; it also depends on the structure of stimuli and on their artistic expression.

Charles Sanders Peirce's theory of signs and the sign nature of inkblots. According to Peirce, the interpretation of a sign, as a triadic structure, belongs to the ontic order and is a continuous process, taking place perpetually. Mental interpretation, as it were, follows the ontic dimension and constitutes a kind of reflection of this dimension.

The phenomenology of perception and the interpretation of inkblots. Perception as viewed by Rorschach found its unintended, though strikingly consistent, complement in the philosophy of Maurice Merleau-Ponty. This is particularly clear in the acknowledgment of the role of the body in perception and in emphasis placed on the active and dynamic nature of the subject–object relationship.

Rorschach and Merleau-Ponty vs. Peirce: similarities and differences. The seemingly completely different ways of understanding interpretation in Peirce's semiotics (indirect cognition) and in Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology (direct cognition), actually show important similarities. I draw attention to the ontic dimension of interpretation and its systemic character, which both philosophers stress, and to the view of interpretation as a perpetual process that is never completed, both in Peirce's semiotics and in Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology.

Conclusion

The semiotic and perceptual nature of the inkblots created by the Swiss psychiatrist reflects two basic and mutually complementary ways in which humans experience the world. This experience has both a psychological and an ontic nature, which makes it possible for an examination using the Rorschach test to become an encounter with an existential dimension.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Rorschach test
  • cultural determinants
  • theory of signs
  • phenomenology of perception
Otwarty dostęp

Correlation between the assessment of family relations and psychological factors in mothers of children diagnosed with autism and Asperger’s syndrome

Data publikacji: 29 Jan 2022
Zakres stron: 270 - 283

Abstrakt

AbstractThe aim

The aim of the work was to analyze correlation between the assessment of family relations and the assessment of the child’s functioning and psychological factors (stress-coping style, burnout, adaptation level, coherence, a sense of social suport, and mental health) in mothers of children with Asperger’s syndrome and childhood autism.

Participants and methods

The study included 70 mothers of children treated in mental health clinic (52 mothers of children with Asperger’s syndrome and 18 mothers of children with autism). The study used a battery of psychological tests.

Results

In the group of mothers of children with autism, there are significant correlations between the assessment of relations in the family and stress-coping styles and burnout. In the group of mothers of children with Asperger’s Syndrome, there are significant correlations between the assessment of family relations and the assessment of the child’s disorder, burnout, a sense of coherence, emotional support and mental resilience.

Conclusions

Based on the statical analyzes, the following conclusions were formulated: 1. Positive assessment of family relations by women raising children with autism is associated with the use of a task-oriented stress-coping style, whereas negative assessment – with the loss of personal involvement.2. Positive assessment of family relations by women raising children with Asperger’s syndrome is associated with a sense of control, instrumental support, mental resilience, and negative – with the assessment of the child’s disorder as a threat, burnout, loss of efficacy, personal involvement and decreased emotional control.

Słowa kluczowe

  • autism
  • Asperger’s syndrome
  • family factors
  • family relations
Otwarty dostęp

Application of metacognitive strategies in the development of emotional and motivational self-regulation of students with special educational needs. Research on children with ADHD

Data publikacji: 14 Feb 2022
Zakres stron: 284 - 293

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the presented study is to verify whether the visual methods (Mind Maps and Sketch-noting) considered as metacognitive strategies will help to strengthen emotional and motivational self-regulation in children with ADHD. In this experimental study, 135 participants took part, including 45 primary school students diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with the presentation of mixed symptoms (M = 10.41; SD = 1.42), their parents (N = 45) and teachers (N = 45). The results obtained in the study indicate that after 25 training sessions with the use of both Mind Maps and Sketch-noting, children with ADHD make significantly fewer errors than during the first measurement. However, only in the Sketch-noting group did their average reaction time increase significantly, which indicates that they are more reflective. The presented metacognitive strategies can be successfully applied at school by students with ADHD and constitute a source of support for both students and teachers.

