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Zeszyt Editors: Magdalena Bielska, Jerzy Pilawski, Katarzyna Skupniewicz

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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2300-8733
Pierwsze wydanie
25 Nov 2011
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

AHEAD OF PRINT

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2300-8733
Pierwsze wydanie
25 Nov 2011
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

47 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Tomato pomace waste as safe feed additive for poultry health and production – a review

Data publikacji: 16 May 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Tomato cultivation and industrial processing produce a considerable amount of tomato pomace, peels, and seeds, which are difficult to handle. These by-products contain a variety of minerals and bioactive substances, and may thus be further valorized, generating additional revenue for processing plants while also decreasing environmental issues caused by their buildup. The inclusion of tomato pomace in poultry feed has been shown to produce promising effects in poultry growth and health, however the results are largely inconsistent. Literature has documented improvement in growth, egg production and quality, immunological and antioxidant effects in poultry. This review has complied the impacts of tomato pomace on the growth and health indices of poultry.

Słowa kluczowe

  • growth
  • health
  • production
  • tomato pomace
Otwarty dostęp

New long-non coding RNAs related to fat deposition based on pig model

Data publikacji: 16 May 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Obesity is a problem in the last decades since the development of certain technologies has forced submission to a faster pace of life, resulting in nutritional changes. Domestic pigs are an excellent animal model in recognition of adiposity-related processes, corresponding to the size of individual organs, the distribution of body fat in the organism, and similar metabolism. The present study applied next-generation sequencing to identify adipose tissue (AT) transcriptomic signals related to increased fat content by identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including long-non coding RNAs in Złotnicka White pigs (n=16). Moreover, besides commonly used functional analysis, we applied the Freiburg RNA tool to predict DE lncRNA targets based on calculation hybridisation energy. And in addition, DE lncRNAs were recognized based on information available in databases. The obtained results show that closely 230 gene expression was found to be dependent on fat content, included 8 lncRNAs. The most interesting was that among identified DE lncRNAs was transcript corresponding to human MALAT1, which was previously considered in the obesity-related context. Moreover, it was identified that in ENSSSCG00000048394, ENSSSCG00000047210, ENSSSCG00000047442 and ENSSSCG00000041577 lncRNAs are contained repeat insertion domains of LncRNAs (RIDLs) considered as important gene expression regulatory elements, and ENSSSCG00000041577 seems to be the host for mir1247(NR_031649.1). The analysis of energy hybridisation between DE lncRNAs and DEGs using the Freiburg IntaRNAv2 tool, including isoforms expressed in AT, showed that ENSSSCG00000047210 lncRNA interacted with the highest number of DEGs and ENSSSCG00000047210 expression was only correlated with positive fat-related DEGs. The functional analysis showed that down-regulated DEGs involved in ECM proteoglycan pathways could be under control of both positive and negative fat-related lncRNAs. The present study, using pigs as an animal model, expands our current knowledge of possible gene expression regulation by lncRNAs in fat tissue and indicates for MALAT1 role in the fat deposition determination, which function is still often questioned or doubtful.

Słowa kluczowe

  • lncRNA
  • obesity
  • fatness
  • pig
  • gene expression regulation
  • miRNA
Otwarty dostęp

Dietary L-glutamine affects eggshell quality in the post-peak laying period

Data publikacji: 02 May 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

In the current study the hypothesis that 1.0% dietary inclusion of glutamine (Gln), a conditionally essential amino acid that influences protein synthesis and shows anti-osteoporotic effect, can influence eggshell quality was tested on laying hens in the post-peak laying period. A 30-week-old Bovans Brown hens were randomly assigned to control group or group supplemented with Gln in the form of alpha-ketoglutarate (10 g/kg) with 12 replicate cages (2 hens/cage) in each group. The experimental period lasted for 30 weeks, from the 31st to the 60th week of age of hens, when eggs were collected and selected eggshell quality indices were determined. While Gln supplementation had no effect on egg geometry and eggshell cracking force, the analysis of eggshell quality showed an increase of the eggshell thickness (P<0.01), porosity (P<0.01), eggshell specific surface (P<0.001) and positive changes in other mechanical parameters (decrease of eggshell stiffness and Young’s modulus, P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively; increase of work needed to crack the eggshell, P<0.05). Changes in eggshell mineral composition, including an increase of Ca content (P<0.001), were also observed. In conclusion, the current study showed a beneficial effect of Gln on the eggshell thickness, calcification, and some mechanical parameters.

Otwarty dostęp

The effect of supplementation with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric acid (HMB) to pregnant sows on the mucosal structure, immunolocalization of intestinal barrier proteins, VIP and leptin in the large intestine in their offspring

Data publikacji: 20 Nov 2021
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The large intestine epithelium plays an important role in water absorption and participates in fluid, acid-base and electrolyte balance, and the removal of waste products. The large intestine is rich in microorganism-presented enzyme activity. Apart from energy supply, the colon also participates in the synthesis of trophic factors and the modulation of the immune system and the systemic inflammatory response. The current study investigated the effects of dietary HMB administration to pregnant sows on the postnatal development of the colon in their offspring, at weaning. From the 70th to the 90th day of gestation, sows received either a basal diet (n = 12) or the basal diet supplemented with HMB (n = 12) at a dose of 0.2 g/kg of body weight/day. Maternal HMB treatment increased serum IgG and glucose concentrations and decreased serum urea concentration in the piglets. Basal histomorphometric analysis of offspring large intestines showed that prenatal HMB treatment led to a reduction in the thickness of the mucosa, submucosa and both types of myenterons, as well as reduced crypt thickness. The immunoreaction performed to mark T0 lymphocytes and total T lymphocytes in the colon wall showed that prenatal HMB treatment decreased the number of both types of lymphocytes. Greater expression for cadherin was found in the colon of piglets delivered by the HMB-treated sows. The expression of both tight junction proteins (occludin and claudin-3), as well as that of leptin, was stronger in the HMB-treated group. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) expression was stronger in the submucosal plexuses in the HMB maternal treated piglets, while no changes were observed in the myenteric plexuses. The results obtained indicate that the administration of HMB to pregnant sows significantly influenced the expression of leptin, VIP and some proteins of the intestinal barrier in their offspring, with less influence on large intestine basal morphology.

Słowa kluczowe

  • offspring
  • pigs
  • colon
  • pregnancy
  • weaning
  • HMB
Otwarty dostęp

Embryo production by in vitro fertilization in wild ungulates: progress and perspectives

Data publikacji: 09 Mar 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Wild ungulates are of fundamental importance for balancing ecosystems, as well as being the species of economic interest. Increasing concern over the accelerated population reduction of these species has resulted in the development of assisted reproduction techniques, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), as a tool for conservation and multiplication. In the present scenario, IVF protocols were developed based on the methodologies used for domestic ungulates. Nevertheless, owing to the physiological and reproductive differences among the species, several factors associated with IVF and its relationship with the characteristics of the species of interest require clarification. In vitro conditions for the collection and selection of female and male gametes, oocyte maturation, sperm capacitation, co-incubation of gametes, and embryonic development can influence IVF results. Therefore, the present review considers the main advances in the methodologies already used for wild ungulates, emphasizing the strategies for improving the protocols to obtain better efficiency rates. Additionally, we discuss the conditions of each IVF stage, with emphasis on aspects related to in vitro manipulation and comparability with the protocols for domestic ungulates.

Słowa kluczowe

  • wildlife conservation
  • assisted reproduction
  • fertilization
  • gametes
  • embryos
Otwarty dostęp

Evaluating the growth of genetically improved tilapia Oreochromis niloticus reared at different temperatures

Data publikacji: 16 May 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate the growth and performance of genetically improved tilapia reared at different temperatures. Four hundred and eighty fingerlings of Genomar Supreme Tilapia, GST (8.39 ± 0.60 g) were equally separated into three indoor water recirculation systems maintained at 22, 26 and 30 ºC. Each of four tanks contained 500 liters with 40 fish per tank in natural photoperiod. The fish were fed ad libitum with the same feed for each growth phase, weighing the total feed supplied. After 30 min of feeding, leftover feed was collected, dried in an oven and weighed. Ten fish from each tank were weighed at days 1, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210. Survival, weight gain, feed conversion and feed intake in each period were determined. Fish reared at 30 ºC and 26 ºC showed a higher specific growth rate than that of fish reared at 22ºC (P≤0.05). Feed intake increased along temperature and feed conversion and was poorest in fish reared at 26ºC (P≤0.05). Final fish weight estimates at day 210 by the Gompertz model were 597.84, 819.26 and 1079.39 g for 22, 26 and 30 ºC, respectively. At 30 ºC, fish had a higher absolute growth rate (7.76 g day−1) and lower weight (459.30 g) and age (95.85 days) at the inflection point. Tilapia at 22 ºC had a higher weight (539.57 g) and age (197 days) and lower absolute growth rate (4.52 g day−1). It was concluded that GST tilapia can potentially improve aquaculture in all Brazilian regions based on different rearing temperatures.

Słowa kluczowe

  • absolute growth rate
  • fish growth
  • growth model
  • weight gain
  • tilapia culture
Otwarty dostęp

The effects of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) seeds on the growth performance, growth hormone, antibacterial capacity, and immune response of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

Data publikacji: 02 May 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Coriander seeds are among the functional herbal supplements, but their effects on aquatic animals are still lacking. Herein we evaluated the effects of coriander seeds on the growth performance, growth hormone, antibacterial capacity, and immune response of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Fish with initial mean weights of 5.08 ± 0.12 g/fish were allocated in four groups (in triplicate) and fed dietary coriander at 0, 5, 10, and 20 g/kg for 150 days. The growth performance, feed utilization, and survival rate of fish-fed dietary coriander meaningfully increased (P<0.05). The protein efficiency ratio gradually increased (P<0.05) in fish-fed coriander seeds compared with the control. On the other hand, the feed conversion ratio was gradually decreased (P<0.05) in fish-fed coriander seeds comparing with the control. The survival rate was markedly increased (P<0.05) in European sea bass-fed dietary coriander regardless of the inclusion level. Further, no differences were seen among fish fed varying levels of coriander (P<0.05). The level of blood growth hormone was markedly higher (P<0.05) in European sea bass-fed dietary coriander at 20 g/kg than fish-fed 0 and 5 g/kg. The abundance of intestinal Vibrio spp. and Faecal Coliform were obviously lower (P<0.05) in fish fed 10 and 20 g/kg than fish fed the coriander-free diet. Further, fish fed 20 g/kg had lower (P<0.05) Vibrio spp. and Faecal Coliform counts than fish fed 10 g/kg. Fish fed dietary coriander had significantly higher (P<0.05) hematocrit, hemoglobulin, red blood cells (RBCs), and white blood cells (WBCs) than fish fed the control. The lysozyme and phagocytic activities were meaningfully increased (P<0.05) in fish fed 10 and 20 g/kg compared with fish fed 0 and 5 g/kg of dietary coriander. In conclusion, dietary coriander could be included in the diets at 10–20 g/kg to improve the growth performance, growth hormone, feed utilization, and immune response of European sea bass.

Słowa kluczowe

  • aquaculture
  • coriander
  • sea bass
  • growth hormone
  • blood health
Otwarty dostęp

The effects of different stocking densities on nursery performance of Banana shrimp (Fenneropenaeus merguiensis) reared under biofloc condition

Data publikacji: 16 May 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The effects of Banana shrimp Fenneropenaeus merguiensis stocking density on water quality, growth performance, survival rate and body composition was assessed in a biofloc system with limited water exchange. The study was conducted for 32 days with an average larvae weight of 10 ± 0.85 mg in fiberglass tanks containing 120 L of water at four stocking densities. Five experimental treatments consisted of a control (density 1000 shrimps/ m3) with 50% daily water exchange and four biofloc treatments with limited water exchange (0.5% daily) at four stocking levels (1000 shrimps, T1; 2000 shrimps, T2, 3000 shrimps, T3 and 4000 shrimps, T4/ m3) were considered. According to the results, total ammonia nitrogen (0.99 mg /L) and nitrite levels showed higher amounts in the control compared with the other treatments (P<0.05). Growth performance and survival rate (95.55%) in the biofloc treatment with a density of 1000 shrimps/ m3 were higher than the other treatments (P<0.05). The proximate composition of shrimp body and biofloc produced in rearing tanks depended on the stocking density, so the shrimp body ash increased along with the enhancement of stocking density. The lowest amount of ash (31.53± 0.81%) and protein (26.38± 1.26) of bioflocs was observed in T1 treatment. The present study showed that stocking density affects the water quality, growth performance, survival rate and body composition of Banana shrimp larvae in a biofloc system. More improved indices of water quality, growth performance and survival rate were observed with the least stocking density of 1000 shrimps / m3 in the limited water exchange system.

Słowa kluczowe

  • biofloc
  • banana shrimp
  • stocking density
  • growth performance
  • biochemical composition
  • limited water exchange
Otwarty dostęp

Rapeseed meal as a feed component in monogastric animal nutrition – a review

Data publikacji: 02 May 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Rapeseed is an important oil crop worldwide, with an annual production of more than 70 million tons. Rapeseed meal (RSM) is a by-product of rapeseed oil production and is second after soybean meal (SBM) in the world production of protein meal. Rapeseed meal derived from black-seeded winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) usually contains between 35 and 40% of crude protein (CP), which is considered to be one of the more valuable plant proteins. It has a good balance of essential amino acids and a very high protein efficiency ratio (PER=3.29). However, full utilisation of this protein is difficult due to presence of the non-protein components of the seed which are associated with it. These are called antinutritional factors and they limit the utilisation of RSM in monogastric animal nutrition. The main antinutritional factors in RSM are dietary fibre, glucosinolates, phytic acid, and phenolic compounds (sinapine, tannins). For many years, research has been conducted in many centers around the world to improve the nutritional value of RSM, which will consequently increase its use in feeding monogastric animals. The attempts that have been undertaken include breeding strategy, optimisation, modernisation and better control of the oil extraction process, as well as technological treatments of seeds and meal. This review provides information on how RSM has evolved in recent years, as well as on its nutritive value, particularly protein, fibre and glucosinolate content. Techniques which have been used to improve the nutritional value of rapeseed products are also discussed. However, the used methods do not allow for full replacement soybean meal by RSM in monogastric animal nutrition.

Słowa kluczowe

  • feed
  • rapeseed meal
  • antinutritional factors
  • protein
Otwarty dostęp

Different dietary ratios of arginine, methionine and lysine for turkeys: effects on whole-body composition and nutrient utilization efficiency in the early growth stage

Data publikacji: 02 May 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The growth rate, tissue development and health status of turkeys are affected by the dietary supply of essential amino acids (AAs) such as lysine (Lys), methionine (Met) and arginine (Arg). According to various guidelines, the diets fed to turkeys in the first 4 weeks of the rearing period should contain 1.60–1.76% Lys, 1.60–1.80% Arg and 0.55–0.70% Met. This study investigated the effects of different ratios of Arg and Met in starter diets with 1.60% of Lys content, i.e. a low level, on the whole-body composition of turkeys and nutrient retention efficiency. The experiment lasted for 28 days and it had a two-factorial randomized design with three levels of Arg (90%, 100% and 110%) and two levels of Met (30% or 45%), relative to the content of dietary Lys, with six groups of eight replicates per group and 18 turkeys per replicate. Different dietary Arg and Met levels, relative to Lys, did not affect AA concentrations in the body protein or the proximate whole-body composition (crude protein, crude fat, gross energy and ash) of turkeys. The higher Met level positively influenced energy, protein and Arg utilization and their retention efficiency as well as the growth performance of turkeys. An increase in the dietary level of Arg to 100% and 110% of Lys content had no influence on the growth performance of turkeys and it reduced the retention efficiency of Arg. Differences in the body weight gain, feed intake and Lys utilization of turkeys fed diets with different Arg levels resulted also from the strong interaction between Met and Arg levels. At the lower level of Met in the diet, a decrease in Arg relative to Lys from 100% to 90% resulted in decreased (P = 0.003) feed intake (from 50.34 g to 46.72 g) and growth rate (from 31.84 g to 29.79 g), which was not noted for the higher Met content (45% relative to Lys). At the lowest level of Arg in the diet (90% of Lys content), a decrease in Met relative to Lys from 45% to 30% caused a decrease in Lys retention efficiency (from 61.51% to 56.29%). The results of this study suggest that the higher content of Met in the diet (45% to Lys) and the Arg level corresponding to 90% of Lys content contribute to optimizing nutrient retention efficiency in turkeys during the first 28 days of their life.

