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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2300-8733
ISSN
1642-3402
Pierwsze wydanie
25 Nov 2011
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 13 (2013): Zeszyt 3 (July 2013)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2300-8733
ISSN
1642-3402
Pierwsze wydanie
25 Nov 2011
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

19 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Infrared Thermography as a Method for Evaluating the Welfare of Animals Subjected to Invasive Procedures – A Review / Termografia jako metoda oceny dobrostanu zwierząt poddanych inwazyjnym zabiegom – artykuł przeglądowy

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 423 - 434

Abstrakt

Abstract

In recent years, there has been a growing interest in animal welfare. Consumers of animal products are paying more attention to maintaining good husbandry conditions on the farms, but also to some of the procedures entailing pain and suffering. The most invasive procedures are castration and dehorning (disbudding), which are often performed without anaesthesia. Pain associated with tissue damage causes behavioural and physiological changes. Observation of behaviour combined with measurements of autonomic nervous system activation, and hormones of the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal axis, is the main method for assessing the emotional state of an animal. Immobilization and blood collection may themselves be a source of stress for these animals. There is a strong prerequisite for the development of non-invasive methods of assessing the level of animal welfare. One of them is infrared thermography. The study of eye temperature changes in cattle, measured with an infrared thermography camera, confirmed the activation of the autonomic nervous system in response to pain.

Keywords

  • welfare
  • infrared thermography
  • disbudding
  • castration
Otwarty dostęp

A Connection Between Mastitis During Early Lactation and Reproductive Performance of Dairy Cows – A Review / Związek mastitis we wczesnej laktacji z użytkowością reprodukcyjną krów mlecznych – artykuł przeglądowy

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 435 - 448

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of this study was to present a relationship between mastitis in the post-calving period and fertility traits of dairy cows. The threshold of 200,000 cells/ml for somatic cell count is used as a reference for healthy quarters of the cow’s udder. The genetic correlation between mastitis and somatic cell count is strong (from 0.7 to 0.8). Although heritability for fertility traits is low (from 0.01 to 0.02), the genetic standard deviation for mastitis varies from 1.2 to 7.0 percentage units, suggesting that genetic gain can be achieved by selecting for mastitis. Results of this study suggest that mastitis in the postpartum period can have a markedly negative impact on the reproductive performance of dairy cows. The synergistic effect of common conditions (somatic cell count, body condition score and lameness score) or other factors (e.g. heat stress, fertility management, the presence of repeat breeders) also lowers fertility of cows. Production of milk with fewer than 100,000 cells/ml leads to improved health and fertility in the cows.

Keywords

  • ruminants
  • dairy cows
  • somatic cell count
  • mastitis
  • fertility
Otwarty dostęp

Bacteriocins In Poultry Nutrition – A Review / Bakteriocyny w żywieniu drobiu – artykuł przeglądowy

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 449 - 462

Abstrakt

Abstract

In recent years, a number of studies have shown a close relationship between broiler performance, health and the gastrointestinal microbiota. However, taking the complexity and biodiversity of the micro-ecosystem into consideration, a manipulation of the microbiota in a way that is profitable both for the host bird and for the farmer seems a difficult goal to achieve. Bacteriocins are extracellular proteinaceous compounds, synthesized by many bacterial species. Due to their different bacteriostatic effects, they have been used in human nutrition for decades. However, limited information is available regarding their effects in poultry, even though that similar mode of action as in other animals is possible. Therefore, the aim of the present review is to discuss present bacteriocin classification, mode of action and their potential role in poultry nutrition.

Keywords

  • poultry
  • feed additives
  • microbiota
  • bacteriocins
Otwarty dostęp

Poultry Meat as Functional Food: Modification of the Fatty Acid Profile – A Review / Mięso drobiowe jako żywność funkcjonalna: modyfikacja profilu kwasów tłuszczowych – artykuł przeglądowy

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 463 - 480

Abstrakt

Abstract

Functional foods, defined as “foods that may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition”, became increasingly popular in the past twenty years with numerous practical applications. In Europe, functional foods must be accompanied by scientifically substantiated health claims. Products which aspire to that category include poultry meat and processed meat products which have been modified through bird nutrition. This article reviews the existing knowledge about foods fortified with health-promoting additives. It discusses the physiological, economic and legal aspects of modifying poultry meat, including turkey meat which has been poorly investigated in this context. The addition of oils rich in PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids), e.g. linseed oil, to poultry diets has been found to increase LC n-3 PUFA (long-chain omega-3 PUFA) concentrations in chicken and turkey meat. LC n-3 PUFAs participate in many processes that condition metabolism and health, and the nutritional value of meat, including poultry, is most commonly enhanced by increasing the proportion of LC n-3 PUFAs in the product's fatty acid composition. However, it increases feed costs and may cause a deterioration in the sensory attributes and oxidative stability of meat. Turkey breast meat is characterized by a relatively low fat content, which is why the fulfilment of health claim requirements is difficult in the European Union.

Keywords

  • poultry nutrition
  • functional food
  • n-3 PUFA
  • turkey meat
Otwarty dostęp

Validation of Pedigree Relationships Using a Multiplex Microsatellite Marker Assay in Iranian Holstein Cattle / Walidacja rodowodów irańskiego bydła holsztyńskiego przy użyciu analizy multipleks markerów mikrosatelitarnych

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 481 - 493

Abstrakt

Abstract

In the present study, the pedigree and genotype data of 94 individuals were examined for accuracy of parentage allocations and identity test using 12 fluorescent-labelled microsatellite markers in a highly sensitive and accurate ABI system. The panel of 12 markers showed mean PIC value of 0.71 and Shannon index of 1.65 and 7.58 alleles per locus, which suggests that these markers are highly polymorphic and could be useful for parentage control. Based on scoring allele sizes, a total of 91 alleles were observed within the studied population. The highest and lowest number of alleles was observed for TGLA227 locus and TGLA126 and BM1818 loci, respectively. The pedigree was considered incorrect in seven (35%) out of all the evaluated progeny, as their genotype did not match their parents. Combined EP value obtained for all loci in both parentage and identification analysis was 0.99, which indicates the high efficiency of the studied marker set and the accuracy of genotyping in ABI systems. Finally, the present findings confirmed the importance of surveying the pedigree structure and efficiency of 12 fluorescent-labelled microsatellite markers in a single multiplex PCR for parentage testing in the sampled Holstein cattle population.

Keywords

  • parentage testing
  • microsatellite
  • Holstein cattle
  • pedigree
  • multiplex PCR
  • exclusion probability
Otwarty dostęp

Identification of Telomeric Sequences in Pigs with Rearranged Karyotype Using Prins Technique / Identyfikacja sekwencji telomerowych u świń z rearanżacją kariotypu przy wykorzystaniu techniki PRINS

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 495 - 502

Abstrakt

Abstract

Using PRINS technique with oligonucleotide primer complementary to the telomere sequence repeats (TTAGGG )n, the interstitial telomeric signals in 6q22 and 7q13 unstable chromosome regions in pigs with t(7;13)(q13;q46) reciprocal translocation were identified. The intrachromosomal localization of telomeric repeats specific for 7q13 region were revealed to strictly correspond to breakpoint of this translocation as well as several others described earlier. The present study showed the usefulness of PRINS technique for identification of intrachromosomal telomeric sequences in pig genome regions, extremely prone to breakage and predisposed to chromosome reorganizations, especially with regard to the clinical cases of karyotype defects.