Słowa kluczowe

  • metacognitive strategies
  • ADHD
  • emotional and motivational self-regulation
  • special educational needs
Otwarty dostęp

Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about electroconvulsive therapy among Polish students

Data publikacji: 02 Apr 2022
Zakres stron: 294 - 311

Abstrakt

Abstract

Introduction: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective and safe treatment for many mental disorders. Nevertheless, the attitudes towards ECT are negative and the use of this method in Poland is decreasing.

Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the general knowledge and attitudes towards electroconvulsive therapy among Polish university students, including students of medicine, psychology and other faculties.

Material and methods: An original online questionnaire containing 39 questions was used, distributed through student groups on social networking sites. A total of 418 questionnaires were completed. The collected data were statistically analyzed.

Results: Significant knowledge gaps and negative beliefs about electroconvulsive therapy were observed among Polish students. Medical and psychology students had more extensive knowledge and more positive beliefs about this method of treatment than students of other faculties. Greater knowledge of the therapy was associated with a more positive attitude towards it. The main source of knowledge about ECT for students of medicine and psychology were lectures and courses, and for students of other faculties – movies. Students, who considered psychiatry as their future specialization, had less knowledge and a more negative attitude towards ECT, relative to the rest of the respondents.

Conclusions: There is a need for educational interventions that will change the way how ECT is perceived both in the public opinion and in the medical community. An effective solution to low levels of knowledge for medical students may be the observation of the procedure included in the study programme.

Słowa kluczowe

  • electroconvulsive therapy
  • medical students
  • psychology students
  • attitudes
  • knowledge
Otwarty dostęp

The interaction between stress and metabolic disruption in student population – preliminary study

Data publikacji: 02 Apr 2022
Zakres stron: 312 - 317

Abstrakt

Abstract

Introduction: Approximately 26% of individuals between 18 and 24 years old are overweight or obese, and the number of persons with excessive body mass index (BMI) is growing. Obesity increases the risk of metabolic disruptions, which is well connected with mental health problems. Stressful situations, including entering adulthood and starting university education, affect food choices negatively. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between psychological stress and body composition in the student population.

Materials and methods: The study group consisted of 80 students (76% of women and 24% of men) between 19 and 28 years old from universities in Lublin. To determine anthropometric measurement (fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM), total body water (TBW), intracellular (ICF) and extracellular (ECF) fluids), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) method was applied. The severity of stress symptoms was measured using Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10).

Results: When it comes to 41.25% of participants, they used relaxation techniques, mainly meditation, yoga practice and walking. Most students had optimal body weight. While 60% of individuals had high stress levels. The perceived stress was not related to using the relaxation methods. Individuals with the high stress severity were characterized by lower: TBW, ECF and ICF expressed in liters, and lower FFM represented in kilograms. The inverse relationship between the severity of stress and the aforementioned parameters was also detected (p<0.05).

Conclusions: Implementing appropriate healt h education programs to prevent negat ive changes in ant hropometric measurements, psychological stress, and their health-related consequences in the student population should be considered.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis
  • Obesity
  • Students
  • Mental health
  • Stress
Otwarty dostęp

The concentration of MMP-9 and the effects of intravenous anaesthetics on the efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy in patients with drug-resistant depression

Data publikacji: 05 Apr 2022
Zakres stron: 318 - 331

Abstrakt

Abstract

Introduction: This study attempts to assess the concentration of intracellular matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9) before and after the treatment of depressive episodes with ECT therapy and also to correlate the concentration of this enzyme with the use of commonly used general anaesthetics.