Słowa kluczowe

  • turkey
  • amino acid
  • whole-body composition
  • nutrient utilization
Otwarty dostęp

Effects of different carbon sources on water quality, biofloc quality, and the productivity of Nile tilapia reared in biofloc-based ponds

Data publikacji: 02 May 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The present study evaluated the effects of different carbohydrates materials used as carbon sources on water quality, biofloc quality, and growth and productive performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) reared in biofloc (BFT)-based cement ponds (25 m x 10 m x 1.2 m; with 250 m3 volume). Nile tilapia fingerlings (44.9±1.9 g) were distributed into nine ponds at a density of 40 fish per 1 m3 (10000 fish/pond) to represent three treatments in triplicates. The control ponds received no carbon source addition; meanwhile sugarcane molasses (MO) and wheat flour (WF) were added to ponds. A commercial diet (30% crude protein) was offered to fish in each pond at levels of 3% and 2% of live body weight of fish in the control and BFT-based ponds, respectively, for 12 weeks. The amounts of feed were divided equally to three equal portions and offered to fish at 9:00, 13:00, and 17:00 h. The control ponds’ water was replaced by 50% every day with new water; meanwhile in MO and WF ponds, water loss via evaporation or leakage was compensated to reach the 1.0 m depth only. The pH value as well as unionized ammonia and nitrite levels, in the present study, were significantly lower, meanwhile nitrate and total suspended solids levels were significantly higher in MO and WF-treated ponds than the control one. The WF treatment resulted in significantly larger biofloc volume and higher total bacterial count compared to the MO treatment. The highest growth and production indices of Nile tilapia were observed in the BFT-based treatments as compared with the control group; particularly at the WF treatment followed by the MO treatment. In conclusion, the WF addition to cement fishponds is a more beneficial carbonaceous source for the efficient water quality, biofloc biomass, and growth and productivity of Nile tilapia reared in BFT-based system.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Nile tilapia
  • biofloc system
  • zero-water exchange system
  • carbon sources
  • water quality
  • fish growth and productivity
Otwarty dostęp

Effects of dietary halloysite supplementation on broiler chicken’s blood parameters, carcass and meat quality, and bone characteristics: a preliminary study

Data publikacji: 16 May 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of halloysite supplementation to the complete diets for broiler chickens on selected blood parameters, carcass and organ characteristics, as well as bone and meat traits. The trial was conducted under experimental conditions in a large-scale poultry farm on 18,000 broiler chickens. The one-day broiler chicken Ross 308 chicks were randomly divided into two groups: control (C) and experimental (E) in an amount of 9,000 birds per group. In each group, chicks were separated into five pens (100 m2) with 1800 chicks per pen. The birds were fed granulated complete mixtures without (C group) or with halloysite (E group) distributed in an amount of 1% (based on fresh matter) from the 11 d of life. Analysis revealed that halloysite supplementation to the broiler diet at the level of 1% showed a trend (P = 0.056) towards higher final body weight, significantly improved carcass yield (P = 0.048), and reduced the relative weights of the liver and gizzard (P < 0.05). No differences (P > 0.05) were observed either in terms of the physicochemical parameters of the broiler chickens’ breast muscles, except a significantly lower b* value of the colour parameter (P = 0.048). In turn, in the blood serum, the addition of 1% halloysite significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the content of triglycerides and the total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein fraction, but did not affect (P > 0.05) the high-density lipoprotein fraction, calcium, phosphorus or alkaline phosphate content. Tibia and femur characteristics (weight, length, relative bone weight, bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and breaking strength) were not affected (P > 0.05) by the usage of halloysite. In conclusion, supplementation of broiler diet with halloysite in the amount of 1% had beneficial effects on the carcass yield and health status of the animals, without any adverse effect on the bone parameters or meat quality of the broiler chickens.

Słowa kluczowe

  • broiler chickens
  • carcass characteristics
  • meat quality
  • serum parameters
  • bone
Otwarty dostęp

How potentially sustainable solutions may be unsustainable in practice: carrot pomaces in common carp nutrition

Data publikacji: 15 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of carrot pomaces dried at two temperatures as a feed component on growth performance, environmental sustainability, and meat quality in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Three diets were developed: a control without pomace (CON); CPL with 15.5% carrot pomace dried at 40°C and CPH with 23.6% carrot pomace dried at 120°C. A total of 240 two-year-old common carp (average body weight of individual: 1025 g) were randomly distributed into 12 tanks, four per treatment, including 20 fish per tank. The experiment was performed using an outdoor open flow aquaculture system. The growth trial lasted 60 days, after which fish samples were taken for analysis of meat quality parameters. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of the final body weight, protein efficiency ratio, or survival rate. However, in terms of weight gain, specific growth rate, and feed conversion ratio, fish fed the CPH diet exhibited significant worsening. Moreover, the fillets of fish from the CPH group exhibited a darker coloration compared to the CON diet. It is concluded that high temperature drying of carrot pomace added to carp diet negatively affected fish quality. It should be also emphasized that inclusion of the both carrot pomaces tested in this study significantly increased the usage of fish meal per kilogram of fish body weight gain. These results showed a reduced efficacy of using carrot pomace in practical and sustainable common carp nutrition.

Słowa kluczowe

  • common carp
  • carrot pomace
  • meat quality
  • sustainable aquaculture
Otwarty dostęp

Evaluating local strains of soybean and corn cultivars in the diets of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): growth and insulin-like growth factor 1, intestinal health, and inflammation features

Data publikacji: 16 May 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Recently, the high cost of aquafeed affected fish farming feasibility in some countries, including Egypt. The imported soybean meal and corn ingredients consume a large amount of the hard currency, thereby increasing feed prices. Thus, the current study investigated the different sources of soybean and corn on the performances of Nile tilapia. Fish fed with the diet I (based on Egyptian soybean meal cultivar and cornmeal cultivar) or diet II (based on imported soybean meal cultivar and cornmeal cultivar) in a 90-day feeding trial. The results showed no marked effects on the growth performance, protein efficacy ratio, and FCR in the case of fish-fed diet I or diet II. No histological alterations were observed in the skeletal muscle, hepatopancreas, spleen, and intestines, while the diet I-fed group showed normal architecture of the above-listed organs. The expression of liver and muscle IGF-1 showed no changes in fish-fed diet I or diet II. No diet-related variations were observed in IL-1β expression in the spleen but increased regulation in the liver of the diet II group compared to the diet I group. Furthermore, significant upregulation of SOD and HSP70 genes were seen in the spleen and liver of the diet II-fed group. We conclude that the inclusion of the Egyptian soybean meal cultivar and cornmeal cultivar (diet I) did not reduce the growth performance and immune-related genes compared with the imported soybean meal cultivar and cornmeal cultivar (diet II).

Słowa kluczowe

  • Nile tilapia
  • performance
  • histopathological findings
  • growth-related genes
  • aquafeed
  • sustainability
Otwarty dostęp

Differences and changes: an evaluation of the genetic diversity of Arabian mares from Polish state studs born between 1996 and 2013

Data publikacji: 16 May 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The goal of our study was to estimate genetic diversity of Arabian horses from Polish state studs which could have changed due to the extensive use of foreign sires in Polish breeding after 1989. The analysis focused on 1,388 Arabian mares born from 1996 to 2013 in the Białka, Janów Podlaski and Michałów studs. Basic parameters of pedigree, mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite analyses were considered in the study. In the pedigree analysis, changes in the gene pool over the years were noted through the considerable increase of contribution of new founders’ genes and the considerable decrease of inbreeding level. The microsatellite analysis confirmed progressive changes in the gene pool but, contrary to expectations, only three new microsatellite alleles were detected, and a decreased level of heterozygosity was observed. In turn, mtDNA analysis showed a stable genetic situation in the studs throughout the period analysed. The results of the analyses present a diverse picture of the population, which is clearly divided into the three subpopulations of Białka, Janów Podlaski and Michałów, although the pictures presented differed depending on the analytical methods used. Genetic differences among the studs should be considered a positive feature of the Polish population. In order to preserve the present level of population genetic diversity, changes in breeding policy are needed that aim to stop the loss of genes of the historical ancestors of Polish Arabian horses.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Arabian horse
  • genetic diversity
  • mtDNA
  • microsatellite
  • pedigree analysis
Otwarty dostęp

Fibrolytic enzymes increases fermentation losses and reduces fiber content of sorghum silage

Data publikacji: 16 May 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Fiber digestibility is a key-point of forage usage in ruminant production systems. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of fibrolytic enzyme blend on whole-plant sorghum silage fermentation profile, fermentative losses, chemical composition, in vitro degradation, and aerobic stability. It used fifty experimental silos (plastic bucket, 28 cm i.d. and 25 cm of height) in a blocked randomized design to evaluate the following fibrolytic enzyme levels: 0, 150, 300, 450, and 600 mL per ton. of dry matter (DM). Enzymes had 300 U/mL of xylanase and 300 U/mL of cellulase. Enzymes linearly increased acetic acid, branched-chain organic acids, and ethanol concentration of silage. Although there was no treatment effect on silage DM recovery over the ensiling process, enzyme levels linearly increased gas, effluent, and total losses. Intermediary levels of enzymes (from 312 to 342 mL/ton. DM) decreased fiber content (NDF and ADF), whereas improved NFC silage content. Besides, enzymes did not affect DM and NDF degradation and tended to linearly reduce acid detergent fiber in vitro degradation. The enzymes addition linearly decreased silage temperature after aerobic exposure. However, there was no treatment effect on silage pH after aerobic exposure neither during the time that silage remained with a temperature lower than 2 °C above environmental temperature. Thus, fibrolytic enzymes reduce fiber content, promote a heterolactic fermentation, and reduce silage temperature after aerobic exposure. However, it increases fermentative losses and has no positive effect on in vitro degradation and in the time of aerobic stability.

Słowa kluczowe

  • acetic acid
  • cellulase
  • fiber degradation
  • neutral detergent fiber
  • xylanase
Otwarty dostęp

Effects of higher plasma growth hormone levels on subclinical ketosis in postpartum Holstein cows

Data publikacji: 16 May 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Ketosis is a major metabolic disorder that can lead to huge economic losses in postpartum dairy cows by influencing milk production and reproduction performance. Therefore, it is very important to understand the characteristics and significance of plasma GH levels and dynamic changes in postpartum dairy cows for finding pathogenesis of subclinical ketosis (SK). The present study aimed to determine the role of growth hormone (GH) from the onset of SK to the fifth week postpartum and to explain the variations in GH, and metabolic markers namely, β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and glucose (GLU) at early and later SK stages in postpartum Holstein cows. A 5-wk test and an intraday 12-h test were conducted in postpartum Holstein cows. Both tests were carried out every three hours from 10:00–22:00 for 7–14 days postpartum (12-h test: n = 16) to determine plasma concentrations of GH, BHBA, NEFA and GLU. The 5-wk test results showed that GH, BHBA and NEFA concentrations were significantly higher in the SK group during the five-weeks postpartum (p < 0.01); GLU concentration was significantly lower in the SK group (p < 0.01). Intraday 12-h test results revealed that the feeding time affected the plasma concentrations of GH, BHBA, NEFA and GLU. After 1-h of feeding time, GH concentrations decreased, while BHBA, NEFA and GLU concentrations increased. After 4-h of feeding time GH, BHBA and NEFA had the highest plasma concentrations, and GLU the lowest. In both experiments, GH was positively correlated with BHBA, NEFA, and negatively correlated with GLU. It can be suggested that GH has a potential role in development and aetiology of subclinical ketosis.

Słowa kluczowe

  • growth hormone
  • ketosis
  • Holstein
  • BHBA
  • NEFA
  • GLU
  • dynamic changes
  • plasma
Otwarty dostęp

Why Osteoglossomorpha is one of the most peculiar groups of fish - a review

Data publikacji: 15 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Osteoglossomorpha is a significant taxon for studies of evolution and various aspects of fish biology as an evolutionarily old group of fish. The taxon exhibits anatomical, morphological and physiological diversity and various adaptations such as air breathing or electroreception as well as modifications visible in sight and olfactory organs. A peculiarity of this group is the presence of four types of spermatozoa, namely complex introsperm and uni-, bi-, and aflagellate aquasperm. Given the unique morphology and large dimensions of some species, osteoglossomorphs are popular in aquaristics as ornamental fish, and in fisheries because they are an important source of food in many countries. The aim of this paper is to focus on some aspects of the biology and unique features as well as the importance for humans of this unusual group of fish.

Słowa kluczowe

  • bony-tongue fishes
  • biogeography
  • electroreception
  • air breathing
  • reproductive biology
Otwarty dostęp

The use of artemia for aquaculture industry: An updated overview

Data publikacji: 15 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The increasing global population tends many sectors to overcome the food security issue; sustainable aquaculture is one of the systems that reveal the food problem in the world. The aquaculture industry is drastically increasing to offer the growing demand for this food type. The high mortalities threaten this sector during the first larval stages because of the low supplies of suitable feed for the fish larva. Artemia is vital for the aquaculture industry as it is the primary feed source for fish larvae; it is distinguished by its small size, food carrier characteristic, and off-the-shelf food feature. However, the principal source of artemia cysts has been affected by climate change, ultimately affecting artemia cyst production. Consequently, many areas worldwide try to produce artemia locally to satisfy the aquaculture rearing requirements. As a feed transmitter, artemia can be enriched with essential elements to feed the fish larvae; this method increases survivability, growth performance, and other growth indicators for many fish species. This review aimed to update the academia and stakeholders involved in artemia production in relation to the aquaculture industry. An updated overview of artemia production is also presented in the current review.

Słowa kluczowe

  • live food
  • enrichment
  • sustainable aquaculture
  • larvae feeding
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of serum starvation and contact inhibition on dermal fibroblast cell cycle synchronization in two species of wild felids and domestic cat

Data publikacji: 15 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Cell cycle synchronization of donor cells is an important step in mammalian somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). This study was designed to compare the efficiency of serum starvation (Ss) and contact inhibition (cI) on cell cycle synchronization of jaguarundi, manul, and domestic cat skin fibroblasts, in the production of G0/G1 cells suitable for SCNT in felids. Ss was performed after the growing (G) cells reached 40–50% (G50+Ss), 60–70% (G70+Ss) and full confluency (Fc), i.e. in association with cI (cI+Ss). Frozen-thawed cells were cultured to the given state of confluency (d0; controls), and subjected to Ss or cI for 1, 3, and 5 days (d). In manul, the effect of Ss on arresting fibroblasts in the G0/G1 phase was noted after just 1d of culture at G70 confluence, while G50+Ss and cI+Ss were effective after 5d of treatment. In jaguarundi, 1–5d of G50+Ss and 5d of G70+Ss increased the percentage of G0/G1 cells versus d0 (P<0.01), with 5d of G70+Ss producing more (P<0.05) quiescent cells than after the same period of G50+Ss, cI+Ss and cI. In the domestic cat, Ss was efficient only after 3 and 5d of G50+Ss. In all species, cI alone failed to increase the proportion of G0/G1 cells compared to d0, however in the domestic cat, 5d of cI was more efficient than the same period of G50+Ss. In jaguarundi, >93% of cells were already in G0/G1 phase at d0 of Fc, suggesting that culture to Fc could be also a valuable method for fibroblast cell cycle synchronization in this species. In contrast to cI, prolonged Ss generated cell loss and could induce apoptosis and/or necrosis. In conclusion, Ss was the more efficient method for skin fibroblast cell cycle synchronization at the G0/G1 phase in manul, jaguarundi and the domestic cat. The response of cells to the treatments was species-specific, depending on cell confluence and duration of culture. This research may find application in preparing donor karyoplasts for SCNT in felids.

Słowa kluczowe

  • fibroblasts
  • cell cycle
  • contact inhibition
  • serum starvation
  • feline
Otwarty dostęp

Dietary Sargassum angustifolium (Macro-Algae, Sargassaceae) extract improved antioxidant defense system in diazionon-exposed common carp, Cyprinus carpio

Data publikacji: 16 May 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The effects of different dietary levels of algae (Sargassum angustifolium) extract were investigated on the antioxidant system of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Fish (30.2 ± 2.1 g) were fed 0 (control), 5, 10 and 15 g/kg basal diet of Sargassum angustifolium extract (SAE) for 60 days and then exposed to an environmentally relevant concentration of diazinon (2 mg/l) for 24 h. The biochemical assays was conducted in two times including at the end of feeding period and after 24 h exposure to diazinon. According to the results, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the liver remained unchanged (P>0.01) during feeding period, while significantly increased in response to diazinon in control and fish fed 5 and 10 g/kg diet SAE (P<0.01). The hepatic metabolic enzymes (AST: Aspartate aminotransferase, ALT: alanine aminotransferase, LDH: lactate dehydrogenase, CK: creatine kinase) showed no significant changes in all groups during feeding period, while these enzymes increased in Non-SAE supplemented fish and those fed 5 and 10 g/kg SAE after exposure to diazinon (P<0.01). Although little elevations were observed in the activity of hepatic antioxidant enzymes (CAT: catalase, SOD: superoxide dismutase, GPx: Glutathione peroxidase) in fish fed SAE, these elevations were not significant (P>0.01). After exposure to diazinon, antioxidant enzymes significantly decreased in control and fish fed 5 g/kg diet SAE, while the fish of 10 and 15 g/kg diet SAE treatments showed significant elevations (P<0.01). The antioxidant-related genes (sod, cat, gpx) significantly expressed more in response to dietary SAE compared to control (P<0.01). After exposure to diazinon, all groups showed significant elevations in antioxidant-related genes (P<0.01). In conclusion, the results of the present study revealed the antioxidant enhancing effects of SAE at dietary levels of 10 and 15 g/kg diet, which this effect may be attributed to some antioxidant components in the chemical composition of the macro-algae or to the direct effect of SAE on antioxidant defence system of the fish.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pesticide
  • antioxidant
  • gene expression
  • macroalgae
  • fish
Otwarty dostęp

Lactobacillus casei (IBRC-M 10,711) ameliorates the growth retardation, oxidative stress, and immunosuppression induced by malathion toxicity in goldfish (Carassius auratus)

Data publikacji: 16 May 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Probiotics can functionality improve fish wellbeing and are suggested as antioxidative agents to protect fish from xenobiotics toxicity. Herein, dietary Lactobacillus casei (IBRC-M 10,711) was included in the diets of goldfish (Carassius auratus) to protect against malathion toxicity. Fish (12.47 ± 0.06 g) were randomly allocated to six groups (triplicates), as follows: T1) control; T2) fish exposed to 50% of malathion 96 h LC50; T3) L. casei at 106 CFU/g diet; T4) L. casei at 107 CFU/g diet; T5) fish exposed to 50% of malathion 96 h LC50 + L. casei at 106 CFU/g diet; T6) fish exposed to 50% of malathion 96 h LC50 + L. casei at 107 CFU/g diet. After 60 days, goldfish fed T4 had the highest final body weight (FBW), weight gain (WG), and specific growth rate (SGR), and the lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) among the groups (P < 0.05). However, the T2 group showed lower FBW, WG, and SGR and higher FCR than fish in T1 (P < 0.05). Fish in the T4 group had the highest blood total proteins, albumin, and globulin, while fish in T2 had the lowest levels (P < 0.05). Fish in the group T2 had the highest triglycerides, cholesterol, cortisol, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in the blood, while fish fed T4 had the lowest values (P < 0.05). The superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) showed the highest activities in T3 and T4 groups, and the lowest SOD was seen in the T2 group, whereas the lowest CAT was seen in the T2, T5, and T6 groups (P < 0.05). Fish in the T5 and T6 groups had higher glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities than fish in T1 and T2 groups but T3 and T4 groups showed the highest values (P < 0.05). T2 group had the highest malondialdehyde (MDA) level, while T3 and T4 groups had the lowest MDA level (P < 0.05). Blood immunoglobulin (Ig) and lysozyme activity were significantly higher in T3 and T4 groups and lower in the T2 group than in the control (P < 0.05). The alternative complement pathway (ACH50) was significantly higher in T2, T3, T4, T5, and T6 groups than in the T1 group (P < 0.05). Skin mucus Ig was significantly higher in T3 and T4 groups and lower in the T2 group than in the control (P < 0.05). The highest lysozyme activity, protease, and ACH50 in the skin mucus samples were in the T4 group, while the lowest values were in the T2 group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary L. casei protects goldfish from malathion-induced growth retardation, oxidative stress, and immunosuppression.