Keywords

  • PRINS technique
  • karyotype rearrangement
  • interstitial telomeric repeats
  • reciprocal translocation breakpoints
  • pigs
Otwarty dostęp

The Relationship Between CRP Gene Polymorphism and the Serum Concentrations of C-Reactive Protein, Total Cholesterol and HDL Cholesterol in Suckling Piglets / Związek polimorfizmu genu CRP z koncentracją kodowanego białka C-reaktywnego, cholesterolu całkowitego i HDL-ch w surowicy krwi ssących prosiąt

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 503 - 512

Abstrakt

Abstract

The relationship between CRP gene (1271 G/A, 3’UTR) polymorphism and the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), total cholesterol (Ch-T) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-ch) was analysed in suckling crossbred [Polish Large White × Polish Landrace (♀) × × Duroc × Pietrain (♂)] piglets. CRP genotypes were identified by PCR-RFLP with Hinfi restriction enzyme. The levels of CRP, Ch-T, HDL-ch and white blood cell (WBC) counts were determined in blood samples collected from younger (21±3 days of age) and older piglets (35±3 days of age). There was a relationship between CRP gene (1271 G/A, 3’UTR) polymorphism and variations in the serum levels of CRP in piglets with normal WBC counts. The above relationship did not manifest itself in piglets with elevated WBC counts. The studied genotypes differed in their response to elevated WBC counts, and the noted differences were more pronounced in older piglets. The response of genotypes with weak CRP expression caused an increase in CRP levels and a decrease in the serum concentrations of Ch-T and HDL-ch. Such a response was not observed in the genotype with strong CRP expression.

Keywords

  • CRP gene
  • C-reactive protein
  • cholesterol
  • HDL-ch
  • piglets
Otwarty dostęp

Assessment of in Vitro Developmental Capacity of Porcine Nuclear-Transferred Embryos Reconstituted with Cumulus Oophorus Cells Undergoing Vital Diagnostics for Apoptosis Detection / Ocena zdolności rozwojowych in vitro klonalnych zarodków świni rekonstytuowanych z jąder komórek wzgórka jajonośnego poddawanych przyżyciowej diagnostyce w kierunku wykrywania apoptozy

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 513 - 529

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the current investigation was to extensively compare the in vitro developmental capabilities between cloned pig embryos reconstructed with the cell nuclei of either cumulus oophorus cells or adult dermal fibroblast cells that were both evaluated as non-apoptotic on the basis of YO-PRO-1- and Annexin V-eGFP-mediated vital analysis for programmed cell suicide. In Group I, the competences of nuclear-transferred (NT) embryos that were derived from non-apoptotic/ non-necrotic (i.e., YO-PRO-1- and Annexin V-eGFP-negative) cumulus cells to complete their development to the morula and blastocyst stages were maintained at the proportions of 155/364 (42.6%) and 54/364 (14.8%), respectively. In Group II, NT embryos that were reconstituted with non-apoptotic and/or non-necrotic adult cutaneous fibroblast cells developed to the morula and blastocyst stages at the rates of 207/358 (57.8%) and 110/358 (30.7%), respectively. Although the in vitro developmental potential of porcine NT embryos derived from non-apoptotic/non-necrotic cumulus cells was significantly lower (P<0.001) than that of NT embryos reconstructed with adult dermal fibroblast cells, the obtained morula/blastocyst formation rates turned out to be considerably higher as compared to the rates reported by other investigators. Altogether, to our knowledge, the comprehensive research aimed at the determination of preimplantation developmental outcomes of cloned pig embryos produced using nuclear donor somatic cells of different provenance (cumulus oophorus cells or adult cutaneous fibroblast cells) that were vitally diagnosed for the lack of proapoptotic transformations in their plasma membranes has not yet been accomplished.

Keywords

  • pig
  • cumulus oophorus cell
  • adult dermal fibroblast cell
  • YO-PRO-1 fluorochrome
  • Annexin V-eGFP conjugate
  • apoptotic cell death
  • cloned embryo
Otwarty dostęp

Egg Morphometry and Eggshell Quality in Ring-Necked Pheasants Kept in Cages / Budowa jaja i jakość skorupy u bażantów obrożnych utrzymywanych w klatkach

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 531 - 541

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the morphometry and shell quality of eggs laid by pheasants kept in cages, and also to analyse the dependence between egg shell colour parameters, its quality and morphometric characteristics. Four groups of 15 eggs (60 eggs), each classified according to their eggshell colours, i.e. blue, light brown, dark brown and olive, were examined. The eggs did not differ significantly between each other in their mean weight and olive-coloured eggs had a higher shape index (about 8.91 percentage points) than blue eggs. Blue and light brown coloured eggs had thinner shells than the dark brown eggs (by 33.57 and 27.97 μm, respectively). Blue eggs had the lightest shells (L* = 67.97) and the highest proportion of green colour in their shells since the a* parameter value for blue eggs was negative. A significant positive correlation was observed between the egg shape and the shell colour saturation (C*) and the proportion of yellow colour (b*) in it. In addition, a negative correlation was found between lightness in eggshell colour, its thickness and the egg shape (r = from -0.338* to -0.480**). In comparison with the data obtained from the literature concerning the quality of eggs laid by pheasants kept in aviaries and eggs laid by birds kept in cages, the eggs were described as having similar weights and morphometries along with greater shell thicknesses. Furthermore, our study confirmed that pheasant eggs with blue and light brown colour have poorer shell quality, a fact which has been shown already in earlier research. However, this fact is related to the lightness of the shell pigment rather than its colour.

Keywords

  • ring-necked pheasant
  • egg
  • eggshell thickness
  • eggshell colour parameter
  • correlation
Otwarty dostęp

Frequency of Occurrence of Physical Defects in Turkey Poults / Częstotliwość występowania wad budowy piskląt indyczych

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 543 - 552

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine poult quality in the first breeding season of turkeys. The study was conducted over a 24-week laying season of white broad-breasted Big 6 turkeys. Starting from the first week of laying, at three-week intervals, 504 eggs laid on the same day were weighed and the percentages of eggs weighing 70 to 100 g and more than 100 g were calculated. Results from the 21st week of laying season were not used due to failure of ventilation equipment. Each egg was visually inspected to determine the percentages of eggs with normal shell structure, rough-shelled eggs and eggs without shell pigmentation. Nine incubation cycles were carried out. Egg fertilization rates and hatch rates were determined. At the end of each incubation cycle, poults were weighed individually and divided into morphologically normal and morphologically defective. The latter were further subdivided into weak poults with poor motor skills, poults with abnormal feathers, eyes, legs and umbilicus, and poults with unabsorbed yolk sacs. Eggs with weight exceeding 100 g accounted for 17.9% and 46.6% of the analysed eggs at 12 and 24 weeks of the laying season, respectively. In week 12, eggs without shell pigmentation accounted for 8.3%. In week 24, the percentage of rough-shelled eggs was 6.7%. Most poults with physical defects hatched in weeks 1 and 3 of the laying period (65.67% and 76.84%, respectively). Weak poults with poor motor skills accounted for 0.2-2.5% of the examined birds. Wet feathers were noted in 0.9% to 4.1% of poults over the laying season. Leg abnormalities were observed in 6.5% to 7.8% of poults. Eye defects were encountered least frequently. In 41-70% of poults long black scabs were visible on their navels, and umbilical vessels were long. Unabsorbed yolk sacs were noted in 0.5% to 3.2% of poults.