Materials and methods: The study group comprised of 37 patients hospitalized in the Department of Adult Psychiatry in Poznan, with a diagnosis of episodes of drug-resistant depression during the course of bipolar and unipolar affective disorders, and who were being treated using electroconvulsive therapy. For the purpose of inducing anaesthesia during the procedure propofol was used in 10 cases, thiopental in 9 cases. Propofol was alternated with ketamine in a further 10 cases and thiopental was alternated with ketamine in another 9 cases. In order to assess the intensity of depression symptoms, the 17 point Hamilton depression scale was used, immediately before commencing ECT therapy, and one day after its completion. The serum concentration of MMP-9 was determined before and after the series of ECT treatments. In order to assess the serum concentration of MMP-9, an ELISA immunoenzymatic method was applied.

Results: In this study, a significant reduction of MMP-9 concentration was noted after therapy, relative to the starting concentration, in the serum of patients suffering from depressive episodes resulting from either unipolar or bipolar affective disorders. These results correlated with improved psychiatric state, as assessed by the Hamilton scale. A significantly lower MMP-9 concentration was noted in the serum of patients given alternating thiopental and ketamine anaesthesia.

Conclusions: This study suggests the importance of the enzyme as a biological marker for the effective treatment of depression. Furthermore, the choice of general anaesthetic applied during ECT also plays a role.

Słowa kluczowe

  • electroconvulsive therapy
  • ketamine
  • thiopental
  • propofol
  • matrix metalloproteinase - 9
Otwarty dostęp

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the development of anxiety disorders - a literature review

Data publikacji: 02 May 2022
Zakres stron: 332 - 339

Abstrakt

Abstract

Introduction: The COVID-19 is a disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. A number of psychological symptoms have been identified in people living during the COVID-19 pandemic. Most of them are associated with widely understood anxiety disorders, which have always been a significant problem for mental health.

Materials and methods: The available literature was reviewed on the Pubmed platform and from other sources. The analysis included original studies, reviews, meta-analyzes and internet sources. The aim of the study was to review the literature on the relationship between the COVID-19 pandemic and the occurrence and severity of symptoms of anxiety disorders.

Results: The studies conducted so far show that the COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the mental state of people around the world, especially in the area of anxiety disorders. Many studies indicate an increase in the prevalence of symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder. Research also indicates a greater incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder and panic disorder in society. Symptoms of somatization were also quite often observed in patients. However, the state of published studies indicates that the pandemic did not significantly affect the severity of symptoms associated with social phobia. In the context of phobic disorders, a new type has been formulated: COVID-19-related phobia.

Conclusions: The conducted literature review shows that the current COVID-19 pandemic is associated with an increase in the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety disorders in the general population. The multifaceted nature of the issue of anxiety disorders in the COVID-19 pandemic clearly indicates the need to continue research in this area.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pandemic
  • COVID-19
  • anxiety disorders
  • phobia
  • anxiety
8 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Refeeding syndrome in patients with anorexia nervosa - case reports

Data publikacji: 17 Jan 2022
Zakres stron: 239 - 246

Abstrakt

Abstract

Introduction: Refeeding syndrome RS is a life-threatening acute hormonal and metabolic disorder that occurs in patients with moderate or severe malnutrition as a result of improperly administered nutritional therapy.

Material and method: The aim of this study is to describe the cases of two female patients suffering from anorexia nervosa, who developed a refeeding syndrome after starting nutritional therapy. Additionally, the available literature was reviewed in order to characterize the issue, including negative consequences and prevention of the refeeding syndrome.

Results: In both cases, the development of the refeeding syndrome was found in the patients, resulting from the excessive supply of energy and nutritional substrates in a short time, preceded by a previous, months long period of starvation and exhaustion of the organism (both patients had a decrease in the body mass index - BMI - to the value of about 14 kg / m2). In patient 1, the symptoms concerned mainly the cardiovascular system: a significant increase in the concentration of N-terminal B-type natriuretic propeptide (NT-proBNP) and tachycardia, as well as a decrease in the concentration of inorganic phosphates and hypokalemia. On the other hand, in the case of patient 2, symptoms such as confusion or deep disturbances of consciousness, which led to hospitalization in the intensive care unit, dominated the clinical picture.