Słowa kluczowe

  • aquaculture
  • pesticides
  • probiotics
  • mucus immunity
  • antioxidative capacity
  • goldfish
Otwarty dostęp

Bio-active components in medicinal plants: A mechanistic review of their effects on fish growth and physiological parameters

Data publikacji: 16 May 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

World population is increasing at a tremendous rate so is the demand for animal-based protein. Aquaculture is a promising industry that has the potential to supply high quality protein for mankind with minimum environmental impact. In the past decade, aquaculture practices have been shifting from extensive to intensive culture. To achieve maximum production per unit area, high stocking densities are maintained in intensive aquaculture. If not managed properly, this may lead to stress in fish. Fish under stress condition show decreased growth, suppressed appetite, weakened immunity and increased susceptibility to infections. Chemicals, vaccines and antibiotics are used for the treatment of diseased fish. Use of synthetic chemicals, vaccines and antibiotics is not sustainable because pathogens develop resistance against them and they have high residues. Moreover, certain chemicals used for the treatment of fish diseases are not safe for humans therefore, are banned in some countries. Plant parts and their extracts are used in traditional medicines to cure many diseases and to improve health of mankind. In aquaculture industry, use of plants and their derivatives in fish feed to improve health status of fish is increasing. Several plants improve growth and overall health status of fish, some provide protection against pathogens by improving the immune system while others increase appetite by direct action on neuro-endocrine axis of fish. This review provides an in depth and up to date information about use of medicinal plants and their derivatives to improve growth and physiological status of fish and their possible mechanism of action.

Słowa kluczowe

  • medicinal plants
  • immunomodulation
  • growth
  • anti-inflammatory
  • oxidative stress
  • farmed fish
Otwarty dostęp

The quality of duck meat – from the perspective of physical measurements and expert judgment

Data publikacji: 16 May 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between some physicochemical properties and organoleptic assessments of duck meat quality and expert assessment of the general appearance of raw breast and leg muscles. Body, carcass, breast and leg muscle weight were analysed. For both breast and leg muscles the following parameters were recorded: water holding capacity, thermal drip, colour lightness L*, electrical conductivity after 15 minutes and 24 hours post mortem, as well as four traits subject to expert organoleptic evaluation (general appearance, colour, odour and fatness). The dependence was evaluated using the Pearson’s correlation and multiple regression equations (the general appearance was treated as a dependent variable). Three sets of variables were considered as factors influencing the general appearance of the raw breast and leg muscles. First, the influence of jointly selected performance traits and physiochemical properties of meat was analysed. Next, the impact of only the second-mentioned group of discriminants was considered, and then the dependence on other organoleptic attributes. It was shown that for both muscle groups, the following have a significant effect on the general appearance: muscle weight (breast muscle p < 0.0001, leg muscle p < 0.0001) in the first set, electrical conductivity 15 minutes after slaughter (breast muscle p = 0.023, leg muscle p = 0.042) in the second, and colour (both muscle groups p < 0.0001) in the third. Muscle weight, electrical conductivity 15 minutes post mortem and visually assessed colour can be used to make a preliminary assessment of the technological and culinary quality of duck meat. Moreover, measurement with a conductometer is an economical and fast method, possible to carry out in a slaughterhouse.

Słowa kluczowe

  • duck meat
  • physicochemical properties
  • organoleptic assessment
Otwarty dostęp

Effects of broiler chicken age and dietary protease on the standardised ileal digestibility of amino acids in seeds from two lupin species

Data publikacji: 15 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The extent to which lupin seeds can replace soybean meal in diets for broiler chickens is limited, and one of the reasons for this may be a lack of careful consideration given to the age-related amino acid availability differences in the feed formulation process. This study aimed to determine and compare standardised ileal digestibility (SID) coefficients of amino acids (AA) in raw seeds of the Lupinus luteus (YL) and the Lupinus angustifolius (NLL) cultivars as sole sources of AA in the diet of broiler chickens aged 14 or 28 days. An additional purpose was to check the influence of exogenous mono-component protease added to lupin-based assay diets on AA SID in birds at both ages. Each assay diet was offered to six replicatecages. On both sampling days, the contents from the lower half of the ileum were collected for determination of the apparent digestibility values. The SID coefficients were calculated using the age-appropriate basal ileal endogenous AA losses determined from birds fed a N-free diet. Results indicated a substantial advantage of YL over the NLL in SID of Met, Cys, His, Leu, Gly, Asp, Glu, Pro, Tyr and the average of total AA for 14-d-old chickens. With the exception of Cys and Tyr, there was no significant difference between these Lupinus species in the SID of AA in 28-d-old birds. The significant age-related differences within species were found only for the seeds of NLL, where the higher SID for Met, His, Ala, Pro, and the averages of total and indispensable AA were noted in birds aged 28 d. The protease increased SID of most AA from L. luteus in older broilers, whereas for L. angustifolius its efficacy was more pronounced in younger birds, giving the SID values similar to those determined at 28 d on an enzyme-unsupplemented diet. In conclusion, the SID coefficients of indispensable AA determined at 14 or 28 days of age for yellow lupin should not be applied to the precise formulation of starter-type feeds containing seeds of NLL.

Słowa kluczowe

  • lupins
  • amino acid
  • ileal digestibility
  • age
  • broiler
  • exogenous protease
Otwarty dostęp

Aquamimicry system: a sutiable strategy for shrimp aquaculture – a review

Data publikacji: 15 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Shrimp culture is the most lucrative sector in aquaculture industry; however, for its sustainable development the environment conservation should be concerned. New developed technologies are required to achieve aquaculture to its sustainable goals. Among the different novel sustainable technologies, the biofloc technology (BFT) and more recently the aquamimicry system are considered as reliable methods in burgeoning development of shrimp culture. The establishment of the BFT needs a certain carbon to nitrogen (C: N) ratio so that heterotrophic bacteria able to utilize nitrogenous metabolites, and preserve the water quality in the standard ranges suitable for shrimp culture. In addition, the produced floc can be used as supplementary food for shrimp. On the other hand, the establishment of the aquamimicry system relies on organic carbon without providing a specific C: N ratio. In this system, a synergistic relationship between a prebiotic source, which usually consists of an oligosaccharide derived from the fermentation of a carbon source (e.g., rice bran), and a probiotic source such as Bacillus sp. can provide natural conditions by blooming phytoplankton and zooplankton organisms, especially copepods. These live foods can be used as complementary foods for shrimp. Furthermore, the proliferation of beneficial bacteria in the aquamimicry system can provide stable culture condition for growth and welfare of shrimp. Based on the findings of recent literature, using the aquamimicry system for shrimp production is a more sustainable, eco-friendly, and greener than the conventional systems.

Słowa kluczowe

  • aquaculture
  • aquamimicry
  • shrimp
  • fermentation
  • microbial communities
  • probiotics
Otwarty dostęp

Relationship between quality parameters and fertilizing ability of cryopreserved sexed bull sperm

Data publikacji: 08 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the experiment was to assess the correlation between sperm quality parameters and field fertility after AI with sex-sorted (X-bearing) bull semen. A total of 32 ejaculates from 26 Holstein-Friesian bulls were analyzed to assess sperm motility parameters (CASA), viability (SYBR-14/PI), apoptotic-like changes (YO-PRO-1/PI), chromatin structure (SCSA), and ATP content. In order to determine sperm fertilizing ability, 816 heifers and 727 cows were inseminated. Ultrasound diagnosis of pregnancy was performed on day 35 after insemination. For each ejaculate, the percentage of pregnant females was calculated separately. The results revealed that the pregnancy rate ranged from 20.0 to 85.7% for heifers and from 7.7 to 66.7% for cows. On the basis of the pregnancy rate (PR) obtained, the ejaculates were divided into 3 groups: high PR (about 25% of ejaculates), medium PR (about 50% of ejaculates) and low PR (about 25% of ejaculates). Significant differences were detected for amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH) and beat cross frequency (BCF) between high- and low-fertility ejaculates in heifers. Pearson’s correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between the BCF and the pregnancy rate for heifers (r = 0.53, P<0.01) and there was a trend towards significance for ALH (r = −0.37, P = 0.07). There was no relationship between the sperm quality parameters and pregnancy rate of cows. In conclusion, the present study identified markers of sexed bull sperm function that were related to the fertility of inseminated heifers.

Słowa kluczowe

  • bull
  • sex-sorted semen
  • fertility prediction
  • flow cytometry
  • computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA)
Otwarty dostęp

Encapsulation as a way to improve the phytogenic effects of herbal additives in broilers – an overview

Data publikacji: 08 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The prohibition of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) and the restriction of synthetic antioxidants have had a negative impact on the productivity and health of broiler chickens. To ensure sustainability in broiler production, poultry nutritionists continue to look for alternatives to AGP and antioxidants. Using herbal ingredients is one alternative that is widely used today. However, the use of herbal ingredients in small doses is often constrained by bioavailability problems, thereby reducing the effectiveness of using herbal additives for broiler chickens. At higher doses, the use of herbal ingredients can increase feed costs and negatively impact palatability, digestion and protein utilization, and liver health. Encapsulation is a method that can improve the stability, palatability, and bioavailability of herbal additives, which may enhance the efficacy of herbs as AGP and antioxidant alternatives for broilers. This review article provides a comprehensive insight into the application of and problems related to herbal additives, benefits of encapsulation technology on herbs, and use of encapsulated herbs in broiler production.

Słowa kluczowe

  • antibiotic growth promoter
  • antioxidant
  • broiler
  • encapsulation
  • herbs
  • phytogenic
Otwarty dostęp

Effects of a commercial feed additive (Sanacore® GM ) on immune-antioxidant profile and resistance of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) against Vibrio alginolyticus infection

Data publikacji: 08 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The effects of a functional additive (Sanacore® GM; SAN ) on immune and antioxidant indices, and the resistance of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) against Vibrio alginolyticus infection. For this, four diets containing 0% (the control), 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% SAN were offered to triplicated groups of fish (20 - 23 g) for ten weeks. Subsequently, fish were injected intraperitoneally with V. alginolyticus and monitored for further ten days. Feeding the fish on SAN-supplemented diets showed positive effects on leukocyte counts and its differential percentages. Serum lysozyme activity and total immunoglobulin values, as well as phagocytic activity and indices, were linearly and quadratically higher in SAN-fed fish; especially at the 0.4% SAN diet. Similarly, linear and quadratic increases in catalase, superoxide dismutase, and total antioxidant capacity were observed in SAN-fed fish, particularly at the 0.4% SAN diet. Conversely, serum malondialdehyde values decreased in SAN-fed fish compared with the control group, which showed its highest value. The highest expression of the IL-1β gene coupled with the lowest TNF-α and HSP70 genes expressions was found in the fish fed with the 0.4% SAN. On the other hand, fish fed on the control diet showed the lowest IL-1β gene coupled with the highest TNF-α and HSP70 genes expressions. After bacterial infection, most of the control fish died with a relative percent of survival of 5.0%; meanwhile feeding gilthead seabream on SAN-enriched diets significantly enhanced their protection against V. alginolyticus infection. Fish fed on the 0.4% SAN diet showed 100% survival. The SAN administration to gilthead seabream especially at the 0.4% level led to significant promotions in antioxidative and immune responses and augment the fish resistance to V. alginolyticus infection.

Słowa kluczowe

  • feed supplement
  • gilthead seabream
  • antioxidative status
  • immune response
  • infection
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of feeding strawberry, raspberry and rapeseed oil in rats’ diet on the fatty acid profile of muscle tissue

Data publikacji: 08 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Currently, alternative plant oils with pro-health properties are sought. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of feeding strawberry, raspberry and rapeseed oils in rats’ diet on the fatty acid profile of muscle tissue. Adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=7) and fed with the addition of rapeseed, raspberry or strawberry seed oil, respectively, or control group. After a 6-week treatment period, the fatty acid profile in m. latisssimus dorsi, was analyzed using gas chromatography. The dietary strawberry or raspberry seed oil led to a significant increase in C-18:2 n-6 ad C-18:3 n-3 level in muscle fat when compared to control group. At the same time, in the group receiving raspberry oil, an unfavorable phenomenon of lowering the EPA content was observed, while a tendency towards a decrease in DHA level was observed in groups supplemented with both raspberry and strawberry oil. Both oils as a source of PUFA n-3 and n-6, increased ALA n-3 and LA n-6 fatty acids in latissimus dorsi muscle, but due to different activity of enzymes taking apart in conversion of polyunsaturated fatty acids to their long chain derivatives in rats, the research on pig model would be advisable.

Słowa kluczowe

  • strawberry and raspberry seed oil
  • rapeseed oil
  • meat
  • fatty acid profile
  • rats
Otwarty dostęp

Feeds of animal origin in rabbit nutrition – a review

Data publikacji: 08 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Rabbits are classified as obligate herbivores. However, under natural conditions, some members of the family Leporidae incorporate animal products into their diets. Therefore, it seems biologically justified to supplement the diets of farmed rabbits with feeds of animal origin as sources of protein, fat and minerals. The aim of this review was to describe, from a historical perspective, the use of various feeds of animal origin in rabbit nutrition. The applicability of by-products from mammal, poultry, fish and invertebrate processing for rabbit feeding was evaluated, including the future prospects for their use. A review of the available literature revealed that various animal-based feeds can be valuable protein sources in rabbit diets, but their inclusion levels should not exceed 5-10%. Studies investigating their efficacy have been conducted since the 1970s. In some regions of the world, the use of animal-derived protein in livestock feeds was prohibited due to the risk of spreading bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). However, the interest in animal by-products as protein sources in livestock diets is likely to increase since the above ban has been lifted.

Słowa kluczowe

  • rabbits
  • nutrition
  • feeds of animal origin
Otwarty dostęp

Temporal variations in hematological, immunological and serum biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) acclimated to high-saline water in the Northern Aegean Sea

Data publikacji: 08 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The present study evaluated the health status of rainbow trout (30.24±5.34 g) acclimated to high-saline water (28‰). Among adaptation procedures, gradually-acclimated (for 48 h) fish showed best performance, which were then introduced to the offshore cage-farm for further monitoring of fish health in marine environment over a long-term period of 100 days, until harvest weight of 319.9±48.51 g. Fish health and welfare was evaluated by means of biochemical parameters (viscerasomatic index, hepatosomatic index, mesenteric fat index, and spleen somatic index), hematological parameters (serum glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, globulin), and immune parameters (lysozyme, myeloperoxidase, respiratory burst and potential killing values). Gradual acclimation to high-saline water did not show any adverse effects on health parameters. No significant differences were found in biometric measures (P>0.05). However, a time-dependent increase was recorded in hematology markers (P<0.05) after seawater transfer, and the health status improved over long-term from March 7 to June 14, 2018. All serum biochemical markers, except the total protein showed significant alterations (P<0.05) in long-term but without detrimental influence by day-100. Therefore, it seems possible to expand trout farms from brackish water sites to higher saline environments up to 28‰ salinity, with no detrimental impacts on fish health, that in turns may significantly contribute to the extension of potential aquaculture sites to wider areas.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Rainbow trout
  • biochemical parameters
  • hematological profile
  • health status
  • high saline water
Otwarty dostęp

Potential protective effects of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) essential oil on growth, hematology, immune responses, and antioxidant status of Oncorhynchus mykiss exposed to Malathion

Data publikacji: 15 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

As an abundant source of antioxidants and diet flavor enhancers, the plant essential oils can have positive effects on fish growth, and resistance against environmental stressors. In this study, garden thyme (Thymus vulgaris) essential oil (TEO) was used in the diet of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, to evaluate its protective effect against Malathion pesticide exposure. Tested fish (19.99 ± 0.01 g) were divided into six groups (three replicates), namely: T1: control diet; T2: control diet + 0.025 mg L−1 malathion; T3: control diet + 0.075 mg L−1 malathion; T4: control diet + 1% TEO; T5: control diet + 0.025 mg L−1 malathion + 1% TEO and T6: control diet + 0.075 mg L−1 malathion + 1% TEO. After 21 days, T4 fish had the highest final body weight (FW), weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), and the lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) among experimental treatments (P<0.05). The blood parameters including the red blood cells (RBC), white blood cell count (WBC), hematocrit (Hct), and hemoglobin (Hb) values were the highest in T4 treatment, displaying a significant difference with T1 treatment (P<0.05). Fish in the T4 groups had the highest total protein (TP) and albumin (ALB), while fish of T3 showed the lowest levels of these parameters (P<0.05) and also had the highest level of triglycerides (TRG), cholesterol (CHOL), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and urea (Ur). Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzymes recorded the lowest levels in T4 treatment, which showed a significant difference with T1 group. The catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) showed the highest activities in T4 treatment, while the lowest SOD and the highest malondialdehyde (MDA) levels occurred in T3 group (P<0.05). Total immunoglobulin (total Ig) level, alternative complement (ACH50) and lysozyme in the serum and skin mucus of T4 treatment of rainbow trout showed the highest activities with a significant difference from groups (P<0.05). From the results of the present study, it can be concluded that 1% of T. vulgaris as a supplement to the diet of rainbow trout can stimulate and improve the immune system of the fish. TEO can have a protective effect against unfavorable effects of malathion and improves the growth of the fish.