Keywords

  • egg weight
  • eggshell structure
  • poult quality
Otwarty dostęp

Synovial Fluid MMP-2 and MMP-9 Levels in Internal or External Fixation for Intra-Articular Fractures / Poziom MMP-2 i MMP-9 w mazi stawowej przy wewnętrznym i zewnętrznym zespoleniu po złamaniach wewnątrzstawowych

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 553 - 562

Abstrakt

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether internal fixation or external skeletal fixation (ESF) results in better “joint health” following traumatic injury to the stifle by assessing lameness and measuring matrix metalloproteinase MMP-2 and MMP-9. Dogs with skin grafts and transarticular ESFs were included in group A. Dogs with intra-articular fractures of the distal femur were randomly divided into groups B and C, and treated with either internal or ESF, respectively. Dogs in group D had diaphyseal tibial fractures treated with ESF. Synovial fluid samples were collected pre-operatively and again 7 days and 30 days postoperatively to measure MMP-2 and -9 levels via zymography. Preoperative MMP-9 levels were higher in groups B and C than A and D. Over time, MMP-2 levels increased in groups A-C, and MMP-9 levels significantly decreased in groups B and C by 30 days postoperatively. ESF appears superior to internal fixation for repair of intra-articular fractures of the distal femur, and MMP-2 and MMP-9 could serve as markers of either fracture healing or overall joint health, particularly in the setting of PTOA.

Keywords

  • intra-articular fracture
  • internal fixation
  • external skeletal fixation
  • osteoarthritis
  • metalloproteinase
Otwarty dostęp

Stimulatory Effect of hCG on Male American Mink (Neovison Vison) in the Breeding Season / Wpływ stymulacji hCG na samce norki amerykańskiej (Neovison vison) w okresie kryć

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 563 - 570

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of a male mink single-dose hCG stimulation on the libido during the mating season and on blood testosterone levels after the season. The material involved males of American mink. The treatment-group males were administered a dose of 100, 150 or 200 U of hCG. Blood was collected twice, approx. 2 weeks prior to and on the completion of the mating season. The group receiving 100 U hCG had the highest percentage of males effectively copulating with females within the first 24 hours after stimulation, whereas males stimulated with a dose of 200 U hCG showed the lowest libido over the same period. On the other hand, males of the group stimulated with 150 U hCG mated to the highest number of females throughout the mating season. The mean plasma testosterone concentration in all the studied males on 18 February was 12.44 ng/ml. The drop in testosterone concentration at the end of the mating season was significant.

Keywords

  • mink
  • Neovison vison
  • fertility regulation
  • mating effect
  • reproduction
Otwarty dostęp

The Effectiveness of Maize DDGS in Rabbit Diets / Efektywność zastosowania suszonego wywaru kukurydzianego w dietach dla królików

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 571 - 585

Abstrakt

Abstract

The development of biofuel production in the European Union is expected to increase the production of distillers grains, which can be a good feed material after concentration, centrifugation and drying. Research shows that dried distillers grains that meet microbiological and toxicological standards can be a nutritious feed for different species of animals. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of adding different levels (5 or 10%) of maize dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to complete feeds on rearing performance and meat quality of young rabbits. The study was carried out with New Zealand White rabbits from weaning at 35 days to 90 days of age. The results obtained showed that the introduction of 5% DDGS to rabbit diets had no negative effect on rearing performance of rabbits from 35 to 90 days of age and on the quality of their meat. Despite using a detoxifier, the 10% level was hazardous to rabbits due to the high level of mycotoxins in the purchased DDGS and markedly decreased the quality of their meat. Therefore it appears necessary to analyse the distillers grains fed to this group of animals for mycotoxins, in particular to determine their safe levels for rabbits.

Keywords

  • rabbit
  • feeding
  • dried distillers grains
  • meat
Otwarty dostęp

Temperature, Humidity and Air Movement Variations Inside a Free-Stall Barn During Heavy Frost / Zróżnicowanie warunków cieplno-wilgotnościowych i ruchu powietrza w oborze wolnostanowiskowej podczas silnych mrozów

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 587 - 596

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paper presents results of research on the variability of temperature, humidity and air movement in selected areas of a free-stall barn during heavy frost. The study revealed the occurrence of unfavourable factors influencing microclimate in the barn. Some areas of the barn suffered from draughts, some were excessively exposed to sun or too shaded, which resulted in significant temperature and relative humidity fluctuations during the day as well as changes in air movement velocity. All these factors exerted an impact on cattle welfare. The conclusion points out the need to determine zones in the barn characterized by clearly different microclimatic conditions. In the studied example, these conditions were influenced by weather changes and depended on the orientation of the building to cardinal points as well as wall construction materials.

Keywords

  • dairy cows
  • free-stall barn
  • temperature
  • relative humidity
  • air movement
  • low temperature
Otwarty dostęp

Hygienic Aspects of Cattle Slurry Storage as the Most Popular and Cheapest Method of Handling Liquid Animal Excrements / Higieniczne aspekty składowania gnojowicy bydlęcej jako najpopularniejszej i najtańszej metody postępowania z płynnymi odchodami zwierzęcymi

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 597 - 609

Abstrakt

Abstract

Slurry is a very valuable natural fertilizer, but its improper use in agriculture poses a serious sanitary threat. Therefore its treatment before use for fertilization is advisable. One of such methods, which is still the most popular, is storage of liquid excrements. The aim of this study was to estimate the sanitization effectiveness of storage at 4ºC and 20ºC based on parameters describing the kinetics of changes in the population of some indicator bacteria in cattle slurry with different dry matter content. The material for the study was fresh cattle slurry. The liquid excrements used in the experiment had a dry matter content of 2, 6 and 14%. Slurry was stored at 4ºC and 20ºC. Bacilli of Salmonella Dublin, E. coli and enterococci were used as indicator bacteria. Number of microorganisms was determined based on MPN method in a 3-tube design. Basic parameters of the bacteria inactivation kinetics were calculated and statistical analysis was made using the program SAS 9.2 PL. In stored slurry a gradual elimination of all the studied microorganisms was observed. Hygienization effect of storage was smaller at 4ºC than at 20ºC and in excrements with a high dry matter content. Depending on storage temperature and dry matter proportion, the theoretical times of survival ranged from 81.85 to 220.80 days for bacilli of Salmonella Dublin, from 74.93 to 199.36 days for E. coli, and from 118.67 to 335.84 days for enterococci. The study showed explicitly that statutory time of slurry storage is insufficient to ensure its complete hygienization.