Conclusions: Refeeding syndrome may develop during nutritional rehabilitation, especially in the case of a sudden, inadequately planned supply of nutrients. Particular care should be taken in patients with extremely low BMI when reintroducing nutrition.

The presented case reports draw attention to the possibility of cardiological complications and mental disorders of the realimentation syndrome, and indicate the behavior of patients (eating excessive food) that may lead to the development of the refeeding syndrome.

Słowa kluczowe

  • anorexia nervosa
  • refeeding syndrome
  • hypophosphataemia
  • hypokalemia
  • malnutrition
Otwarty dostęp

Inkblots as a cultural phenomenon: On the centenary of the Rorschach test

Data publikacji: 21 Jan 2022
Zakres stron: 247 - 269

Abstrakt

AbstractIntroduction

Approved or not, the Hermann Rorschach test can be considered more than just a test to a clinical trial. Reflection on it as a broader phenomenon may yield what is the most valuable: better knowledge of human nature.

Objective

This article aims to present the dual nature of Rorschach's inkblots: as a test of “guessing” the meaning of signs and as a test of perception.

Method

Narrative literature review on the meaning and interpretation of the Rorschach test.

Results

The nature and reception of inkblots. The inkblots have a dual nature: they require visual perception, and at the same time they are signs, whose meanings are extracted in the process of interpretation. This process is largely subject to cultural determinants; it also depends on the structure of stimuli and on their artistic expression.

Charles Sanders Peirce's theory of signs and the sign nature of inkblots. According to Peirce, the interpretation of a sign, as a triadic structure, belongs to the ontic order and is a continuous process, taking place perpetually. Mental interpretation, as it were, follows the ontic dimension and constitutes a kind of reflection of this dimension.

The phenomenology of perception and the interpretation of inkblots. Perception as viewed by Rorschach found its unintended, though strikingly consistent, complement in the philosophy of Maurice Merleau-Ponty. This is particularly clear in the acknowledgment of the role of the body in perception and in emphasis placed on the active and dynamic nature of the subject–object relationship.

Rorschach and Merleau-Ponty vs. Peirce: similarities and differences. The seemingly completely different ways of understanding interpretation in Peirce's semiotics (indirect cognition) and in Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology (direct cognition), actually show important similarities. I draw attention to the ontic dimension of interpretation and its systemic character, which both philosophers stress, and to the view of interpretation as a perpetual process that is never completed, both in Peirce's semiotics and in Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology.

Conclusion

The semiotic and perceptual nature of the inkblots created by the Swiss psychiatrist reflects two basic and mutually complementary ways in which humans experience the world. This experience has both a psychological and an ontic nature, which makes it possible for an examination using the Rorschach test to become an encounter with an existential dimension.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Rorschach test
  • cultural determinants
  • theory of signs
  • phenomenology of perception
Otwarty dostęp

Correlation between the assessment of family relations and psychological factors in mothers of children diagnosed with autism and Asperger’s syndrome

Data publikacji: 29 Jan 2022
Zakres stron: 270 - 283

Abstrakt

AbstractThe aim

The aim of the work was to analyze correlation between the assessment of family relations and the assessment of the child’s functioning and psychological factors (stress-coping style, burnout, adaptation level, coherence, a sense of social suport, and mental health) in mothers of children with Asperger’s syndrome and childhood autism.

Participants and methods

The study included 70 mothers of children treated in mental health clinic (52 mothers of children with Asperger’s syndrome and 18 mothers of children with autism). The study used a battery of psychological tests.

Results

In the group of mothers of children with autism, there are significant correlations between the assessment of relations in the family and stress-coping styles and burnout. In the group of mothers of children with Asperger’s Syndrome, there are significant correlations between the assessment of family relations and the assessment of the child’s disorder, burnout, a sense of coherence, emotional support and mental resilience.