Słowa kluczowe

  • organophosphate
  • plant medicine
  • thyme
  • welfare
  • antioxidant
  • fish
Otwarty dostęp

Dietary effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, skin mucosal immune response, and antioxidant capacity in goldfish (Carassius auratus)

Data publikacji: 15 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

A trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on gold fish, Carassius auratus. In this regard, GSPE was added to a basal diet at four levels including 0, 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg to produce four experimental diets including control, GSPE200, GSPE400, and GSPE600. Three hundred and sixty goldfish (3.75 ± 0.1 g) were stocked in twelve 100 L rectangular tanks (30 fish per tank) and fed with the experimental diets three times a day for nine weeks. During the experimental trial, water temperature was 26.7–28.5ºC. The weight gain and specific growth rate in the fish fed with GSPE supplemented diets were higher than the control, meanwhile feed conversion ratio value in these groups decreased compared to the control. Fish fed GSPE-supplemented diets had lower fillet lipid (10-19%), but higher protein levels (7–15%) compared to the control. The levels of serum triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in the fish fed GSPE-supplemented diets were decreased compared to the control group. The highest and lowest levels of serum glucose, and ALP were in the fish fed with control and GSPE600 diets, respectively. The skin mucusal lysozyme activity (24–38%) and protein level (70–96%) were higher in fish fed GSPE-supplemented diets than the control. The highest, and lowest liver antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase, and gluthatione peroxidase were observed in in GSPE 600, and control groups, respectively. The findings of the present study indicated that supplementing 400 mg/kg GSPE in diet can improve growth and health condition in goldfish.

Słowa kluczowe

  • goldfish
  • grape seed proanthocyanidin extract
  • physiological parameters
  • immunity
Otwarty dostęp

Potential of Moringa oleifera silage to replace concentrate feed mixture in diet of lactating Damascus goats

Data publikacji: 15 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The present study evaluates the effect of partial replacement of concentrate with Moringa oleifera silage (MOS) in the diet of lactating Damascus goats on milk production, nutrient utilization and ruminal fermentation. Fifteen lactating ewes were stratified in a quintuplicate 3 × 3 Latin square design (3 diets × 3 periods) for 90 days and fed a diet composed of a concentrate mixture and rice straw in 60:40 (DM basis) in the control group for 30 days in each period. In the other two diets, MOS was included in the control diet at 20 (MOS20 diet) or 40% (MOS40 diet) replacing the same amounts of concentrate on DM basis. Feeding MOS containing diets linearly (P<0.05) decreased non-structural carbohydrates intake, while it increased the intakes of crude protein and acid detergent fiber as well as the digestibility of the nutrients compared to the control. Moreover, MOS diets linearly increased (P<0.01) ruminal pH, concentrations of ruminal total volatile fatty acids, acetate and propionate, and concentrations of serum glucose and high-density lipoprotein. Increased milk production, concentrations of milk fat and total conjugated linoleic acid, and feed efficiency were observed with feeding MOS diets. It is concluded that concentrate feed mixture in diets of lactating Damascus goats can be replaced with M. oleifera silage up to 40% to improve their lactational performance.

Słowa kluczowe

  • concentrates
  • goat
  • milk production
  • ruminal fermentation
Otwarty dostęp

Comparison of the quality of mountain sheep milk obtained from animals kept on a natural and organic mountain pasture

Data publikacji: 15 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of mountain sheep milk obtained from animals kept on mountain pastures: natural and organic. The experimental procedure was conducted under production conditions, during annual grazing of mountain sheep on two mountain pastures in the region of the Polish Carpathians: on organic pasture certified for organic farming and natural mountain pasture belongs to the National Park. This study showed greater plant species diversity in the organic mountain pasture, but its yielding was lower than that of the natural pasture. The green growth of the natural pasture was characterised by lower dry matter and fibre content but contained more total protein. The type of pasture did not affect the basic composition of the milk of mountain sheep, while differences were found in terms of acidity, alcohol number, fatty acid profile of fat and milk protein fractions. Milk obtained from sheep grazed on organic pasture was characterized by a higher proportion of medium chain fatty acids, as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids, and also essential unsaturated fatty acids, both linoleic acid, α - linolenic acid, γ-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid. In milk originating from the natural mountain pasture, a higher proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid and the CLA c9-t11 isomer was found. The composition of milk protein fractions varied according to the location of grazing: milk from sheep grazing on natural pasture had a higher content of whey fractions, important for consumer health, milk from organic pasture had a higher content of κ-casein, of greatest importance in dairy processing technology. The floral composition of the pasture had an influence on the quality of sheep milk in relation to the fatty acid profile of fat and protein fractions of milk, which is important in terms of both the health-promoting and technological aspects of the raw material and may affect the quality of products made from it.

Słowa kluczowe

  • mountain pasture
  • milk quality
  • mountain sheep
Otwarty dostęp

Genetic structure of reconstituted native Carpathian goat breed based on information from microsatellite markers

Data publikacji: 15 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic structure of the reconstituted native Carpathian goat breed based on information from microsatellite markers. The study analysed of 14 microsatellite markers recommended by the International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG) for goats individual identification and parentage testing. Blood samples were taken from 249 Carpathian goats from 14 farms. All microsatellite markers deployed in this analysis showed sufficient polymorphism to assess genetic variation in Carpathian goats and the ISAG-recommended panel for goat individual identification and parentage testing is a highly useful one. The present study showed the status of the genetic structure of the reconstituted population of Carpathian goats. Carpathian goats maintained in Poland were characterized by relatively high genetic diversity (the average of alleles per locus was 9.143), high values of heterozygosity and a low level of inbreeding coefficient. The obtained parameters indicate the correctness of the breeding activities carried out within the framework of the programme for the protection of genetic resources and give guidelines for taking further steps related to the breeding of this valuable native breed.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Carpathian goat
  • native breed
  • genetic structure
  • microsatellite markers
Otwarty dostęp

Rice bran in old horse’s nutrition and their influence on condition, blood biochemical parameters, total feces bacteria and methanogen population

Data publikacji: 15 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study aimed to verify whether the inclusion of 0.5 kg full-fat rice bran per day in the diet of geriatric horses will improve their condition, increase the population of methanogens in the cecum, and thus affect the biochemical blood parameters. The experiment assumed 2 research periods: 6 healthy, non-working horses over 20 years of age (480 ± 20 kg of body weight) were fed only hay (±8.86 kg/day/head) in the first period and hay (±8.00 kg/day/head) and rice bran (0.5 kg/day/head) in the second one. Each of these periods lasted 4 months. The Body Condition Scoring (BCS) assessment was performed at the beginning and end of the experiment. Blood and feces samples were collected on the first and last day of each period. After feeding with the addition of rice bran, BCS increased by 1.17 units on a 9-point scale. The experiment showed an increase in the total number of bacteria and methanogens inhabiting the cecum of horses. This can lead to better digestion of carbohydrates, absorption of nutrients, and, consequently, increased body weight. No differences occurred in the hematology and serum biochemistry indices of horses fed a diet including rice bran, except for the amount of serum globulin and the albumin to globulin ratio. Rice bran affected essential serum fatty acid profile (increased PUFA and decreased MUFA) which confirmed the possibility to use diet as a serum fatty acids profile modulator.

Słowa kluczowe

  • geriatric horses
  • rice bran
  • intestinal microbiome
  • fatty acids profile
Otwarty dostęp

Bioactive compounds, antibiotics and heavy metals: effects on the intestinal structure and microbiome of monogastric animals – a non-systematic review

Data publikacji: 15 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The intestinal structure and gut microbiota are essential for the animals‘ health. Chemical components taken with food provide the right environment for a specific microbiome which, together with its metabolites and the products of digestion, create an environment, which in turn is affects the population size of specific bacteria. Disturbances in the composition of the gut microbiota can be a reason for the malformation of guts, which has a decisive impact on the animal‘ health. This review aimed to analyse scientific literature, published over the past 20 years, concerning the effect of nutritional factors on gut health, determined by the intestinal structure and microbiota of monogastric animals. Several topics have been investigated: bioactive compounds (probiotics, prebiotics, organic acids, and herbal active substances), antibiotics and heavy metals (essentaial minerals and toxic heavy metals).

Słowa kluczowe

  • bioactive compounds
  • heavy metals
  • intestine structure
  • microbiome
  • monogastric animals
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of soybean meal substitution with raw chickpea (Cicer arietinum l.) Seeds on growth performance, selected carcass traits, blood parameters, and bone quality in male broilers

Data publikacji: 15 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The study determined the effect of introducing 50% of protein from the protein feed pool derived from raw chickpea seeds instead of 50% of soybean meal in the rearing period from day 22 to 42 on the coefficients of nutrient digestibility, growth performance, selected carcass traits, the hematological and metabolic profile of blood, and the quality of femur bones in male Ross 308 broilers. The study was carried out on 200 22-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks (initial weight of 756 g) randomly assigned to two groups (n=100 in each group; 5 cages with 20 birds each). All birds were reared for 42 days. They were fed isonitrogenous and isoenergetic pre-experimental starter diet (day 1 to 21) in the crumble form and experimental grower-finisher diets (day 22 to 42) in the pelleted form. From rearing day 22, SBM male broilers (grower/finisher) were fed diets with 100% SBM as a protein source. In the diet for the CPR group (grower and finisher), the SBM protein was replaced with 50% of CPR-derived protein. During the grower and finisher stage and between days 22 and 42, the CPR group exhibited significant (P=0.032) reductions in feed intake (FI), higher (P=0.043) slaughter yields, high (P=0.044) % share of breast muscles, and reduced (P=0.003) abdominal fat content. The addition of CPR influenced some blood parameters. The level of total protein, urea, and Mg decreased, whereas the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate transaminase (ALT) increased. In the CPR group, an increase in the physical, morphometric, and some strength parameters of the femur (maximum elastic strength – Wy, yielding deformation – dy, bone density index – BDI, and Young’s modulus) was observed. Therefore, CPR may be a promising partial substitute of SBM in broiler nutrition, as it enhances production performance and has a beneficial effect on bone quality.

Słowa kluczowe

  • broiler chicken
  • chickpea
  • carcass traits
  • blood parameters
  • femur quality
Otwarty dostęp

The dietary mixture of betaine, lactic acid bacteria, and exogenous digestive enzymes enhanced the growth performance, intestinal health, and immunity of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) grown in outdoor concrete tanks

Data publikacji: 15 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

It has been illustrated that using mixtures of feed additives is more efficient than using individual additives in aquaculture. Hence, this study aimed to study a dietary mixture of betaine, lactic acid bacteria, and exogenous digestive enzymes (BLE) on the growth performance, digestion capacity, intestinal health, and blood indices of Nile tilapia reared outdoors in concrete tanks. Five diets were prepared where the basal diets mixed with BLE at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1%. After 90 days, the growth performance of Nile tilapia-fed BLE was markedly enhanced in fish fed 0.25 and 0.5% of BLE, while the feed conversion ratio (FCR) was reduced (P<0.05). The lipase activity was significantly higher in tilapia fed BLE at 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75% than 0 and 1%. The amylase activity was meaningfully increased by 0.5% of BLE than 0, 0.25, 0.75, and 1%. The protease activity was significantly higher in tilapia fed BLE at 0.25 and 0.5 than 0, 0.75, and 1% (P<0.05). The intestine of fish fed on BLE showed an increase in intestinal villi density. The villi length, width, and the number of goblet cells were markedly higher in the anterior, middle, and posterior segments of the intestines of tilapia fed BLE than in the control group (P<0.05). Further, fish fed BLE had higher intestinal morphometry indices and count of goblet cells than the control. Significantly fish fed 0.25, and 0.5% of BLE had higher hemoglobulin, and hematocrit levels than fish fed 0, 0.75, and 1%. While, fish fed 0.5% had higher red blood cells than fish fed the remaining BLE levels (P<0.05). On the other hand, no marked effects for BLE supplementation were seen on the alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total protein, albumin, globulin, creatinine, uric acid, and urea. The regression analysis showed that the maximum dose of BLE supplementation to achieve the highest final weight and the lowest FCR is 0.46% and 0.42%, respectively.

Słowa kluczowe

  • mixtures additives
  • production
  • finfish species
  • wellbeing
  • digestion
Otwarty dostęp

Synbiotic Lactic Dry® enhanced the growth performance, growth-related genes, intestinal health, and immunity of Nile tilapia reared in inland brackish groundwater

Data publikacji: 15 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Nile tilapia is recognized as a suitable candidate for intensive farming and sustainability of the aquaculture industry. However, one issue limiting Nile tilapia expansion in arid and semi-arid areas is the scarcity of freshwater resources. In this study, the supplementation of synbiotics was investigated to enhance the growth performance, growth-related genes, intestinal health, and immunity of Nile tilapia reared in inland brackish groundwater. Four diets were prepared where the basal diets were mixed with the dietary mixture of probiotics and prebiotics (Synbiotic Lactic Dry®, a blend of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus faecium, and Bacillus subtilis, mannan oligosaccharides and β-1.3/1.6-D-glucan) at 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 g/kg. After eight weeks, the final weight and weight gain are linearly increasing with increasing the supplementation level of synbiotic. Markedly fish fed 0.5, 1, and 2 g/kg of synbiotic had higher final weight, weight gain, and feed intake and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) than fish fed synbiotic free diet. The specific growth rate (SGR) was significantly higher in fish fed 1 and 2 g/kg than in fish fed 0 and 0.5 g/kg. The intestine of fish fed on synbiotic shows an increase in intestinal villi density. Further, the intestine of fish fed on synbiotic showed an increase in the length and branching intestinal villi (anterior, middle, and posterior) in a dose-dependent manner. The lysozyme and phagocytic activities were significantly different from the control, while synbiotic supplementation did not affect the phagocytic index. Interestingly, the results showed marked upregulation of ghrelin, IGF-1, and GH genes in fish fed synbiotics at 0.5, 1, and 2 g/kg. In addition, fish fed 2 g/kg had the highest expression of ghrelin, IGF-1, and GH genes. In conclusion, growing Nile tilapia in inland brackish groundwater can be achieved without negative impacts on the growth performance and health status. Supplementing synbiotics (1-2 g/kg) in Nile tilapia feeds enhanced the growth and feed performances, intestinal histomorphological features, growth-related genes, and immune response.

Słowa kluczowe

  • euryhaline fish species
  • feed additives
  • productivity
  • sustainable aquaculture
  • water scarcity
Otwarty dostęp

Performance indicators, coccidia oocyst counts, plasma biochemical parameters and fermentation processes in the cecum of rabbits fed a diet with the addition of black cumin seed meal

Data publikacji: 15 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with black cumin seed meal on growth performance parameters, coccidia oocyst counts, plasma biochemical parameters and cecal fermentation processes in growing rabbits. A total of 40 male Californian rabbits at 35 days of age were divided into two feeding groups: Control (complete rabbit diet) and Black cumin (2% of the complete diet was replaced with black cumin seed meal). Dietary supplementation with black cumin did not affect growth performance parameters, but it reduced coccidia oocyst counts in the feces of 63-day-old rabbits. Increased liver weight and elevated plasma albumin levels were noted in these rabbits. A significant decrease in small intestinal digesta viscosity was also observed in rabbits fed a diet supplemented with black cumin seed meal. The above change suppressed the formation of putrefactive compounds, i.e. ammonia and branched short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the cecum, but it did not decrease the production of major SCFAs, i.e. acetic, propionic and butyric acids. The current study demonstrated that the dietary addition of 2% black cumin seed meal exerted a modulatory effect on gastrointestinal function, but it did not compromise microbial enzyme activity or SCFA production in the cecum.