Keywords

  • cattle slurry
  • hygienization
  • storage
  • bacteria survival
Otwarty dostęp

Labelling the Behaviour of Piglets and Activity Monitoring from Video as a Tool of Assessing Interest in Different Environmental Enrichments / Oznaczanie zachowania i monitorowanie aktywności prosiąt na podstawie zapisu wideo jako narzędzie oceny ich zainteresowania różnymi elementami wzbogacającymi środowisko

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 611 - 621

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to explore the preference and the duration of interest of weaned pigs to two different types of environmental enrichments using labelling techniques and activity monitoring. Two pens each housing 14 Dalland piglets were monitored using a video camera. The videos were labelled during the weaning phase from 30 to 60 days of age. During this time, the video recording software continuously calculated the activity index of the pigs. To detect pig exploratory and playing behaviour, a wooden block and chain enrichment were introduced into each pen for 30 days. Each video frame was manually labelled during the Day 1, 5 and 30 (24 hours a day) for each pen using the Labelling Tool software. To identify the duration and frequency of interactive episodes with environmental enrichments, pig behaviour was labelled as either: no activity, interacting with chain or interacting with the wooden block. The mean duration of interactive episodes for the chain was greater than for the wooden block (P<0.001), while the frequency of interactive episodes was 28.8% higher for the wooden block than for the chain. By day 5, the mean duration of interaction episodes decreased in both pens and by day 30, only a few interaction episodes were observed. The number of interactive episodes were strictly related to the activity index and depended on the time of the day. The peaks of the mean number of interactive episodes calculated for all days of observations corresponded to the peaks of the mean activity index.

Keywords

  • piglets
  • environmental enrichment
  • labelling
  • activity monitoring
  • camera images
Otwarty dostęp

Individual and Group Euthanasia in Farmed Mink / Indywidualne i grupowe uśmiercanie norek z chowu fermowego

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 623 - 632

Abstrakt

Abstract

The study seeks to evaluate the effectiveness of euthanasia in mink (Neovison vison). The gases studied were filtered exhaust CO, and cylinder CO and CO2. The experimental setups were as follows: (1) individual killing of mink in a small killing box (35 × 30 × 60 cm; H × W × L); (2) individual killing of mink in a small killing box, kept inside a killer (12.5 × 12.5 × 55 cm; H × W × L); (3) group killing of mink in a large killing box (75 × 75 × 150 cm; H × W × L); and (4) group killing of mink in a large killing box (70 × 70 × 125 cm; H × W × L). The results showed that filtered exhaust CO concentrations of 1.2-3% were too low. Concentrations of 4-6% were effective. With cylinder CO of 4% the killing time was the same as that with engine CO at 4%. A cylinder CO2 concentration of ≥ 80% was effective. The shortest time interval after the end of all movements and respiration was with cylinder CO2. No difference was found between cylinder and filtered exhaust CO. The time the animals were alive did not significantly differ between the groups (P>0.05). The first animal collapsed soonest among those inhaling CO2 (CO2 vs cylinder CO; P=0.0045; and CO2 vs filtered exhaust CO; P=0.0009). No difference was found between cylinder CO and filtered exhaust CO (P=0.4654). There was also a significant difference in the time it took for the last animal to collapse. Here again the CO2 animals collapsed the soonest (CO2 vs cylinder CO, P=0.0062; CO2 vs exhaust CO, P=0.0012). No difference was found between cylinder and filtered exhaust CO (P=0.5660). It is concluded that concentrations of CO ≥4% and of CO2 ≥80% in the euthanasia box are sufficient to kill effectively.

Keywords

  • Neovison vison
  • killing
  • euthanasia
  • animal welfare
  • fur farming
Otwarty dostęp

Factors Affecting Ultrasound Intramuscular Fat Content in Musculus Longissimus Dorsi of Beef Bulls Estimated with Bia Pro Plus Software / Czynniki wpływające na ultrasonograficzną ocenę udziału tłuszczu śródmięśniowego mięśnia najdłuższego grzbietu buhajów mięsnych

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 633 - 644

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of ultrasound gain level, chemical composition and histological structure of musculus longissimus dorsi on pre-slaughter ultrasound evaluation of intramuscular fat content in m.l.d. of beef bulls. The study was conducted on 217 young bulls of six breeds: Red Angus, Charolais, Hereford, Limousin, Salers, and beef type Simmental. Measurements were conducted with an ultrasound system Aloka SSD-500 at five gain levels (90, 85, 80, 75, 70). After slaughter the content of intramuscular fat, total protein, connective tissue and muscle fibre type and diameter of m.l.d. were determined. Ultrasound evaluation of the intramuscular fat depended on the actual intramuscular fat and the total protein content (P<0.01) in most of the measurements. The correlation between actual and ultrasound measurement of intramuscular fat content ranged from 0.2 to 0.36, and was highly significant for most of the ultrasound gain levels. There were highly significant (P<0.01) and significant (P<0.05) negative correlations between the total protein and ultrasound fat content (r = -0.17 to -0.31). The connective tissue percentage showed a significant effect on the ultrasound fat measurements at gains of 75 and 85. Ultrasound intramuscular fat content was positively correlated with the connective tissue in the m.l.d. at gain levels of 75 and 85 and the average ultrasound intramuscular fat measurement (r = 0.16, 0.20, 0.16). Highly significant and significant correlations between each ultrasound measurement were observed.

Keywords

  • beef bulls
  • ultrasound
  • gain
  • intramuscular fat
  • connective tissue
Otwarty dostęp

Relationship Between Glycolytic Potential and Meat Quality of Duroc Pigs with Consideration of Carcass Chilling System / Związek potencjału glikolitycznego z cechami jakości mięsa tuczników rasy Duroc, z uwzględnieniem systemu chłodzenia tusz

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 645 - 654

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine phenotypic relations between glycolytic potential (GP) measured 45 min postmortem and meat quality traits of stress-resistant fatteners, with consideration of carcass chilling system. The investigations involved 35 Duroc fattening pigs whose left halfcarcasses were chilled conventionally (4ºC for 24 h) and right half-carcasses were rapidly chilled in a three-phase chilling tunnel (-10ºC for 15 min, -15ºC for 25 min and -5ºC for 40 min with air velocity of 3 m/s). In this study we showed that rapid chilling significantly slows the rate of pH fall from 2 to 96 h after slaughter. The negative relationship between glycolytic potential and pH (especially 24 h postmortem) was stronger for conventionally chilled carcasses but the regression coefficient (b) does not suggest increased rate of pH fall in meat of conventionally chilled carcasses (especially compared to rapid chilling) at the later stages of conversion of muscle to meat (from 24 to 144 h after slaughter). In this investigation GP was positively correlated to drip loss at 48 h postmortem, and a stronger correlation was noted for rapidly chilled carcasses. Moreover, the regression coefficient indicates that rapid chilling to 48 h postmortem can cause a slightly higher drip loss from meat than when the carcasses are chilled conventionally (0.55 vs. 0.46 percentage points per 10 μmol/g GP). At the later stages of conversion of muscle to meat (96 and 144 h postmortem) the correlation and regression coefficients were the same regardless of the chilling system.