Conclusions

Based on the statical analyzes, the following conclusions were formulated: 1. Positive assessment of family relations by women raising children with autism is associated with the use of a task-oriented stress-coping style, whereas negative assessment – with the loss of personal involvement.2. Positive assessment of family relations by women raising children with Asperger’s syndrome is associated with a sense of control, instrumental support, mental resilience, and negative – with the assessment of the child’s disorder as a threat, burnout, loss of efficacy, personal involvement and decreased emotional control.

Słowa kluczowe

  • autism
  • Asperger’s syndrome
  • family factors
  • family relations
Otwarty dostęp

Application of metacognitive strategies in the development of emotional and motivational self-regulation of students with special educational needs. Research on children with ADHD

Data publikacji: 14 Feb 2022
Zakres stron: 284 - 293

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the presented study is to verify whether the visual methods (Mind Maps and Sketch-noting) considered as metacognitive strategies will help to strengthen emotional and motivational self-regulation in children with ADHD. In this experimental study, 135 participants took part, including 45 primary school students diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with the presentation of mixed symptoms (M = 10.41; SD = 1.42), their parents (N = 45) and teachers (N = 45). The results obtained in the study indicate that after 25 training sessions with the use of both Mind Maps and Sketch-noting, children with ADHD make significantly fewer errors than during the first measurement. However, only in the Sketch-noting group did their average reaction time increase significantly, which indicates that they are more reflective. The presented metacognitive strategies can be successfully applied at school by students with ADHD and constitute a source of support for both students and teachers.

Słowa kluczowe

  • metacognitive strategies
  • ADHD
  • emotional and motivational self-regulation
  • special educational needs
Otwarty dostęp

Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about electroconvulsive therapy among Polish students

Data publikacji: 02 Apr 2022
Zakres stron: 294 - 311

Abstrakt

Abstract

Introduction: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective and safe treatment for many mental disorders. Nevertheless, the attitudes towards ECT are negative and the use of this method in Poland is decreasing.

Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the general knowledge and attitudes towards electroconvulsive therapy among Polish university students, including students of medicine, psychology and other faculties.

Material and methods: An original online questionnaire containing 39 questions was used, distributed through student groups on social networking sites. A total of 418 questionnaires were completed. The collected data were statistically analyzed.

Results: Significant knowledge gaps and negative beliefs about electroconvulsive therapy were observed among Polish students. Medical and psychology students had more extensive knowledge and more positive beliefs about this method of treatment than students of other faculties. Greater knowledge of the therapy was associated with a more positive attitude towards it. The main source of knowledge about ECT for students of medicine and psychology were lectures and courses, and for students of other faculties – movies. Students, who considered psychiatry as their future specialization, had less knowledge and a more negative attitude towards ECT, relative to the rest of the respondents.

Conclusions: There is a need for educational interventions that will change the way how ECT is perceived both in the public opinion and in the medical community. An effective solution to low levels of knowledge for medical students may be the observation of the procedure included in the study programme.

Słowa kluczowe

  • electroconvulsive therapy
  • medical students
  • psychology students
  • attitudes
  • knowledge
Otwarty dostęp

The interaction between stress and metabolic disruption in student population – preliminary study

Data publikacji: 02 Apr 2022
Zakres stron: 312 - 317

Abstrakt

Abstract

Introduction: Approximately 26% of individuals between 18 and 24 years old are overweight or obese, and the number of persons with excessive body mass index (BMI) is growing. Obesity increases the risk of metabolic disruptions, which is well connected with mental health problems. Stressful situations, including entering adulthood and starting university education, affect food choices negatively. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between psychological stress and body composition in the student population.

Materials and methods: The study group consisted of 80 students (76% of women and 24% of men) between 19 and 28 years old from universities in Lublin. To determine anthropometric measurement (fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM), total body water (TBW), intracellular (ICF) and extracellular (ECF) fluids), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) method was applied. The severity of stress symptoms was measured using Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10).