Słowa kluczowe

  • rabbit feeding
  • black cumin
  • intestinal physiology
  • blood biochemical parameters
  • microbial fermentation processes
Otwarty dostęp

Non-targeted analysis of VOCs by HS-SPME-G C/MS coupled with chemometrics as a potential tool for authentication of White Kołuda oat goose

Data publikacji: 15 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study tested the possibility of using non-targeted analysis of volatile organic compounds by headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with chemometrics as a potential tool for differentiating leg meat of oat- and wheat-fed (ad libitum) White Kołuda geese. Thirty-six classification models were obtained for which the correct classification rate and classification accuracy for oatfed and wheat-fed geese were calculated based on a seven-fold cross-validation. Generally, the most advantageous method of the sample preparation was the high-temperature heat treatment version, whereas the highest correct classification rate was obtained when the chemometric analysis was carried out on the female, then male, and finally male + female variant of group comparisons (P<0.01). Furthermore, log-transformation appeared to be a slightly better data preprocessing technique in comparison to systematic ratio normalization. The obtained classification models can potentially differentiate the meat of oat-fattened from wheat-fattened White Kołuda geese.

Słowa kluczowe

  • White Kołuda goose
  • food authentication
  • volatile organic compounds
  • chemometrics
  • Fisher ratio
  • systematic ratio normalization
Otwarty dostęp

Multifunctional role of chitosan in farm animals: a comprehensive review

Data publikacji: 15 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The deacetylation of chitin results in chitosan, a fibrous-like material. It may be produced in large quantities since the raw material (chitin) is plentiful in nature as a component of crustacean (shrimps and crabs) and insect hard outer skeletons, as well as the cell walls of some fungi. Chitosan is a nontoxic, biodegradable, and biocompatible polygluchitosanamine that contains two essential reactive functional groups, including amino and hydroxyl groups. This unique chemical structure confers chitosan with many biological functions and activities such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antitumor, immunostimulatory and hypocholesterolemic, when used as a feed additive for farm animals. Studies have indicated the beneficial effects of chitosan on animal health and performance, aside from its safer use as an antibiotic alternative. This review aimed to highlight the effects of chitosan on animal health and performance when used as a promising feed additive.

Słowa kluczowe

  • chitosan polymer
  • antimicrobial activity
  • antioxidant activity
  • growth
  • reproduction
  • animal health
Otwarty dostęp

Chemical body composition and bone growth of young pigs as affected by deficiency, adequate and excess of dietary phosphorus supply

Data publikacji: 15 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Objective of the experiment was to study the effect of deficiency, adequate and excess dietary phosphorus supply on growth performance, retention and utilisation of phosphorus, length, mass and geometry measurements of the femur shaft, content of protein, ash, phosphorus in viscera, edible (meat and fat) and inedible (bones and skin) parts of the body in pigs ageing from 33 to 110 days. It was found that compared to animals fed according to phosphorus requirement the deficiency and excess of dietary phosphorus did not influenced o total feed intake (mean 120.6 kg) and feed conversion (mean 1.9 kg/kg gain). However phosphorus deficiency lowered total gain of the body mass (P=0.0072), diminished weight of the inedible part of the carcass (P=0.0229), decreased the content of body protein (P=0.0171), ash (P=0.0001), and phosphorus (P=0.0001). Whereas, over-supply of dietary phosphorus did not cause any change of these component. Utilisation of the total phosphorus was diminished (P=0.0001) in pigs fed diet with both excess (by 16.26%) and deficiency (by 12.28%) of the phosphorus, but excess had much lower negative impact than its’ deficiency. When available form of this element was considered over-supply still reduced (P=0.0001) its utilisation the most (by 26.58%) but deficiency made utilisation the best (7.77%). Both dietary deficiency and over-supply of the phosphorus diminished (P=0.0001) femur mass (by 25 and 11 g, respectively). Thus negative impact of phosphorus deficiency was much stronger. Moreover, phosphorus deficiency diminished (P=0.0015) bone length (by 0.5 cm), however, excess did not change this feature. Response of animals to a decrease bone mass and length due disturbances in phosphorus supply (both deficiency and excess) was the increase the vertical external diameter of the femur shaft.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pigs
  • dietary phosphorus supply
  • body phosphorus retention
  • bone growth
Otwarty dostęp

Effects of dietary L-Proline and L-Alanine on growth performance, and flesh quality of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) juveniles

Data publikacji: 15 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of amino acids L-Proline and LAlanine on growth performance, amino acid, and fatty acid levels in the fillet of juvenile common carp. 450 juvenile common carp were randomly distributed in 30 tanks and fed with three levels of proline (5 [P5], 10 [P10], and 15 [P15] g/kg), three levels of Alanine [A] (5 [A5], 10 [A10], and 15 [A15] g/kg), three levels of proline-alanine combination [PA] (2.5 + 2.5 [2.5PA], 5 + 5 [5PA], 7.5 + 7.5 [7.5PA] g/kg feed) and basal diet (control). The highest body weight gain (25.85 ± 0.1 g) and survival rate (91.11 ± 3.84) were observed in 7.5 PA treatment. The highest protein content (64.58 ± 0.49) was noticed in 2.5 PA; however, compared to combined treatments (5 PA and 2.5 PA), it did not show any significant difference (p<0.05). The highest total amount of essential amino acids (48.30 ± 48.3) were observed in 7.5 PA treatment. The highest amount of DHA (5.65 ± 0.08), total EPA, and DHA (8.91 ± 0.13) were in 7.5 PA treatment. Finally, it can be concluded that two amino acids of L-Proline and L-Alanine at the combined level of 5 PA can improve the growth performance, survival, and fillet composition in the juvenile common carp.

Słowa kluczowe

  • L-proline
  • L-Alanine
  • growth performance
  • fillet composition
  • common carp
47 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Tomato pomace waste as safe feed additive for poultry health and production – a review

Data publikacji: 16 May 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Tomato cultivation and industrial processing produce a considerable amount of tomato pomace, peels, and seeds, which are difficult to handle. These by-products contain a variety of minerals and bioactive substances, and may thus be further valorized, generating additional revenue for processing plants while also decreasing environmental issues caused by their buildup. The inclusion of tomato pomace in poultry feed has been shown to produce promising effects in poultry growth and health, however the results are largely inconsistent. Literature has documented improvement in growth, egg production and quality, immunological and antioxidant effects in poultry. This review has complied the impacts of tomato pomace on the growth and health indices of poultry.

Słowa kluczowe

  • growth
  • health
  • production
  • tomato pomace
Otwarty dostęp

New long-non coding RNAs related to fat deposition based on pig model

Data publikacji: 16 May 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Obesity is a problem in the last decades since the development of certain technologies has forced submission to a faster pace of life, resulting in nutritional changes. Domestic pigs are an excellent animal model in recognition of adiposity-related processes, corresponding to the size of individual organs, the distribution of body fat in the organism, and similar metabolism. The present study applied next-generation sequencing to identify adipose tissue (AT) transcriptomic signals related to increased fat content by identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including long-non coding RNAs in Złotnicka White pigs (n=16). Moreover, besides commonly used functional analysis, we applied the Freiburg RNA tool to predict DE lncRNA targets based on calculation hybridisation energy. And in addition, DE lncRNAs were recognized based on information available in databases. The obtained results show that closely 230 gene expression was found to be dependent on fat content, included 8 lncRNAs. The most interesting was that among identified DE lncRNAs was transcript corresponding to human MALAT1, which was previously considered in the obesity-related context. Moreover, it was identified that in ENSSSCG00000048394, ENSSSCG00000047210, ENSSSCG00000047442 and ENSSSCG00000041577 lncRNAs are contained repeat insertion domains of LncRNAs (RIDLs) considered as important gene expression regulatory elements, and ENSSSCG00000041577 seems to be the host for mir1247(NR_031649.1). The analysis of energy hybridisation between DE lncRNAs and DEGs using the Freiburg IntaRNAv2 tool, including isoforms expressed in AT, showed that ENSSSCG00000047210 lncRNA interacted with the highest number of DEGs and ENSSSCG00000047210 expression was only correlated with positive fat-related DEGs. The functional analysis showed that down-regulated DEGs involved in ECM proteoglycan pathways could be under control of both positive and negative fat-related lncRNAs. The present study, using pigs as an animal model, expands our current knowledge of possible gene expression regulation by lncRNAs in fat tissue and indicates for MALAT1 role in the fat deposition determination, which function is still often questioned or doubtful.

Słowa kluczowe

  • lncRNA
  • obesity
  • fatness
  • pig
  • gene expression regulation
  • miRNA
Otwarty dostęp

Dietary L-glutamine affects eggshell quality in the post-peak laying period

Data publikacji: 02 May 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

In the current study the hypothesis that 1.0% dietary inclusion of glutamine (Gln), a conditionally essential amino acid that influences protein synthesis and shows anti-osteoporotic effect, can influence eggshell quality was tested on laying hens in the post-peak laying period. A 30-week-old Bovans Brown hens were randomly assigned to control group or group supplemented with Gln in the form of alpha-ketoglutarate (10 g/kg) with 12 replicate cages (2 hens/cage) in each group. The experimental period lasted for 30 weeks, from the 31st to the 60th week of age of hens, when eggs were collected and selected eggshell quality indices were determined. While Gln supplementation had no effect on egg geometry and eggshell cracking force, the analysis of eggshell quality showed an increase of the eggshell thickness (P<0.01), porosity (P<0.01), eggshell specific surface (P<0.001) and positive changes in other mechanical parameters (decrease of eggshell stiffness and Young’s modulus, P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively; increase of work needed to crack the eggshell, P<0.05). Changes in eggshell mineral composition, including an increase of Ca content (P<0.001), were also observed. In conclusion, the current study showed a beneficial effect of Gln on the eggshell thickness, calcification, and some mechanical parameters.

Otwarty dostęp

The effect of supplementation with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric acid (HMB) to pregnant sows on the mucosal structure, immunolocalization of intestinal barrier proteins, VIP and leptin in the large intestine in their offspring

Data publikacji: 20 Nov 2021
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The large intestine epithelium plays an important role in water absorption and participates in fluid, acid-base and electrolyte balance, and the removal of waste products. The large intestine is rich in microorganism-presented enzyme activity. Apart from energy supply, the colon also participates in the synthesis of trophic factors and the modulation of the immune system and the systemic inflammatory response. The current study investigated the effects of dietary HMB administration to pregnant sows on the postnatal development of the colon in their offspring, at weaning. From the 70th to the 90th day of gestation, sows received either a basal diet (n = 12) or the basal diet supplemented with HMB (n = 12) at a dose of 0.2 g/kg of body weight/day. Maternal HMB treatment increased serum IgG and glucose concentrations and decreased serum urea concentration in the piglets. Basal histomorphometric analysis of offspring large intestines showed that prenatal HMB treatment led to a reduction in the thickness of the mucosa, submucosa and both types of myenterons, as well as reduced crypt thickness. The immunoreaction performed to mark T0 lymphocytes and total T lymphocytes in the colon wall showed that prenatal HMB treatment decreased the number of both types of lymphocytes. Greater expression for cadherin was found in the colon of piglets delivered by the HMB-treated sows. The expression of both tight junction proteins (occludin and claudin-3), as well as that of leptin, was stronger in the HMB-treated group. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) expression was stronger in the submucosal plexuses in the HMB maternal treated piglets, while no changes were observed in the myenteric plexuses. The results obtained indicate that the administration of HMB to pregnant sows significantly influenced the expression of leptin, VIP and some proteins of the intestinal barrier in their offspring, with less influence on large intestine basal morphology.

Słowa kluczowe

  • offspring
  • pigs
  • colon
  • pregnancy
  • weaning
  • HMB
Otwarty dostęp

Embryo production by in vitro fertilization in wild ungulates: progress and perspectives

Data publikacji: 09 Mar 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Wild ungulates are of fundamental importance for balancing ecosystems, as well as being the species of economic interest. Increasing concern over the accelerated population reduction of these species has resulted in the development of assisted reproduction techniques, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), as a tool for conservation and multiplication. In the present scenario, IVF protocols were developed based on the methodologies used for domestic ungulates. Nevertheless, owing to the physiological and reproductive differences among the species, several factors associated with IVF and its relationship with the characteristics of the species of interest require clarification. In vitro conditions for the collection and selection of female and male gametes, oocyte maturation, sperm capacitation, co-incubation of gametes, and embryonic development can influence IVF results. Therefore, the present review considers the main advances in the methodologies already used for wild ungulates, emphasizing the strategies for improving the protocols to obtain better efficiency rates. Additionally, we discuss the conditions of each IVF stage, with emphasis on aspects related to in vitro manipulation and comparability with the protocols for domestic ungulates.

Słowa kluczowe

  • wildlife conservation
  • assisted reproduction
  • fertilization
  • gametes
  • embryos
Otwarty dostęp

Evaluating the growth of genetically improved tilapia Oreochromis niloticus reared at different temperatures

Data publikacji: 16 May 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate the growth and performance of genetically improved tilapia reared at different temperatures. Four hundred and eighty fingerlings of Genomar Supreme Tilapia, GST (8.39 ± 0.60 g) were equally separated into three indoor water recirculation systems maintained at 22, 26 and 30 ºC. Each of four tanks contained 500 liters with 40 fish per tank in natural photoperiod. The fish were fed ad libitum with the same feed for each growth phase, weighing the total feed supplied. After 30 min of feeding, leftover feed was collected, dried in an oven and weighed. Ten fish from each tank were weighed at days 1, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210. Survival, weight gain, feed conversion and feed intake in each period were determined. Fish reared at 30 ºC and 26 ºC showed a higher specific growth rate than that of fish reared at 22ºC (P≤0.05). Feed intake increased along temperature and feed conversion and was poorest in fish reared at 26ºC (P≤0.05). Final fish weight estimates at day 210 by the Gompertz model were 597.84, 819.26 and 1079.39 g for 22, 26 and 30 ºC, respectively. At 30 ºC, fish had a higher absolute growth rate (7.76 g day−1) and lower weight (459.30 g) and age (95.85 days) at the inflection point. Tilapia at 22 ºC had a higher weight (539.57 g) and age (197 days) and lower absolute growth rate (4.52 g day−1). It was concluded that GST tilapia can potentially improve aquaculture in all Brazilian regions based on different rearing temperatures.

Słowa kluczowe

  • absolute growth rate
  • fish growth
  • growth model
  • weight gain
  • tilapia culture
Otwarty dostęp

The effects of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) seeds on the growth performance, growth hormone, antibacterial capacity, and immune response of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

Data publikacji: 02 May 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Coriander seeds are among the functional herbal supplements, but their effects on aquatic animals are still lacking. Herein we evaluated the effects of coriander seeds on the growth performance, growth hormone, antibacterial capacity, and immune response of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Fish with initial mean weights of 5.08 ± 0.12 g/fish were allocated in four groups (in triplicate) and fed dietary coriander at 0, 5, 10, and 20 g/kg for 150 days. The growth performance, feed utilization, and survival rate of fish-fed dietary coriander meaningfully increased (P<0.05). The protein efficiency ratio gradually increased (P<0.05) in fish-fed coriander seeds compared with the control. On the other hand, the feed conversion ratio was gradually decreased (P<0.05) in fish-fed coriander seeds comparing with the control. The survival rate was markedly increased (P<0.05) in European sea bass-fed dietary coriander regardless of the inclusion level. Further, no differences were seen among fish fed varying levels of coriander (P<0.05). The level of blood growth hormone was markedly higher (P<0.05) in European sea bass-fed dietary coriander at 20 g/kg than fish-fed 0 and 5 g/kg. The abundance of intestinal Vibrio spp. and Faecal Coliform were obviously lower (P<0.05) in fish fed 10 and 20 g/kg than fish fed the coriander-free diet. Further, fish fed 20 g/kg had lower (P<0.05) Vibrio spp. and Faecal Coliform counts than fish fed 10 g/kg. Fish fed dietary coriander had significantly higher (P<0.05) hematocrit, hemoglobulin, red blood cells (RBCs), and white blood cells (WBCs) than fish fed the control. The lysozyme and phagocytic activities were meaningfully increased (P<0.05) in fish fed 10 and 20 g/kg compared with fish fed 0 and 5 g/kg of dietary coriander. In conclusion, dietary coriander could be included in the diets at 10–20 g/kg to improve the growth performance, growth hormone, feed utilization, and immune response of European sea bass.

Słowa kluczowe

  • aquaculture
  • coriander
  • sea bass
  • growth hormone
  • blood health
Otwarty dostęp

The effects of different stocking densities on nursery performance of Banana shrimp (Fenneropenaeus merguiensis) reared under biofloc condition

Data publikacji: 16 May 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The effects of Banana shrimp Fenneropenaeus merguiensis stocking density on water quality, growth performance, survival rate and body composition was assessed in a biofloc system with limited water exchange. The study was conducted for 32 days with an average larvae weight of 10 ± 0.85 mg in fiberglass tanks containing 120 L of water at four stocking densities. Five experimental treatments consisted of a control (density 1000 shrimps/ m3) with 50% daily water exchange and four biofloc treatments with limited water exchange (0.5% daily) at four stocking levels (1000 shrimps, T1; 2000 shrimps, T2, 3000 shrimps, T3 and 4000 shrimps, T4/ m3) were considered. According to the results, total ammonia nitrogen (0.99 mg /L) and nitrite levels showed higher amounts in the control compared with the other treatments (P<0.05). Growth performance and survival rate (95.55%) in the biofloc treatment with a density of 1000 shrimps/ m3 were higher than the other treatments (P<0.05). The proximate composition of shrimp body and biofloc produced in rearing tanks depended on the stocking density, so the shrimp body ash increased along with the enhancement of stocking density. The lowest amount of ash (31.53± 0.81%) and protein (26.38± 1.26) of bioflocs was observed in T1 treatment. The present study showed that stocking density affects the water quality, growth performance, survival rate and body composition of Banana shrimp larvae in a biofloc system. More improved indices of water quality, growth performance and survival rate were observed with the least stocking density of 1000 shrimps / m3 in the limited water exchange system.