Keywords

  • Duroc
  • glycolytic potential
  • chilling system
  • meat quality
19 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Infrared Thermography as a Method for Evaluating the Welfare of Animals Subjected to Invasive Procedures – A Review / Termografia jako metoda oceny dobrostanu zwierząt poddanych inwazyjnym zabiegom – artykuł przeglądowy

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 423 - 434

Abstrakt

Abstract

In recent years, there has been a growing interest in animal welfare. Consumers of animal products are paying more attention to maintaining good husbandry conditions on the farms, but also to some of the procedures entailing pain and suffering. The most invasive procedures are castration and dehorning (disbudding), which are often performed without anaesthesia. Pain associated with tissue damage causes behavioural and physiological changes. Observation of behaviour combined with measurements of autonomic nervous system activation, and hormones of the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal axis, is the main method for assessing the emotional state of an animal. Immobilization and blood collection may themselves be a source of stress for these animals. There is a strong prerequisite for the development of non-invasive methods of assessing the level of animal welfare. One of them is infrared thermography. The study of eye temperature changes in cattle, measured with an infrared thermography camera, confirmed the activation of the autonomic nervous system in response to pain.

Keywords

  • welfare
  • infrared thermography
  • disbudding
  • castration
Otwarty dostęp

A Connection Between Mastitis During Early Lactation and Reproductive Performance of Dairy Cows – A Review / Związek mastitis we wczesnej laktacji z użytkowością reprodukcyjną krów mlecznych – artykuł przeglądowy

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 435 - 448

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of this study was to present a relationship between mastitis in the post-calving period and fertility traits of dairy cows. The threshold of 200,000 cells/ml for somatic cell count is used as a reference for healthy quarters of the cow’s udder. The genetic correlation between mastitis and somatic cell count is strong (from 0.7 to 0.8). Although heritability for fertility traits is low (from 0.01 to 0.02), the genetic standard deviation for mastitis varies from 1.2 to 7.0 percentage units, suggesting that genetic gain can be achieved by selecting for mastitis. Results of this study suggest that mastitis in the postpartum period can have a markedly negative impact on the reproductive performance of dairy cows. The synergistic effect of common conditions (somatic cell count, body condition score and lameness score) or other factors (e.g. heat stress, fertility management, the presence of repeat breeders) also lowers fertility of cows. Production of milk with fewer than 100,000 cells/ml leads to improved health and fertility in the cows.

Keywords

  • ruminants
  • dairy cows
  • somatic cell count
  • mastitis
  • fertility
Otwarty dostęp

Bacteriocins In Poultry Nutrition – A Review / Bakteriocyny w żywieniu drobiu – artykuł przeglądowy

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 449 - 462

Abstrakt

Abstract

In recent years, a number of studies have shown a close relationship between broiler performance, health and the gastrointestinal microbiota. However, taking the complexity and biodiversity of the micro-ecosystem into consideration, a manipulation of the microbiota in a way that is profitable both for the host bird and for the farmer seems a difficult goal to achieve. Bacteriocins are extracellular proteinaceous compounds, synthesized by many bacterial species. Due to their different bacteriostatic effects, they have been used in human nutrition for decades. However, limited information is available regarding their effects in poultry, even though that similar mode of action as in other animals is possible. Therefore, the aim of the present review is to discuss present bacteriocin classification, mode of action and their potential role in poultry nutrition.

Keywords

  • poultry
  • feed additives
  • microbiota
  • bacteriocins
Otwarty dostęp

Poultry Meat as Functional Food: Modification of the Fatty Acid Profile – A Review / Mięso drobiowe jako żywność funkcjonalna: modyfikacja profilu kwasów tłuszczowych – artykuł przeglądowy

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 463 - 480

Abstrakt

Abstract

Functional foods, defined as “foods that may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition”, became increasingly popular in the past twenty years with numerous practical applications. In Europe, functional foods must be accompanied by scientifically substantiated health claims. Products which aspire to that category include poultry meat and processed meat products which have been modified through bird nutrition. This article reviews the existing knowledge about foods fortified with health-promoting additives. It discusses the physiological, economic and legal aspects of modifying poultry meat, including turkey meat which has been poorly investigated in this context. The addition of oils rich in PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids), e.g. linseed oil, to poultry diets has been found to increase LC n-3 PUFA (long-chain omega-3 PUFA) concentrations in chicken and turkey meat. LC n-3 PUFAs participate in many processes that condition metabolism and health, and the nutritional value of meat, including poultry, is most commonly enhanced by increasing the proportion of LC n-3 PUFAs in the product's fatty acid composition. However, it increases feed costs and may cause a deterioration in the sensory attributes and oxidative stability of meat. Turkey breast meat is characterized by a relatively low fat content, which is why the fulfilment of health claim requirements is difficult in the European Union.

Keywords

  • poultry nutrition
  • functional food
  • n-3 PUFA
  • turkey meat
Otwarty dostęp

Validation of Pedigree Relationships Using a Multiplex Microsatellite Marker Assay in Iranian Holstein Cattle / Walidacja rodowodów irańskiego bydła holsztyńskiego przy użyciu analizy multipleks markerów mikrosatelitarnych

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 481 - 493

Abstrakt

Abstract

In the present study, the pedigree and genotype data of 94 individuals were examined for accuracy of parentage allocations and identity test using 12 fluorescent-labelled microsatellite markers in a highly sensitive and accurate ABI system. The panel of 12 markers showed mean PIC value of 0.71 and Shannon index of 1.65 and 7.58 alleles per locus, which suggests that these markers are highly polymorphic and could be useful for parentage control. Based on scoring allele sizes, a total of 91 alleles were observed within the studied population. The highest and lowest number of alleles was observed for TGLA227 locus and TGLA126 and BM1818 loci, respectively. The pedigree was considered incorrect in seven (35%) out of all the evaluated progeny, as their genotype did not match their parents. Combined EP value obtained for all loci in both parentage and identification analysis was 0.99, which indicates the high efficiency of the studied marker set and the accuracy of genotyping in ABI systems. Finally, the present findings confirmed the importance of surveying the pedigree structure and efficiency of 12 fluorescent-labelled microsatellite markers in a single multiplex PCR for parentage testing in the sampled Holstein cattle population.

Keywords

  • parentage testing
  • microsatellite
  • Holstein cattle
  • pedigree
  • multiplex PCR
  • exclusion probability
Otwarty dostęp

Identification of Telomeric Sequences in Pigs with Rearranged Karyotype Using Prins Technique / Identyfikacja sekwencji telomerowych u świń z rearanżacją kariotypu przy wykorzystaniu techniki PRINS

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 495 - 502

Abstrakt

Abstract

Using PRINS technique with oligonucleotide primer complementary to the telomere sequence repeats (TTAGGG )n, the interstitial telomeric signals in 6q22 and 7q13 unstable chromosome regions in pigs with t(7;13)(q13;q46) reciprocal translocation were identified. The intrachromosomal localization of telomeric repeats specific for 7q13 region were revealed to strictly correspond to breakpoint of this translocation as well as several others described earlier. The present study showed the usefulness of PRINS technique for identification of intrachromosomal telomeric sequences in pig genome regions, extremely prone to breakage and predisposed to chromosome reorganizations, especially with regard to the clinical cases of karyotype defects.