Results: When it comes to 41.25% of participants, they used relaxation techniques, mainly meditation, yoga practice and walking. Most students had optimal body weight. While 60% of individuals had high stress levels. The perceived stress was not related to using the relaxation methods. Individuals with the high stress severity were characterized by lower: TBW, ECF and ICF expressed in liters, and lower FFM represented in kilograms. The inverse relationship between the severity of stress and the aforementioned parameters was also detected (p<0.05).

Conclusions: Implementing appropriate healt h education programs to prevent negat ive changes in ant hropometric measurements, psychological stress, and their health-related consequences in the student population should be considered.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis
  • Obesity
  • Students
  • Mental health
  • Stress
Otwarty dostęp

The concentration of MMP-9 and the effects of intravenous anaesthetics on the efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy in patients with drug-resistant depression

Data publikacji: 05 Apr 2022
Zakres stron: 318 - 331

Abstrakt

Abstract

Introduction: This study attempts to assess the concentration of intracellular matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9) before and after the treatment of depressive episodes with ECT therapy and also to correlate the concentration of this enzyme with the use of commonly used general anaesthetics.

Materials and methods: The study group comprised of 37 patients hospitalized in the Department of Adult Psychiatry in Poznan, with a diagnosis of episodes of drug-resistant depression during the course of bipolar and unipolar affective disorders, and who were being treated using electroconvulsive therapy. For the purpose of inducing anaesthesia during the procedure propofol was used in 10 cases, thiopental in 9 cases. Propofol was alternated with ketamine in a further 10 cases and thiopental was alternated with ketamine in another 9 cases. In order to assess the intensity of depression symptoms, the 17 point Hamilton depression scale was used, immediately before commencing ECT therapy, and one day after its completion. The serum concentration of MMP-9 was determined before and after the series of ECT treatments. In order to assess the serum concentration of MMP-9, an ELISA immunoenzymatic method was applied.

Results: In this study, a significant reduction of MMP-9 concentration was noted after therapy, relative to the starting concentration, in the serum of patients suffering from depressive episodes resulting from either unipolar or bipolar affective disorders. These results correlated with improved psychiatric state, as assessed by the Hamilton scale. A significantly lower MMP-9 concentration was noted in the serum of patients given alternating thiopental and ketamine anaesthesia.

Conclusions: This study suggests the importance of the enzyme as a biological marker for the effective treatment of depression. Furthermore, the choice of general anaesthetic applied during ECT also plays a role.

Słowa kluczowe

  • electroconvulsive therapy
  • ketamine
  • thiopental
  • propofol
  • matrix metalloproteinase - 9
Otwarty dostęp

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the development of anxiety disorders - a literature review

Data publikacji: 02 May 2022
Zakres stron: 332 - 339

Abstrakt

Abstract

Introduction: The COVID-19 is a disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. A number of psychological symptoms have been identified in people living during the COVID-19 pandemic. Most of them are associated with widely understood anxiety disorders, which have always been a significant problem for mental health.

Materials and methods: The available literature was reviewed on the Pubmed platform and from other sources. The analysis included original studies, reviews, meta-analyzes and internet sources. The aim of the study was to review the literature on the relationship between the COVID-19 pandemic and the occurrence and severity of symptoms of anxiety disorders.

Results: The studies conducted so far show that the COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the mental state of people around the world, especially in the area of anxiety disorders. Many studies indicate an increase in the prevalence of symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder. Research also indicates a greater incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder and panic disorder in society. Symptoms of somatization were also quite often observed in patients. However, the state of published studies indicates that the pandemic did not significantly affect the severity of symptoms associated with social phobia. In the context of phobic disorders, a new type has been formulated: COVID-19-related phobia.

Conclusions: The conducted literature review shows that the current COVID-19 pandemic is associated with an increase in the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety disorders in the general population. The multifaceted nature of the issue of anxiety disorders in the COVID-19 pandemic clearly indicates the need to continue research in this area.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pandemic
  • COVID-19
  • anxiety disorders
  • phobia
  • anxiety

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