Słowa kluczowe

  • biofloc
  • banana shrimp
  • stocking density
  • growth performance
  • biochemical composition
  • limited water exchange
Otwarty dostęp

Rapeseed meal as a feed component in monogastric animal nutrition – a review

Data publikacji: 02 May 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Rapeseed is an important oil crop worldwide, with an annual production of more than 70 million tons. Rapeseed meal (RSM) is a by-product of rapeseed oil production and is second after soybean meal (SBM) in the world production of protein meal. Rapeseed meal derived from black-seeded winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) usually contains between 35 and 40% of crude protein (CP), which is considered to be one of the more valuable plant proteins. It has a good balance of essential amino acids and a very high protein efficiency ratio (PER=3.29). However, full utilisation of this protein is difficult due to presence of the non-protein components of the seed which are associated with it. These are called antinutritional factors and they limit the utilisation of RSM in monogastric animal nutrition. The main antinutritional factors in RSM are dietary fibre, glucosinolates, phytic acid, and phenolic compounds (sinapine, tannins). For many years, research has been conducted in many centers around the world to improve the nutritional value of RSM, which will consequently increase its use in feeding monogastric animals. The attempts that have been undertaken include breeding strategy, optimisation, modernisation and better control of the oil extraction process, as well as technological treatments of seeds and meal. This review provides information on how RSM has evolved in recent years, as well as on its nutritive value, particularly protein, fibre and glucosinolate content. Techniques which have been used to improve the nutritional value of rapeseed products are also discussed. However, the used methods do not allow for full replacement soybean meal by RSM in monogastric animal nutrition.

Słowa kluczowe

  • feed
  • rapeseed meal
  • antinutritional factors
  • protein
Otwarty dostęp

Different dietary ratios of arginine, methionine and lysine for turkeys: effects on whole-body composition and nutrient utilization efficiency in the early growth stage

Data publikacji: 02 May 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The growth rate, tissue development and health status of turkeys are affected by the dietary supply of essential amino acids (AAs) such as lysine (Lys), methionine (Met) and arginine (Arg). According to various guidelines, the diets fed to turkeys in the first 4 weeks of the rearing period should contain 1.60–1.76% Lys, 1.60–1.80% Arg and 0.55–0.70% Met. This study investigated the effects of different ratios of Arg and Met in starter diets with 1.60% of Lys content, i.e. a low level, on the whole-body composition of turkeys and nutrient retention efficiency. The experiment lasted for 28 days and it had a two-factorial randomized design with three levels of Arg (90%, 100% and 110%) and two levels of Met (30% or 45%), relative to the content of dietary Lys, with six groups of eight replicates per group and 18 turkeys per replicate. Different dietary Arg and Met levels, relative to Lys, did not affect AA concentrations in the body protein or the proximate whole-body composition (crude protein, crude fat, gross energy and ash) of turkeys. The higher Met level positively influenced energy, protein and Arg utilization and their retention efficiency as well as the growth performance of turkeys. An increase in the dietary level of Arg to 100% and 110% of Lys content had no influence on the growth performance of turkeys and it reduced the retention efficiency of Arg. Differences in the body weight gain, feed intake and Lys utilization of turkeys fed diets with different Arg levels resulted also from the strong interaction between Met and Arg levels. At the lower level of Met in the diet, a decrease in Arg relative to Lys from 100% to 90% resulted in decreased (P = 0.003) feed intake (from 50.34 g to 46.72 g) and growth rate (from 31.84 g to 29.79 g), which was not noted for the higher Met content (45% relative to Lys). At the lowest level of Arg in the diet (90% of Lys content), a decrease in Met relative to Lys from 45% to 30% caused a decrease in Lys retention efficiency (from 61.51% to 56.29%). The results of this study suggest that the higher content of Met in the diet (45% to Lys) and the Arg level corresponding to 90% of Lys content contribute to optimizing nutrient retention efficiency in turkeys during the first 28 days of their life.

Słowa kluczowe

  • turkey
  • amino acid
  • whole-body composition
  • nutrient utilization
Otwarty dostęp

Effects of different carbon sources on water quality, biofloc quality, and the productivity of Nile tilapia reared in biofloc-based ponds

Data publikacji: 02 May 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The present study evaluated the effects of different carbohydrates materials used as carbon sources on water quality, biofloc quality, and growth and productive performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) reared in biofloc (BFT)-based cement ponds (25 m x 10 m x 1.2 m; with 250 m3 volume). Nile tilapia fingerlings (44.9±1.9 g) were distributed into nine ponds at a density of 40 fish per 1 m3 (10000 fish/pond) to represent three treatments in triplicates. The control ponds received no carbon source addition; meanwhile sugarcane molasses (MO) and wheat flour (WF) were added to ponds. A commercial diet (30% crude protein) was offered to fish in each pond at levels of 3% and 2% of live body weight of fish in the control and BFT-based ponds, respectively, for 12 weeks. The amounts of feed were divided equally to three equal portions and offered to fish at 9:00, 13:00, and 17:00 h. The control ponds’ water was replaced by 50% every day with new water; meanwhile in MO and WF ponds, water loss via evaporation or leakage was compensated to reach the 1.0 m depth only. The pH value as well as unionized ammonia and nitrite levels, in the present study, were significantly lower, meanwhile nitrate and total suspended solids levels were significantly higher in MO and WF-treated ponds than the control one. The WF treatment resulted in significantly larger biofloc volume and higher total bacterial count compared to the MO treatment. The highest growth and production indices of Nile tilapia were observed in the BFT-based treatments as compared with the control group; particularly at the WF treatment followed by the MO treatment. In conclusion, the WF addition to cement fishponds is a more beneficial carbonaceous source for the efficient water quality, biofloc biomass, and growth and productivity of Nile tilapia reared in BFT-based system.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Nile tilapia
  • biofloc system
  • zero-water exchange system
  • carbon sources
  • water quality
  • fish growth and productivity
Otwarty dostęp

Effects of dietary halloysite supplementation on broiler chicken’s blood parameters, carcass and meat quality, and bone characteristics: a preliminary study

Data publikacji: 16 May 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of halloysite supplementation to the complete diets for broiler chickens on selected blood parameters, carcass and organ characteristics, as well as bone and meat traits. The trial was conducted under experimental conditions in a large-scale poultry farm on 18,000 broiler chickens. The one-day broiler chicken Ross 308 chicks were randomly divided into two groups: control (C) and experimental (E) in an amount of 9,000 birds per group. In each group, chicks were separated into five pens (100 m2) with 1800 chicks per pen. The birds were fed granulated complete mixtures without (C group) or with halloysite (E group) distributed in an amount of 1% (based on fresh matter) from the 11 d of life. Analysis revealed that halloysite supplementation to the broiler diet at the level of 1% showed a trend (P = 0.056) towards higher final body weight, significantly improved carcass yield (P = 0.048), and reduced the relative weights of the liver and gizzard (P < 0.05). No differences (P > 0.05) were observed either in terms of the physicochemical parameters of the broiler chickens’ breast muscles, except a significantly lower b* value of the colour parameter (P = 0.048). In turn, in the blood serum, the addition of 1% halloysite significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the content of triglycerides and the total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein fraction, but did not affect (P > 0.05) the high-density lipoprotein fraction, calcium, phosphorus or alkaline phosphate content. Tibia and femur characteristics (weight, length, relative bone weight, bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and breaking strength) were not affected (P > 0.05) by the usage of halloysite. In conclusion, supplementation of broiler diet with halloysite in the amount of 1% had beneficial effects on the carcass yield and health status of the animals, without any adverse effect on the bone parameters or meat quality of the broiler chickens.

Słowa kluczowe

  • broiler chickens
  • carcass characteristics
  • meat quality
  • serum parameters
  • bone
Otwarty dostęp

How potentially sustainable solutions may be unsustainable in practice: carrot pomaces in common carp nutrition

Data publikacji: 15 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of carrot pomaces dried at two temperatures as a feed component on growth performance, environmental sustainability, and meat quality in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Three diets were developed: a control without pomace (CON); CPL with 15.5% carrot pomace dried at 40°C and CPH with 23.6% carrot pomace dried at 120°C. A total of 240 two-year-old common carp (average body weight of individual: 1025 g) were randomly distributed into 12 tanks, four per treatment, including 20 fish per tank. The experiment was performed using an outdoor open flow aquaculture system. The growth trial lasted 60 days, after which fish samples were taken for analysis of meat quality parameters. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of the final body weight, protein efficiency ratio, or survival rate. However, in terms of weight gain, specific growth rate, and feed conversion ratio, fish fed the CPH diet exhibited significant worsening. Moreover, the fillets of fish from the CPH group exhibited a darker coloration compared to the CON diet. It is concluded that high temperature drying of carrot pomace added to carp diet negatively affected fish quality. It should be also emphasized that inclusion of the both carrot pomaces tested in this study significantly increased the usage of fish meal per kilogram of fish body weight gain. These results showed a reduced efficacy of using carrot pomace in practical and sustainable common carp nutrition.

Słowa kluczowe

  • common carp
  • carrot pomace
  • meat quality
  • sustainable aquaculture
Otwarty dostęp

Evaluating local strains of soybean and corn cultivars in the diets of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): growth and insulin-like growth factor 1, intestinal health, and inflammation features

Data publikacji: 16 May 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Recently, the high cost of aquafeed affected fish farming feasibility in some countries, including Egypt. The imported soybean meal and corn ingredients consume a large amount of the hard currency, thereby increasing feed prices. Thus, the current study investigated the different sources of soybean and corn on the performances of Nile tilapia. Fish fed with the diet I (based on Egyptian soybean meal cultivar and cornmeal cultivar) or diet II (based on imported soybean meal cultivar and cornmeal cultivar) in a 90-day feeding trial. The results showed no marked effects on the growth performance, protein efficacy ratio, and FCR in the case of fish-fed diet I or diet II. No histological alterations were observed in the skeletal muscle, hepatopancreas, spleen, and intestines, while the diet I-fed group showed normal architecture of the above-listed organs. The expression of liver and muscle IGF-1 showed no changes in fish-fed diet I or diet II. No diet-related variations were observed in IL-1β expression in the spleen but increased regulation in the liver of the diet II group compared to the diet I group. Furthermore, significant upregulation of SOD and HSP70 genes were seen in the spleen and liver of the diet II-fed group. We conclude that the inclusion of the Egyptian soybean meal cultivar and cornmeal cultivar (diet I) did not reduce the growth performance and immune-related genes compared with the imported soybean meal cultivar and cornmeal cultivar (diet II).

Słowa kluczowe

  • Nile tilapia
  • performance
  • histopathological findings
  • growth-related genes
  • aquafeed
  • sustainability
Otwarty dostęp

Differences and changes: an evaluation of the genetic diversity of Arabian mares from Polish state studs born between 1996 and 2013

Data publikacji: 16 May 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The goal of our study was to estimate genetic diversity of Arabian horses from Polish state studs which could have changed due to the extensive use of foreign sires in Polish breeding after 1989. The analysis focused on 1,388 Arabian mares born from 1996 to 2013 in the Białka, Janów Podlaski and Michałów studs. Basic parameters of pedigree, mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite analyses were considered in the study. In the pedigree analysis, changes in the gene pool over the years were noted through the considerable increase of contribution of new founders’ genes and the considerable decrease of inbreeding level. The microsatellite analysis confirmed progressive changes in the gene pool but, contrary to expectations, only three new microsatellite alleles were detected, and a decreased level of heterozygosity was observed. In turn, mtDNA analysis showed a stable genetic situation in the studs throughout the period analysed. The results of the analyses present a diverse picture of the population, which is clearly divided into the three subpopulations of Białka, Janów Podlaski and Michałów, although the pictures presented differed depending on the analytical methods used. Genetic differences among the studs should be considered a positive feature of the Polish population. In order to preserve the present level of population genetic diversity, changes in breeding policy are needed that aim to stop the loss of genes of the historical ancestors of Polish Arabian horses.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Arabian horse
  • genetic diversity
  • mtDNA
  • microsatellite
  • pedigree analysis
Otwarty dostęp

Fibrolytic enzymes increases fermentation losses and reduces fiber content of sorghum silage

Data publikacji: 16 May 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Fiber digestibility is a key-point of forage usage in ruminant production systems. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of fibrolytic enzyme blend on whole-plant sorghum silage fermentation profile, fermentative losses, chemical composition, in vitro degradation, and aerobic stability. It used fifty experimental silos (plastic bucket, 28 cm i.d. and 25 cm of height) in a blocked randomized design to evaluate the following fibrolytic enzyme levels: 0, 150, 300, 450, and 600 mL per ton. of dry matter (DM). Enzymes had 300 U/mL of xylanase and 300 U/mL of cellulase. Enzymes linearly increased acetic acid, branched-chain organic acids, and ethanol concentration of silage. Although there was no treatment effect on silage DM recovery over the ensiling process, enzyme levels linearly increased gas, effluent, and total losses. Intermediary levels of enzymes (from 312 to 342 mL/ton. DM) decreased fiber content (NDF and ADF), whereas improved NFC silage content. Besides, enzymes did not affect DM and NDF degradation and tended to linearly reduce acid detergent fiber in vitro degradation. The enzymes addition linearly decreased silage temperature after aerobic exposure. However, there was no treatment effect on silage pH after aerobic exposure neither during the time that silage remained with a temperature lower than 2 °C above environmental temperature. Thus, fibrolytic enzymes reduce fiber content, promote a heterolactic fermentation, and reduce silage temperature after aerobic exposure. However, it increases fermentative losses and has no positive effect on in vitro degradation and in the time of aerobic stability.

Słowa kluczowe

  • acetic acid
  • cellulase
  • fiber degradation
  • neutral detergent fiber
  • xylanase
Otwarty dostęp

Effects of higher plasma growth hormone levels on subclinical ketosis in postpartum Holstein cows

Data publikacji: 16 May 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Ketosis is a major metabolic disorder that can lead to huge economic losses in postpartum dairy cows by influencing milk production and reproduction performance. Therefore, it is very important to understand the characteristics and significance of plasma GH levels and dynamic changes in postpartum dairy cows for finding pathogenesis of subclinical ketosis (SK). The present study aimed to determine the role of growth hormone (GH) from the onset of SK to the fifth week postpartum and to explain the variations in GH, and metabolic markers namely, β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and glucose (GLU) at early and later SK stages in postpartum Holstein cows. A 5-wk test and an intraday 12-h test were conducted in postpartum Holstein cows. Both tests were carried out every three hours from 10:00–22:00 for 7–14 days postpartum (12-h test: n = 16) to determine plasma concentrations of GH, BHBA, NEFA and GLU. The 5-wk test results showed that GH, BHBA and NEFA concentrations were significantly higher in the SK group during the five-weeks postpartum (p < 0.01); GLU concentration was significantly lower in the SK group (p < 0.01). Intraday 12-h test results revealed that the feeding time affected the plasma concentrations of GH, BHBA, NEFA and GLU. After 1-h of feeding time, GH concentrations decreased, while BHBA, NEFA and GLU concentrations increased. After 4-h of feeding time GH, BHBA and NEFA had the highest plasma concentrations, and GLU the lowest. In both experiments, GH was positively correlated with BHBA, NEFA, and negatively correlated with GLU. It can be suggested that GH has a potential role in development and aetiology of subclinical ketosis.

Słowa kluczowe

  • growth hormone
  • ketosis
  • Holstein
  • BHBA
  • NEFA
  • GLU
  • dynamic changes
  • plasma
Otwarty dostęp

Why Osteoglossomorpha is one of the most peculiar groups of fish - a review

Data publikacji: 15 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Osteoglossomorpha is a significant taxon for studies of evolution and various aspects of fish biology as an evolutionarily old group of fish. The taxon exhibits anatomical, morphological and physiological diversity and various adaptations such as air breathing or electroreception as well as modifications visible in sight and olfactory organs. A peculiarity of this group is the presence of four types of spermatozoa, namely complex introsperm and uni-, bi-, and aflagellate aquasperm. Given the unique morphology and large dimensions of some species, osteoglossomorphs are popular in aquaristics as ornamental fish, and in fisheries because they are an important source of food in many countries. The aim of this paper is to focus on some aspects of the biology and unique features as well as the importance for humans of this unusual group of fish.

Słowa kluczowe

  • bony-tongue fishes
  • biogeography
  • electroreception
  • air breathing
  • reproductive biology
Otwarty dostęp

The use of artemia for aquaculture industry: An updated overview

Data publikacji: 15 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The increasing global population tends many sectors to overcome the food security issue; sustainable aquaculture is one of the systems that reveal the food problem in the world. The aquaculture industry is drastically increasing to offer the growing demand for this food type. The high mortalities threaten this sector during the first larval stages because of the low supplies of suitable feed for the fish larva. Artemia is vital for the aquaculture industry as it is the primary feed source for fish larvae; it is distinguished by its small size, food carrier characteristic, and off-the-shelf food feature. However, the principal source of artemia cysts has been affected by climate change, ultimately affecting artemia cyst production. Consequently, many areas worldwide try to produce artemia locally to satisfy the aquaculture rearing requirements. As a feed transmitter, artemia can be enriched with essential elements to feed the fish larvae; this method increases survivability, growth performance, and other growth indicators for many fish species. This review aimed to update the academia and stakeholders involved in artemia production in relation to the aquaculture industry. An updated overview of artemia production is also presented in the current review.