Keywords

  • PRINS technique
  • karyotype rearrangement
  • interstitial telomeric repeats
  • reciprocal translocation breakpoints
  • pigs
Otwarty dostęp

The Relationship Between CRP Gene Polymorphism and the Serum Concentrations of C-Reactive Protein, Total Cholesterol and HDL Cholesterol in Suckling Piglets / Związek polimorfizmu genu CRP z koncentracją kodowanego białka C-reaktywnego, cholesterolu całkowitego i HDL-ch w surowicy krwi ssących prosiąt

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 503 - 512

Abstrakt

Abstract

The relationship between CRP gene (1271 G/A, 3’UTR) polymorphism and the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), total cholesterol (Ch-T) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-ch) was analysed in suckling crossbred [Polish Large White × Polish Landrace (♀) × × Duroc × Pietrain (♂)] piglets. CRP genotypes were identified by PCR-RFLP with Hinfi restriction enzyme. The levels of CRP, Ch-T, HDL-ch and white blood cell (WBC) counts were determined in blood samples collected from younger (21±3 days of age) and older piglets (35±3 days of age). There was a relationship between CRP gene (1271 G/A, 3’UTR) polymorphism and variations in the serum levels of CRP in piglets with normal WBC counts. The above relationship did not manifest itself in piglets with elevated WBC counts. The studied genotypes differed in their response to elevated WBC counts, and the noted differences were more pronounced in older piglets. The response of genotypes with weak CRP expression caused an increase in CRP levels and a decrease in the serum concentrations of Ch-T and HDL-ch. Such a response was not observed in the genotype with strong CRP expression.

Keywords

  • CRP gene
  • C-reactive protein
  • cholesterol
  • HDL-ch
  • piglets
Otwarty dostęp

Assessment of in Vitro Developmental Capacity of Porcine Nuclear-Transferred Embryos Reconstituted with Cumulus Oophorus Cells Undergoing Vital Diagnostics for Apoptosis Detection / Ocena zdolności rozwojowych in vitro klonalnych zarodków świni rekonstytuowanych z jąder komórek wzgórka jajonośnego poddawanych przyżyciowej diagnostyce w kierunku wykrywania apoptozy

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 513 - 529

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the current investigation was to extensively compare the in vitro developmental capabilities between cloned pig embryos reconstructed with the cell nuclei of either cumulus oophorus cells or adult dermal fibroblast cells that were both evaluated as non-apoptotic on the basis of YO-PRO-1- and Annexin V-eGFP-mediated vital analysis for programmed cell suicide. In Group I, the competences of nuclear-transferred (NT) embryos that were derived from non-apoptotic/ non-necrotic (i.e., YO-PRO-1- and Annexin V-eGFP-negative) cumulus cells to complete their development to the morula and blastocyst stages were maintained at the proportions of 155/364 (42.6%) and 54/364 (14.8%), respectively. In Group II, NT embryos that were reconstituted with non-apoptotic and/or non-necrotic adult cutaneous fibroblast cells developed to the morula and blastocyst stages at the rates of 207/358 (57.8%) and 110/358 (30.7%), respectively. Although the in vitro developmental potential of porcine NT embryos derived from non-apoptotic/non-necrotic cumulus cells was significantly lower (P<0.001) than that of NT embryos reconstructed with adult dermal fibroblast cells, the obtained morula/blastocyst formation rates turned out to be considerably higher as compared to the rates reported by other investigators. Altogether, to our knowledge, the comprehensive research aimed at the determination of preimplantation developmental outcomes of cloned pig embryos produced using nuclear donor somatic cells of different provenance (cumulus oophorus cells or adult cutaneous fibroblast cells) that were vitally diagnosed for the lack of proapoptotic transformations in their plasma membranes has not yet been accomplished.

Keywords

  • pig
  • cumulus oophorus cell
  • adult dermal fibroblast cell
  • YO-PRO-1 fluorochrome
  • Annexin V-eGFP conjugate
  • apoptotic cell death
  • cloned embryo
Otwarty dostęp

Egg Morphometry and Eggshell Quality in Ring-Necked Pheasants Kept in Cages / Budowa jaja i jakość skorupy u bażantów obrożnych utrzymywanych w klatkach

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 531 - 541

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the morphometry and shell quality of eggs laid by pheasants kept in cages, and also to analyse the dependence between egg shell colour parameters, its quality and morphometric characteristics. Four groups of 15 eggs (60 eggs), each classified according to their eggshell colours, i.e. blue, light brown, dark brown and olive, were examined. The eggs did not differ significantly between each other in their mean weight and olive-coloured eggs had a higher shape index (about 8.91 percentage points) than blue eggs. Blue and light brown coloured eggs had thinner shells than the dark brown eggs (by 33.57 and 27.97 μm, respectively). Blue eggs had the lightest shells (L* = 67.97) and the highest proportion of green colour in their shells since the a* parameter value for blue eggs was negative. A significant positive correlation was observed between the egg shape and the shell colour saturation (C*) and the proportion of yellow colour (b*) in it. In addition, a negative correlation was found between lightness in eggshell colour, its thickness and the egg shape (r = from -0.338* to -0.480**). In comparison with the data obtained from the literature concerning the quality of eggs laid by pheasants kept in aviaries and eggs laid by birds kept in cages, the eggs were described as having similar weights and morphometries along with greater shell thicknesses. Furthermore, our study confirmed that pheasant eggs with blue and light brown colour have poorer shell quality, a fact which has been shown already in earlier research. However, this fact is related to the lightness of the shell pigment rather than its colour.

Keywords

  • ring-necked pheasant
  • egg
  • eggshell thickness
  • eggshell colour parameter
  • correlation
Otwarty dostęp

Frequency of Occurrence of Physical Defects in Turkey Poults / Częstotliwość występowania wad budowy piskląt indyczych

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 543 - 552

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine poult quality in the first breeding season of turkeys. The study was conducted over a 24-week laying season of white broad-breasted Big 6 turkeys. Starting from the first week of laying, at three-week intervals, 504 eggs laid on the same day were weighed and the percentages of eggs weighing 70 to 100 g and more than 100 g were calculated. Results from the 21st week of laying season were not used due to failure of ventilation equipment. Each egg was visually inspected to determine the percentages of eggs with normal shell structure, rough-shelled eggs and eggs without shell pigmentation. Nine incubation cycles were carried out. Egg fertilization rates and hatch rates were determined. At the end of each incubation cycle, poults were weighed individually and divided into morphologically normal and morphologically defective. The latter were further subdivided into weak poults with poor motor skills, poults with abnormal feathers, eyes, legs and umbilicus, and poults with unabsorbed yolk sacs. Eggs with weight exceeding 100 g accounted for 17.9% and 46.6% of the analysed eggs at 12 and 24 weeks of the laying season, respectively. In week 12, eggs without shell pigmentation accounted for 8.3%. In week 24, the percentage of rough-shelled eggs was 6.7%. Most poults with physical defects hatched in weeks 1 and 3 of the laying period (65.67% and 76.84%, respectively). Weak poults with poor motor skills accounted for 0.2-2.5% of the examined birds. Wet feathers were noted in 0.9% to 4.1% of poults over the laying season. Leg abnormalities were observed in 6.5% to 7.8% of poults. Eye defects were encountered least frequently. In 41-70% of poults long black scabs were visible on their navels, and umbilical vessels were long. Unabsorbed yolk sacs were noted in 0.5% to 3.2% of poults.

Keywords

  • egg weight
  • eggshell structure
  • poult quality
Otwarty dostęp

Synovial Fluid MMP-2 and MMP-9 Levels in Internal or External Fixation for Intra-Articular Fractures / Poziom MMP-2 i MMP-9 w mazi stawowej przy wewnętrznym i zewnętrznym zespoleniu po złamaniach wewnątrzstawowych

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 553 - 562

Abstrakt

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether internal fixation or external skeletal fixation (ESF) results in better “joint health” following traumatic injury to the stifle by assessing lameness and measuring matrix metalloproteinase MMP-2 and MMP-9. Dogs with skin grafts and transarticular ESFs were included in group A. Dogs with intra-articular fractures of the distal femur were randomly divided into groups B and C, and treated with either internal or ESF, respectively. Dogs in group D had diaphyseal tibial fractures treated with ESF. Synovial fluid samples were collected pre-operatively and again 7 days and 30 days postoperatively to measure MMP-2 and -9 levels via zymography. Preoperative MMP-9 levels were higher in groups B and C than A and D. Over time, MMP-2 levels increased in groups A-C, and MMP-9 levels significantly decreased in groups B and C by 30 days postoperatively. ESF appears superior to internal fixation for repair of intra-articular fractures of the distal femur, and MMP-2 and MMP-9 could serve as markers of either fracture healing or overall joint health, particularly in the setting of PTOA.

Keywords

  • intra-articular fracture
  • internal fixation
  • external skeletal fixation
  • osteoarthritis
  • metalloproteinase
Otwarty dostęp

Stimulatory Effect of hCG on Male American Mink (Neovison Vison) in the Breeding Season / Wpływ stymulacji hCG na samce norki amerykańskiej (Neovison vison) w okresie kryć

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 563 - 570

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of a male mink single-dose hCG stimulation on the libido during the mating season and on blood testosterone levels after the season. The material involved males of American mink. The treatment-group males were administered a dose of 100, 150 or 200 U of hCG. Blood was collected twice, approx. 2 weeks prior to and on the completion of the mating season. The group receiving 100 U hCG had the highest percentage of males effectively copulating with females within the first 24 hours after stimulation, whereas males stimulated with a dose of 200 U hCG showed the lowest libido over the same period. On the other hand, males of the group stimulated with 150 U hCG mated to the highest number of females throughout the mating season. The mean plasma testosterone concentration in all the studied males on 18 February was 12.44 ng/ml. The drop in testosterone concentration at the end of the mating season was significant.

Keywords

  • mink
  • Neovison vison
  • fertility regulation
  • mating effect
  • reproduction
Otwarty dostęp

The Effectiveness of Maize DDGS in Rabbit Diets / Efektywność zastosowania suszonego wywaru kukurydzianego w dietach dla królików

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 571 - 585

Abstrakt

Abstract

The development of biofuel production in the European Union is expected to increase the production of distillers grains, which can be a good feed material after concentration, centrifugation and drying. Research shows that dried distillers grains that meet microbiological and toxicological standards can be a nutritious feed for different species of animals. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of adding different levels (5 or 10%) of maize dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to complete feeds on rearing performance and meat quality of young rabbits. The study was carried out with New Zealand White rabbits from weaning at 35 days to 90 days of age. The results obtained showed that the introduction of 5% DDGS to rabbit diets had no negative effect on rearing performance of rabbits from 35 to 90 days of age and on the quality of their meat. Despite using a detoxifier, the 10% level was hazardous to rabbits due to the high level of mycotoxins in the purchased DDGS and markedly decreased the quality of their meat. Therefore it appears necessary to analyse the distillers grains fed to this group of animals for mycotoxins, in particular to determine their safe levels for rabbits.

Keywords

  • rabbit
  • feeding
  • dried distillers grains
  • meat
Otwarty dostęp

Temperature, Humidity and Air Movement Variations Inside a Free-Stall Barn During Heavy Frost / Zróżnicowanie warunków cieplno-wilgotnościowych i ruchu powietrza w oborze wolnostanowiskowej podczas silnych mrozów

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 587 - 596

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paper presents results of research on the variability of temperature, humidity and air movement in selected areas of a free-stall barn during heavy frost. The study revealed the occurrence of unfavourable factors influencing microclimate in the barn. Some areas of the barn suffered from draughts, some were excessively exposed to sun or too shaded, which resulted in significant temperature and relative humidity fluctuations during the day as well as changes in air movement velocity. All these factors exerted an impact on cattle welfare. The conclusion points out the need to determine zones in the barn characterized by clearly different microclimatic conditions. In the studied example, these conditions were influenced by weather changes and depended on the orientation of the building to cardinal points as well as wall construction materials.

Keywords

  • dairy cows
  • free-stall barn
  • temperature
  • relative humidity
  • air movement
  • low temperature
Otwarty dostęp

Hygienic Aspects of Cattle Slurry Storage as the Most Popular and Cheapest Method of Handling Liquid Animal Excrements / Higieniczne aspekty składowania gnojowicy bydlęcej jako najpopularniejszej i najtańszej metody postępowania z płynnymi odchodami zwierzęcymi

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 597 - 609

Abstrakt

Abstract

Slurry is a very valuable natural fertilizer, but its improper use in agriculture poses a serious sanitary threat. Therefore its treatment before use for fertilization is advisable. One of such methods, which is still the most popular, is storage of liquid excrements. The aim of this study was to estimate the sanitization effectiveness of storage at 4ºC and 20ºC based on parameters describing the kinetics of changes in the population of some indicator bacteria in cattle slurry with different dry matter content. The material for the study was fresh cattle slurry. The liquid excrements used in the experiment had a dry matter content of 2, 6 and 14%. Slurry was stored at 4ºC and 20ºC. Bacilli of Salmonella Dublin, E. coli and enterococci were used as indicator bacteria. Number of microorganisms was determined based on MPN method in a 3-tube design. Basic parameters of the bacteria inactivation kinetics were calculated and statistical analysis was made using the program SAS 9.2 PL. In stored slurry a gradual elimination of all the studied microorganisms was observed. Hygienization effect of storage was smaller at 4ºC than at 20ºC and in excrements with a high dry matter content. Depending on storage temperature and dry matter proportion, the theoretical times of survival ranged from 81.85 to 220.80 days for bacilli of Salmonella Dublin, from 74.93 to 199.36 days for E. coli, and from 118.67 to 335.84 days for enterococci. The study showed explicitly that statutory time of slurry storage is insufficient to ensure its complete hygienization.