Słowa kluczowe

  • live food
  • enrichment
  • sustainable aquaculture
  • larvae feeding
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of serum starvation and contact inhibition on dermal fibroblast cell cycle synchronization in two species of wild felids and domestic cat

Data publikacji: 15 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Cell cycle synchronization of donor cells is an important step in mammalian somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). This study was designed to compare the efficiency of serum starvation (Ss) and contact inhibition (cI) on cell cycle synchronization of jaguarundi, manul, and domestic cat skin fibroblasts, in the production of G0/G1 cells suitable for SCNT in felids. Ss was performed after the growing (G) cells reached 40–50% (G50+Ss), 60–70% (G70+Ss) and full confluency (Fc), i.e. in association with cI (cI+Ss). Frozen-thawed cells were cultured to the given state of confluency (d0; controls), and subjected to Ss or cI for 1, 3, and 5 days (d). In manul, the effect of Ss on arresting fibroblasts in the G0/G1 phase was noted after just 1d of culture at G70 confluence, while G50+Ss and cI+Ss were effective after 5d of treatment. In jaguarundi, 1–5d of G50+Ss and 5d of G70+Ss increased the percentage of G0/G1 cells versus d0 (P<0.01), with 5d of G70+Ss producing more (P<0.05) quiescent cells than after the same period of G50+Ss, cI+Ss and cI. In the domestic cat, Ss was efficient only after 3 and 5d of G50+Ss. In all species, cI alone failed to increase the proportion of G0/G1 cells compared to d0, however in the domestic cat, 5d of cI was more efficient than the same period of G50+Ss. In jaguarundi, >93% of cells were already in G0/G1 phase at d0 of Fc, suggesting that culture to Fc could be also a valuable method for fibroblast cell cycle synchronization in this species. In contrast to cI, prolonged Ss generated cell loss and could induce apoptosis and/or necrosis. In conclusion, Ss was the more efficient method for skin fibroblast cell cycle synchronization at the G0/G1 phase in manul, jaguarundi and the domestic cat. The response of cells to the treatments was species-specific, depending on cell confluence and duration of culture. This research may find application in preparing donor karyoplasts for SCNT in felids.

Słowa kluczowe

  • fibroblasts
  • cell cycle
  • contact inhibition
  • serum starvation
  • feline
Otwarty dostęp

Dietary Sargassum angustifolium (Macro-Algae, Sargassaceae) extract improved antioxidant defense system in diazionon-exposed common carp, Cyprinus carpio

Data publikacji: 16 May 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The effects of different dietary levels of algae (Sargassum angustifolium) extract were investigated on the antioxidant system of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Fish (30.2 ± 2.1 g) were fed 0 (control), 5, 10 and 15 g/kg basal diet of Sargassum angustifolium extract (SAE) for 60 days and then exposed to an environmentally relevant concentration of diazinon (2 mg/l) for 24 h. The biochemical assays was conducted in two times including at the end of feeding period and after 24 h exposure to diazinon. According to the results, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the liver remained unchanged (P>0.01) during feeding period, while significantly increased in response to diazinon in control and fish fed 5 and 10 g/kg diet SAE (P<0.01). The hepatic metabolic enzymes (AST: Aspartate aminotransferase, ALT: alanine aminotransferase, LDH: lactate dehydrogenase, CK: creatine kinase) showed no significant changes in all groups during feeding period, while these enzymes increased in Non-SAE supplemented fish and those fed 5 and 10 g/kg SAE after exposure to diazinon (P<0.01). Although little elevations were observed in the activity of hepatic antioxidant enzymes (CAT: catalase, SOD: superoxide dismutase, GPx: Glutathione peroxidase) in fish fed SAE, these elevations were not significant (P>0.01). After exposure to diazinon, antioxidant enzymes significantly decreased in control and fish fed 5 g/kg diet SAE, while the fish of 10 and 15 g/kg diet SAE treatments showed significant elevations (P<0.01). The antioxidant-related genes (sod, cat, gpx) significantly expressed more in response to dietary SAE compared to control (P<0.01). After exposure to diazinon, all groups showed significant elevations in antioxidant-related genes (P<0.01). In conclusion, the results of the present study revealed the antioxidant enhancing effects of SAE at dietary levels of 10 and 15 g/kg diet, which this effect may be attributed to some antioxidant components in the chemical composition of the macro-algae or to the direct effect of SAE on antioxidant defence system of the fish.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pesticide
  • antioxidant
  • gene expression
  • macroalgae
  • fish
Otwarty dostęp

Lactobacillus casei (IBRC-M 10,711) ameliorates the growth retardation, oxidative stress, and immunosuppression induced by malathion toxicity in goldfish (Carassius auratus)

Data publikacji: 16 May 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Probiotics can functionality improve fish wellbeing and are suggested as antioxidative agents to protect fish from xenobiotics toxicity. Herein, dietary Lactobacillus casei (IBRC-M 10,711) was included in the diets of goldfish (Carassius auratus) to protect against malathion toxicity. Fish (12.47 ± 0.06 g) were randomly allocated to six groups (triplicates), as follows: T1) control; T2) fish exposed to 50% of malathion 96 h LC50; T3) L. casei at 106 CFU/g diet; T4) L. casei at 107 CFU/g diet; T5) fish exposed to 50% of malathion 96 h LC50 + L. casei at 106 CFU/g diet; T6) fish exposed to 50% of malathion 96 h LC50 + L. casei at 107 CFU/g diet. After 60 days, goldfish fed T4 had the highest final body weight (FBW), weight gain (WG), and specific growth rate (SGR), and the lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) among the groups (P < 0.05). However, the T2 group showed lower FBW, WG, and SGR and higher FCR than fish in T1 (P < 0.05). Fish in the T4 group had the highest blood total proteins, albumin, and globulin, while fish in T2 had the lowest levels (P < 0.05). Fish in the group T2 had the highest triglycerides, cholesterol, cortisol, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in the blood, while fish fed T4 had the lowest values (P < 0.05). The superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) showed the highest activities in T3 and T4 groups, and the lowest SOD was seen in the T2 group, whereas the lowest CAT was seen in the T2, T5, and T6 groups (P < 0.05). Fish in the T5 and T6 groups had higher glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities than fish in T1 and T2 groups but T3 and T4 groups showed the highest values (P < 0.05). T2 group had the highest malondialdehyde (MDA) level, while T3 and T4 groups had the lowest MDA level (P < 0.05). Blood immunoglobulin (Ig) and lysozyme activity were significantly higher in T3 and T4 groups and lower in the T2 group than in the control (P < 0.05). The alternative complement pathway (ACH50) was significantly higher in T2, T3, T4, T5, and T6 groups than in the T1 group (P < 0.05). Skin mucus Ig was significantly higher in T3 and T4 groups and lower in the T2 group than in the control (P < 0.05). The highest lysozyme activity, protease, and ACH50 in the skin mucus samples were in the T4 group, while the lowest values were in the T2 group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary L. casei protects goldfish from malathion-induced growth retardation, oxidative stress, and immunosuppression.

Słowa kluczowe

  • aquaculture
  • pesticides
  • probiotics
  • mucus immunity
  • antioxidative capacity
  • goldfish
Otwarty dostęp

Bio-active components in medicinal plants: A mechanistic review of their effects on fish growth and physiological parameters

Data publikacji: 16 May 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

World population is increasing at a tremendous rate so is the demand for animal-based protein. Aquaculture is a promising industry that has the potential to supply high quality protein for mankind with minimum environmental impact. In the past decade, aquaculture practices have been shifting from extensive to intensive culture. To achieve maximum production per unit area, high stocking densities are maintained in intensive aquaculture. If not managed properly, this may lead to stress in fish. Fish under stress condition show decreased growth, suppressed appetite, weakened immunity and increased susceptibility to infections. Chemicals, vaccines and antibiotics are used for the treatment of diseased fish. Use of synthetic chemicals, vaccines and antibiotics is not sustainable because pathogens develop resistance against them and they have high residues. Moreover, certain chemicals used for the treatment of fish diseases are not safe for humans therefore, are banned in some countries. Plant parts and their extracts are used in traditional medicines to cure many diseases and to improve health of mankind. In aquaculture industry, use of plants and their derivatives in fish feed to improve health status of fish is increasing. Several plants improve growth and overall health status of fish, some provide protection against pathogens by improving the immune system while others increase appetite by direct action on neuro-endocrine axis of fish. This review provides an in depth and up to date information about use of medicinal plants and their derivatives to improve growth and physiological status of fish and their possible mechanism of action.

Słowa kluczowe

  • medicinal plants
  • immunomodulation
  • growth
  • anti-inflammatory
  • oxidative stress
  • farmed fish
Otwarty dostęp

The quality of duck meat – from the perspective of physical measurements and expert judgment

Data publikacji: 16 May 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between some physicochemical properties and organoleptic assessments of duck meat quality and expert assessment of the general appearance of raw breast and leg muscles. Body, carcass, breast and leg muscle weight were analysed. For both breast and leg muscles the following parameters were recorded: water holding capacity, thermal drip, colour lightness L*, electrical conductivity after 15 minutes and 24 hours post mortem, as well as four traits subject to expert organoleptic evaluation (general appearance, colour, odour and fatness). The dependence was evaluated using the Pearson’s correlation and multiple regression equations (the general appearance was treated as a dependent variable). Three sets of variables were considered as factors influencing the general appearance of the raw breast and leg muscles. First, the influence of jointly selected performance traits and physiochemical properties of meat was analysed. Next, the impact of only the second-mentioned group of discriminants was considered, and then the dependence on other organoleptic attributes. It was shown that for both muscle groups, the following have a significant effect on the general appearance: muscle weight (breast muscle p < 0.0001, leg muscle p < 0.0001) in the first set, electrical conductivity 15 minutes after slaughter (breast muscle p = 0.023, leg muscle p = 0.042) in the second, and colour (both muscle groups p < 0.0001) in the third. Muscle weight, electrical conductivity 15 minutes post mortem and visually assessed colour can be used to make a preliminary assessment of the technological and culinary quality of duck meat. Moreover, measurement with a conductometer is an economical and fast method, possible to carry out in a slaughterhouse.

Słowa kluczowe

  • duck meat
  • physicochemical properties
  • organoleptic assessment
Otwarty dostęp

Effects of broiler chicken age and dietary protease on the standardised ileal digestibility of amino acids in seeds from two lupin species

Data publikacji: 15 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The extent to which lupin seeds can replace soybean meal in diets for broiler chickens is limited, and one of the reasons for this may be a lack of careful consideration given to the age-related amino acid availability differences in the feed formulation process. This study aimed to determine and compare standardised ileal digestibility (SID) coefficients of amino acids (AA) in raw seeds of the Lupinus luteus (YL) and the Lupinus angustifolius (NLL) cultivars as sole sources of AA in the diet of broiler chickens aged 14 or 28 days. An additional purpose was to check the influence of exogenous mono-component protease added to lupin-based assay diets on AA SID in birds at both ages. Each assay diet was offered to six replicatecages. On both sampling days, the contents from the lower half of the ileum were collected for determination of the apparent digestibility values. The SID coefficients were calculated using the age-appropriate basal ileal endogenous AA losses determined from birds fed a N-free diet. Results indicated a substantial advantage of YL over the NLL in SID of Met, Cys, His, Leu, Gly, Asp, Glu, Pro, Tyr and the average of total AA for 14-d-old chickens. With the exception of Cys and Tyr, there was no significant difference between these Lupinus species in the SID of AA in 28-d-old birds. The significant age-related differences within species were found only for the seeds of NLL, where the higher SID for Met, His, Ala, Pro, and the averages of total and indispensable AA were noted in birds aged 28 d. The protease increased SID of most AA from L. luteus in older broilers, whereas for L. angustifolius its efficacy was more pronounced in younger birds, giving the SID values similar to those determined at 28 d on an enzyme-unsupplemented diet. In conclusion, the SID coefficients of indispensable AA determined at 14 or 28 days of age for yellow lupin should not be applied to the precise formulation of starter-type feeds containing seeds of NLL.

Słowa kluczowe

  • lupins
  • amino acid
  • ileal digestibility
  • age
  • broiler
  • exogenous protease
Otwarty dostęp

Aquamimicry system: a sutiable strategy for shrimp aquaculture – a review

Data publikacji: 15 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Shrimp culture is the most lucrative sector in aquaculture industry; however, for its sustainable development the environment conservation should be concerned. New developed technologies are required to achieve aquaculture to its sustainable goals. Among the different novel sustainable technologies, the biofloc technology (BFT) and more recently the aquamimicry system are considered as reliable methods in burgeoning development of shrimp culture. The establishment of the BFT needs a certain carbon to nitrogen (C: N) ratio so that heterotrophic bacteria able to utilize nitrogenous metabolites, and preserve the water quality in the standard ranges suitable for shrimp culture. In addition, the produced floc can be used as supplementary food for shrimp. On the other hand, the establishment of the aquamimicry system relies on organic carbon without providing a specific C: N ratio. In this system, a synergistic relationship between a prebiotic source, which usually consists of an oligosaccharide derived from the fermentation of a carbon source (e.g., rice bran), and a probiotic source such as Bacillus sp. can provide natural conditions by blooming phytoplankton and zooplankton organisms, especially copepods. These live foods can be used as complementary foods for shrimp. Furthermore, the proliferation of beneficial bacteria in the aquamimicry system can provide stable culture condition for growth and welfare of shrimp. Based on the findings of recent literature, using the aquamimicry system for shrimp production is a more sustainable, eco-friendly, and greener than the conventional systems.

Słowa kluczowe

  • aquaculture
  • aquamimicry
  • shrimp
  • fermentation
  • microbial communities
  • probiotics
Otwarty dostęp

Relationship between quality parameters and fertilizing ability of cryopreserved sexed bull sperm

Data publikacji: 08 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the experiment was to assess the correlation between sperm quality parameters and field fertility after AI with sex-sorted (X-bearing) bull semen. A total of 32 ejaculates from 26 Holstein-Friesian bulls were analyzed to assess sperm motility parameters (CASA), viability (SYBR-14/PI), apoptotic-like changes (YO-PRO-1/PI), chromatin structure (SCSA), and ATP content. In order to determine sperm fertilizing ability, 816 heifers and 727 cows were inseminated. Ultrasound diagnosis of pregnancy was performed on day 35 after insemination. For each ejaculate, the percentage of pregnant females was calculated separately. The results revealed that the pregnancy rate ranged from 20.0 to 85.7% for heifers and from 7.7 to 66.7% for cows. On the basis of the pregnancy rate (PR) obtained, the ejaculates were divided into 3 groups: high PR (about 25% of ejaculates), medium PR (about 50% of ejaculates) and low PR (about 25% of ejaculates). Significant differences were detected for amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH) and beat cross frequency (BCF) between high- and low-fertility ejaculates in heifers. Pearson’s correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between the BCF and the pregnancy rate for heifers (r = 0.53, P<0.01) and there was a trend towards significance for ALH (r = −0.37, P = 0.07). There was no relationship between the sperm quality parameters and pregnancy rate of cows. In conclusion, the present study identified markers of sexed bull sperm function that were related to the fertility of inseminated heifers.

Słowa kluczowe

  • bull
  • sex-sorted semen
  • fertility prediction
  • flow cytometry
  • computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA)
Otwarty dostęp

Encapsulation as a way to improve the phytogenic effects of herbal additives in broilers – an overview

Data publikacji: 08 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The prohibition of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) and the restriction of synthetic antioxidants have had a negative impact on the productivity and health of broiler chickens. To ensure sustainability in broiler production, poultry nutritionists continue to look for alternatives to AGP and antioxidants. Using herbal ingredients is one alternative that is widely used today. However, the use of herbal ingredients in small doses is often constrained by bioavailability problems, thereby reducing the effectiveness of using herbal additives for broiler chickens. At higher doses, the use of herbal ingredients can increase feed costs and negatively impact palatability, digestion and protein utilization, and liver health. Encapsulation is a method that can improve the stability, palatability, and bioavailability of herbal additives, which may enhance the efficacy of herbs as AGP and antioxidant alternatives for broilers. This review article provides a comprehensive insight into the application of and problems related to herbal additives, benefits of encapsulation technology on herbs, and use of encapsulated herbs in broiler production.