Keywords

  • cattle slurry
  • hygienization
  • storage
  • bacteria survival
Otwarty dostęp

Labelling the Behaviour of Piglets and Activity Monitoring from Video as a Tool of Assessing Interest in Different Environmental Enrichments / Oznaczanie zachowania i monitorowanie aktywności prosiąt na podstawie zapisu wideo jako narzędzie oceny ich zainteresowania różnymi elementami wzbogacającymi środowisko

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 611 - 621

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to explore the preference and the duration of interest of weaned pigs to two different types of environmental enrichments using labelling techniques and activity monitoring. Two pens each housing 14 Dalland piglets were monitored using a video camera. The videos were labelled during the weaning phase from 30 to 60 days of age. During this time, the video recording software continuously calculated the activity index of the pigs. To detect pig exploratory and playing behaviour, a wooden block and chain enrichment were introduced into each pen for 30 days. Each video frame was manually labelled during the Day 1, 5 and 30 (24 hours a day) for each pen using the Labelling Tool software. To identify the duration and frequency of interactive episodes with environmental enrichments, pig behaviour was labelled as either: no activity, interacting with chain or interacting with the wooden block. The mean duration of interactive episodes for the chain was greater than for the wooden block (P<0.001), while the frequency of interactive episodes was 28.8% higher for the wooden block than for the chain. By day 5, the mean duration of interaction episodes decreased in both pens and by day 30, only a few interaction episodes were observed. The number of interactive episodes were strictly related to the activity index and depended on the time of the day. The peaks of the mean number of interactive episodes calculated for all days of observations corresponded to the peaks of the mean activity index.

Keywords

  • piglets
  • environmental enrichment
  • labelling
  • activity monitoring
  • camera images
Otwarty dostęp

Individual and Group Euthanasia in Farmed Mink / Indywidualne i grupowe uśmiercanie norek z chowu fermowego

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 623 - 632

Abstrakt

Abstract

The study seeks to evaluate the effectiveness of euthanasia in mink (Neovison vison). The gases studied were filtered exhaust CO, and cylinder CO and CO2. The experimental setups were as follows: (1) individual killing of mink in a small killing box (35 × 30 × 60 cm; H × W × L); (2) individual killing of mink in a small killing box, kept inside a killer (12.5 × 12.5 × 55 cm; H × W × L); (3) group killing of mink in a large killing box (75 × 75 × 150 cm; H × W × L); and (4) group killing of mink in a large killing box (70 × 70 × 125 cm; H × W × L). The results showed that filtered exhaust CO concentrations of 1.2-3% were too low. Concentrations of 4-6% were effective. With cylinder CO of 4% the killing time was the same as that with engine CO at 4%. A cylinder CO2 concentration of ≥ 80% was effective. The shortest time interval after the end of all movements and respiration was with cylinder CO2. No difference was found between cylinder and filtered exhaust CO. The time the animals were alive did not significantly differ between the groups (P>0.05). The first animal collapsed soonest among those inhaling CO2 (CO2 vs cylinder CO; P=0.0045; and CO2 vs filtered exhaust CO; P=0.0009). No difference was found between cylinder CO and filtered exhaust CO (P=0.4654). There was also a significant difference in the time it took for the last animal to collapse. Here again the CO2 animals collapsed the soonest (CO2 vs cylinder CO, P=0.0062; CO2 vs exhaust CO, P=0.0012). No difference was found between cylinder and filtered exhaust CO (P=0.5660). It is concluded that concentrations of CO ≥4% and of CO2 ≥80% in the euthanasia box are sufficient to kill effectively.

Keywords

  • Neovison vison
  • killing
  • euthanasia
  • animal welfare
  • fur farming
Otwarty dostęp

Factors Affecting Ultrasound Intramuscular Fat Content in Musculus Longissimus Dorsi of Beef Bulls Estimated with Bia Pro Plus Software / Czynniki wpływające na ultrasonograficzną ocenę udziału tłuszczu śródmięśniowego mięśnia najdłuższego grzbietu buhajów mięsnych

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 633 - 644

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of ultrasound gain level, chemical composition and histological structure of musculus longissimus dorsi on pre-slaughter ultrasound evaluation of intramuscular fat content in m.l.d. of beef bulls. The study was conducted on 217 young bulls of six breeds: Red Angus, Charolais, Hereford, Limousin, Salers, and beef type Simmental. Measurements were conducted with an ultrasound system Aloka SSD-500 at five gain levels (90, 85, 80, 75, 70). After slaughter the content of intramuscular fat, total protein, connective tissue and muscle fibre type and diameter of m.l.d. were determined. Ultrasound evaluation of the intramuscular fat depended on the actual intramuscular fat and the total protein content (P<0.01) in most of the measurements. The correlation between actual and ultrasound measurement of intramuscular fat content ranged from 0.2 to 0.36, and was highly significant for most of the ultrasound gain levels. There were highly significant (P<0.01) and significant (P<0.05) negative correlations between the total protein and ultrasound fat content (r = -0.17 to -0.31). The connective tissue percentage showed a significant effect on the ultrasound fat measurements at gains of 75 and 85. Ultrasound intramuscular fat content was positively correlated with the connective tissue in the m.l.d. at gain levels of 75 and 85 and the average ultrasound intramuscular fat measurement (r = 0.16, 0.20, 0.16). Highly significant and significant correlations between each ultrasound measurement were observed.

Keywords

  • beef bulls
  • ultrasound
  • gain
  • intramuscular fat
  • connective tissue
Otwarty dostęp

Relationship Between Glycolytic Potential and Meat Quality of Duroc Pigs with Consideration of Carcass Chilling System / Związek potencjału glikolitycznego z cechami jakości mięsa tuczników rasy Duroc, z uwzględnieniem systemu chłodzenia tusz

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2013
Zakres stron: 645 - 654

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine phenotypic relations between glycolytic potential (GP) measured 45 min postmortem and meat quality traits of stress-resistant fatteners, with consideration of carcass chilling system. The investigations involved 35 Duroc fattening pigs whose left halfcarcasses were chilled conventionally (4ºC for 24 h) and right half-carcasses were rapidly chilled in a three-phase chilling tunnel (-10ºC for 15 min, -15ºC for 25 min and -5ºC for 40 min with air velocity of 3 m/s). In this study we showed that rapid chilling significantly slows the rate of pH fall from 2 to 96 h after slaughter. The negative relationship between glycolytic potential and pH (especially 24 h postmortem) was stronger for conventionally chilled carcasses but the regression coefficient (b) does not suggest increased rate of pH fall in meat of conventionally chilled carcasses (especially compared to rapid chilling) at the later stages of conversion of muscle to meat (from 24 to 144 h after slaughter). In this investigation GP was positively correlated to drip loss at 48 h postmortem, and a stronger correlation was noted for rapidly chilled carcasses. Moreover, the regression coefficient indicates that rapid chilling to 48 h postmortem can cause a slightly higher drip loss from meat than when the carcasses are chilled conventionally (0.55 vs. 0.46 percentage points per 10 μmol/g GP). At the later stages of conversion of muscle to meat (96 and 144 h postmortem) the correlation and regression coefficients were the same regardless of the chilling system.

Keywords

  • Duroc
  • glycolytic potential
  • chilling system
  • meat quality

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