Słowa kluczowe

  • antibiotic growth promoter
  • antioxidant
  • broiler
  • encapsulation
  • herbs
  • phytogenic
Otwarty dostęp

Effects of a commercial feed additive (Sanacore® GM ) on immune-antioxidant profile and resistance of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) against Vibrio alginolyticus infection

Data publikacji: 08 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The effects of a functional additive (Sanacore® GM; SAN ) on immune and antioxidant indices, and the resistance of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) against Vibrio alginolyticus infection. For this, four diets containing 0% (the control), 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% SAN were offered to triplicated groups of fish (20 - 23 g) for ten weeks. Subsequently, fish were injected intraperitoneally with V. alginolyticus and monitored for further ten days. Feeding the fish on SAN-supplemented diets showed positive effects on leukocyte counts and its differential percentages. Serum lysozyme activity and total immunoglobulin values, as well as phagocytic activity and indices, were linearly and quadratically higher in SAN-fed fish; especially at the 0.4% SAN diet. Similarly, linear and quadratic increases in catalase, superoxide dismutase, and total antioxidant capacity were observed in SAN-fed fish, particularly at the 0.4% SAN diet. Conversely, serum malondialdehyde values decreased in SAN-fed fish compared with the control group, which showed its highest value. The highest expression of the IL-1β gene coupled with the lowest TNF-α and HSP70 genes expressions was found in the fish fed with the 0.4% SAN. On the other hand, fish fed on the control diet showed the lowest IL-1β gene coupled with the highest TNF-α and HSP70 genes expressions. After bacterial infection, most of the control fish died with a relative percent of survival of 5.0%; meanwhile feeding gilthead seabream on SAN-enriched diets significantly enhanced their protection against V. alginolyticus infection. Fish fed on the 0.4% SAN diet showed 100% survival. The SAN administration to gilthead seabream especially at the 0.4% level led to significant promotions in antioxidative and immune responses and augment the fish resistance to V. alginolyticus infection.

Słowa kluczowe

  • feed supplement
  • gilthead seabream
  • antioxidative status
  • immune response
  • infection
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of feeding strawberry, raspberry and rapeseed oil in rats’ diet on the fatty acid profile of muscle tissue

Data publikacji: 08 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Currently, alternative plant oils with pro-health properties are sought. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of feeding strawberry, raspberry and rapeseed oils in rats’ diet on the fatty acid profile of muscle tissue. Adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=7) and fed with the addition of rapeseed, raspberry or strawberry seed oil, respectively, or control group. After a 6-week treatment period, the fatty acid profile in m. latisssimus dorsi, was analyzed using gas chromatography. The dietary strawberry or raspberry seed oil led to a significant increase in C-18:2 n-6 ad C-18:3 n-3 level in muscle fat when compared to control group. At the same time, in the group receiving raspberry oil, an unfavorable phenomenon of lowering the EPA content was observed, while a tendency towards a decrease in DHA level was observed in groups supplemented with both raspberry and strawberry oil. Both oils as a source of PUFA n-3 and n-6, increased ALA n-3 and LA n-6 fatty acids in latissimus dorsi muscle, but due to different activity of enzymes taking apart in conversion of polyunsaturated fatty acids to their long chain derivatives in rats, the research on pig model would be advisable.

Słowa kluczowe

  • strawberry and raspberry seed oil
  • rapeseed oil
  • meat
  • fatty acid profile
  • rats
Otwarty dostęp

Feeds of animal origin in rabbit nutrition – a review

Data publikacji: 08 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Rabbits are classified as obligate herbivores. However, under natural conditions, some members of the family Leporidae incorporate animal products into their diets. Therefore, it seems biologically justified to supplement the diets of farmed rabbits with feeds of animal origin as sources of protein, fat and minerals. The aim of this review was to describe, from a historical perspective, the use of various feeds of animal origin in rabbit nutrition. The applicability of by-products from mammal, poultry, fish and invertebrate processing for rabbit feeding was evaluated, including the future prospects for their use. A review of the available literature revealed that various animal-based feeds can be valuable protein sources in rabbit diets, but their inclusion levels should not exceed 5-10%. Studies investigating their efficacy have been conducted since the 1970s. In some regions of the world, the use of animal-derived protein in livestock feeds was prohibited due to the risk of spreading bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). However, the interest in animal by-products as protein sources in livestock diets is likely to increase since the above ban has been lifted.

Słowa kluczowe

  • rabbits
  • nutrition
  • feeds of animal origin
Otwarty dostęp

Temporal variations in hematological, immunological and serum biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) acclimated to high-saline water in the Northern Aegean Sea

Data publikacji: 08 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The present study evaluated the health status of rainbow trout (30.24±5.34 g) acclimated to high-saline water (28‰). Among adaptation procedures, gradually-acclimated (for 48 h) fish showed best performance, which were then introduced to the offshore cage-farm for further monitoring of fish health in marine environment over a long-term period of 100 days, until harvest weight of 319.9±48.51 g. Fish health and welfare was evaluated by means of biochemical parameters (viscerasomatic index, hepatosomatic index, mesenteric fat index, and spleen somatic index), hematological parameters (serum glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, globulin), and immune parameters (lysozyme, myeloperoxidase, respiratory burst and potential killing values). Gradual acclimation to high-saline water did not show any adverse effects on health parameters. No significant differences were found in biometric measures (P>0.05). However, a time-dependent increase was recorded in hematology markers (P<0.05) after seawater transfer, and the health status improved over long-term from March 7 to June 14, 2018. All serum biochemical markers, except the total protein showed significant alterations (P<0.05) in long-term but without detrimental influence by day-100. Therefore, it seems possible to expand trout farms from brackish water sites to higher saline environments up to 28‰ salinity, with no detrimental impacts on fish health, that in turns may significantly contribute to the extension of potential aquaculture sites to wider areas.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Rainbow trout
  • biochemical parameters
  • hematological profile
  • health status
  • high saline water
Otwarty dostęp

Potential protective effects of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) essential oil on growth, hematology, immune responses, and antioxidant status of Oncorhynchus mykiss exposed to Malathion

Data publikacji: 15 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

As an abundant source of antioxidants and diet flavor enhancers, the plant essential oils can have positive effects on fish growth, and resistance against environmental stressors. In this study, garden thyme (Thymus vulgaris) essential oil (TEO) was used in the diet of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, to evaluate its protective effect against Malathion pesticide exposure. Tested fish (19.99 ± 0.01 g) were divided into six groups (three replicates), namely: T1: control diet; T2: control diet + 0.025 mg L−1 malathion; T3: control diet + 0.075 mg L−1 malathion; T4: control diet + 1% TEO; T5: control diet + 0.025 mg L−1 malathion + 1% TEO and T6: control diet + 0.075 mg L−1 malathion + 1% TEO. After 21 days, T4 fish had the highest final body weight (FW), weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), and the lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) among experimental treatments (P<0.05). The blood parameters including the red blood cells (RBC), white blood cell count (WBC), hematocrit (Hct), and hemoglobin (Hb) values were the highest in T4 treatment, displaying a significant difference with T1 treatment (P<0.05). Fish in the T4 groups had the highest total protein (TP) and albumin (ALB), while fish of T3 showed the lowest levels of these parameters (P<0.05) and also had the highest level of triglycerides (TRG), cholesterol (CHOL), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and urea (Ur). Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzymes recorded the lowest levels in T4 treatment, which showed a significant difference with T1 group. The catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) showed the highest activities in T4 treatment, while the lowest SOD and the highest malondialdehyde (MDA) levels occurred in T3 group (P<0.05). Total immunoglobulin (total Ig) level, alternative complement (ACH50) and lysozyme in the serum and skin mucus of T4 treatment of rainbow trout showed the highest activities with a significant difference from groups (P<0.05). From the results of the present study, it can be concluded that 1% of T. vulgaris as a supplement to the diet of rainbow trout can stimulate and improve the immune system of the fish. TEO can have a protective effect against unfavorable effects of malathion and improves the growth of the fish.

Słowa kluczowe

  • organophosphate
  • plant medicine
  • thyme
  • welfare
  • antioxidant
  • fish
Otwarty dostęp

Dietary effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, skin mucosal immune response, and antioxidant capacity in goldfish (Carassius auratus)

Data publikacji: 15 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

A trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on gold fish, Carassius auratus. In this regard, GSPE was added to a basal diet at four levels including 0, 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg to produce four experimental diets including control, GSPE200, GSPE400, and GSPE600. Three hundred and sixty goldfish (3.75 ± 0.1 g) were stocked in twelve 100 L rectangular tanks (30 fish per tank) and fed with the experimental diets three times a day for nine weeks. During the experimental trial, water temperature was 26.7–28.5ºC. The weight gain and specific growth rate in the fish fed with GSPE supplemented diets were higher than the control, meanwhile feed conversion ratio value in these groups decreased compared to the control. Fish fed GSPE-supplemented diets had lower fillet lipid (10-19%), but higher protein levels (7–15%) compared to the control. The levels of serum triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in the fish fed GSPE-supplemented diets were decreased compared to the control group. The highest and lowest levels of serum glucose, and ALP were in the fish fed with control and GSPE600 diets, respectively. The skin mucusal lysozyme activity (24–38%) and protein level (70–96%) were higher in fish fed GSPE-supplemented diets than the control. The highest, and lowest liver antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase, and gluthatione peroxidase were observed in in GSPE 600, and control groups, respectively. The findings of the present study indicated that supplementing 400 mg/kg GSPE in diet can improve growth and health condition in goldfish.

Słowa kluczowe

  • goldfish
  • grape seed proanthocyanidin extract
  • physiological parameters
  • immunity
Otwarty dostęp

Potential of Moringa oleifera silage to replace concentrate feed mixture in diet of lactating Damascus goats

Data publikacji: 15 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The present study evaluates the effect of partial replacement of concentrate with Moringa oleifera silage (MOS) in the diet of lactating Damascus goats on milk production, nutrient utilization and ruminal fermentation. Fifteen lactating ewes were stratified in a quintuplicate 3 × 3 Latin square design (3 diets × 3 periods) for 90 days and fed a diet composed of a concentrate mixture and rice straw in 60:40 (DM basis) in the control group for 30 days in each period. In the other two diets, MOS was included in the control diet at 20 (MOS20 diet) or 40% (MOS40 diet) replacing the same amounts of concentrate on DM basis. Feeding MOS containing diets linearly (P<0.05) decreased non-structural carbohydrates intake, while it increased the intakes of crude protein and acid detergent fiber as well as the digestibility of the nutrients compared to the control. Moreover, MOS diets linearly increased (P<0.01) ruminal pH, concentrations of ruminal total volatile fatty acids, acetate and propionate, and concentrations of serum glucose and high-density lipoprotein. Increased milk production, concentrations of milk fat and total conjugated linoleic acid, and feed efficiency were observed with feeding MOS diets. It is concluded that concentrate feed mixture in diets of lactating Damascus goats can be replaced with M. oleifera silage up to 40% to improve their lactational performance.

Słowa kluczowe

  • concentrates
  • goat
  • milk production
  • ruminal fermentation
Otwarty dostęp

Comparison of the quality of mountain sheep milk obtained from animals kept on a natural and organic mountain pasture

Data publikacji: 15 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of mountain sheep milk obtained from animals kept on mountain pastures: natural and organic. The experimental procedure was conducted under production conditions, during annual grazing of mountain sheep on two mountain pastures in the region of the Polish Carpathians: on organic pasture certified for organic farming and natural mountain pasture belongs to the National Park. This study showed greater plant species diversity in the organic mountain pasture, but its yielding was lower than that of the natural pasture. The green growth of the natural pasture was characterised by lower dry matter and fibre content but contained more total protein. The type of pasture did not affect the basic composition of the milk of mountain sheep, while differences were found in terms of acidity, alcohol number, fatty acid profile of fat and milk protein fractions. Milk obtained from sheep grazed on organic pasture was characterized by a higher proportion of medium chain fatty acids, as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids, and also essential unsaturated fatty acids, both linoleic acid, α - linolenic acid, γ-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid. In milk originating from the natural mountain pasture, a higher proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid and the CLA c9-t11 isomer was found. The composition of milk protein fractions varied according to the location of grazing: milk from sheep grazing on natural pasture had a higher content of whey fractions, important for consumer health, milk from organic pasture had a higher content of κ-casein, of greatest importance in dairy processing technology. The floral composition of the pasture had an influence on the quality of sheep milk in relation to the fatty acid profile of fat and protein fractions of milk, which is important in terms of both the health-promoting and technological aspects of the raw material and may affect the quality of products made from it.

Słowa kluczowe

  • mountain pasture
  • milk quality
  • mountain sheep
Otwarty dostęp

Genetic structure of reconstituted native Carpathian goat breed based on information from microsatellite markers

Data publikacji: 15 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic structure of the reconstituted native Carpathian goat breed based on information from microsatellite markers. The study analysed of 14 microsatellite markers recommended by the International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG) for goats individual identification and parentage testing. Blood samples were taken from 249 Carpathian goats from 14 farms. All microsatellite markers deployed in this analysis showed sufficient polymorphism to assess genetic variation in Carpathian goats and the ISAG-recommended panel for goat individual identification and parentage testing is a highly useful one. The present study showed the status of the genetic structure of the reconstituted population of Carpathian goats. Carpathian goats maintained in Poland were characterized by relatively high genetic diversity (the average of alleles per locus was 9.143), high values of heterozygosity and a low level of inbreeding coefficient. The obtained parameters indicate the correctness of the breeding activities carried out within the framework of the programme for the protection of genetic resources and give guidelines for taking further steps related to the breeding of this valuable native breed.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Carpathian goat
  • native breed
  • genetic structure
  • microsatellite markers
Otwarty dostęp

Rice bran in old horse’s nutrition and their influence on condition, blood biochemical parameters, total feces bacteria and methanogen population

Data publikacji: 15 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study aimed to verify whether the inclusion of 0.5 kg full-fat rice bran per day in the diet of geriatric horses will improve their condition, increase the population of methanogens in the cecum, and thus affect the biochemical blood parameters. The experiment assumed 2 research periods: 6 healthy, non-working horses over 20 years of age (480 ± 20 kg of body weight) were fed only hay (±8.86 kg/day/head) in the first period and hay (±8.00 kg/day/head) and rice bran (0.5 kg/day/head) in the second one. Each of these periods lasted 4 months. The Body Condition Scoring (BCS) assessment was performed at the beginning and end of the experiment. Blood and feces samples were collected on the first and last day of each period. After feeding with the addition of rice bran, BCS increased by 1.17 units on a 9-point scale. The experiment showed an increase in the total number of bacteria and methanogens inhabiting the cecum of horses. This can lead to better digestion of carbohydrates, absorption of nutrients, and, consequently, increased body weight. No differences occurred in the hematology and serum biochemistry indices of horses fed a diet including rice bran, except for the amount of serum globulin and the albumin to globulin ratio. Rice bran affected essential serum fatty acid profile (increased PUFA and decreased MUFA) which confirmed the possibility to use diet as a serum fatty acids profile modulator.

Słowa kluczowe

  • geriatric horses
  • rice bran
  • intestinal microbiome
  • fatty acids profile
Otwarty dostęp

Bioactive compounds, antibiotics and heavy metals: effects on the intestinal structure and microbiome of monogastric animals – a non-systematic review

Data publikacji: 15 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The intestinal structure and gut microbiota are essential for the animals‘ health. Chemical components taken with food provide the right environment for a specific microbiome which, together with its metabolites and the products of digestion, create an environment, which in turn is affects the population size of specific bacteria. Disturbances in the composition of the gut microbiota can be a reason for the malformation of guts, which has a decisive impact on the animal‘ health. This review aimed to analyse scientific literature, published over the past 20 years, concerning the effect of nutritional factors on gut health, determined by the intestinal structure and microbiota of monogastric animals. Several topics have been investigated: bioactive compounds (probiotics, prebiotics, organic acids, and herbal active substances), antibiotics and heavy metals (essentaial minerals and toxic heavy metals).

Słowa kluczowe

  • bioactive compounds
  • heavy metals
  • intestine structure
  • microbiome
  • monogastric animals
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of soybean meal substitution with raw chickpea (Cicer arietinum l.) Seeds on growth performance, selected carcass traits, blood parameters, and bone quality in male broilers

Data publikacji: 15 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The study determined the effect of introducing 50% of protein from the protein feed pool derived from raw chickpea seeds instead of 50% of soybean meal in the rearing period from day 22 to 42 on the coefficients of nutrient digestibility, growth performance, selected carcass traits, the hematological and metabolic profile of blood, and the quality of femur bones in male Ross 308 broilers. The study was carried out on 200 22-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks (initial weight of 756 g) randomly assigned to two groups (n=100 in each group; 5 cages with 20 birds each). All birds were reared for 42 days. They were fed isonitrogenous and isoenergetic pre-experimental starter diet (day 1 to 21) in the crumble form and experimental grower-finisher diets (day 22 to 42) in the pelleted form. From rearing day 22, SBM male broilers (grower/finisher) were fed diets with 100% SBM as a protein source. In the diet for the CPR group (grower and finisher), the SBM protein was replaced with 50% of CPR-derived protein. During the grower and finisher stage and between days 22 and 42, the CPR group exhibited significant (P=0.032) reductions in feed intake (FI), higher (P=0.043) slaughter yields, high (P=0.044) % share of breast muscles, and reduced (P=0.003) abdominal fat content. The addition of CPR influenced some blood parameters. The level of total protein, urea, and Mg decreased, whereas the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate transaminase (ALT) increased. In the CPR group, an increase in the physical, morphometric, and some strength parameters of the femur (maximum elastic strength – Wy, yielding deformation – dy, bone density index – BDI, and Young’s modulus) was observed. Therefore, CPR may be a promising partial substitute of SBM in broiler nutrition, as it enhances production performance and has a beneficial effect on bone quality.

Słowa kluczowe

  • broiler chicken
  • chickpea
  • carcass traits
  • blood parameters
  • femur quality
Otwarty dostęp

The dietary mixture of betaine, lactic acid bacteria, and exogenous digestive enzymes enhanced the growth performance, intestinal health, and immunity of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) grown in outdoor concrete tanks

Data publikacji: 15 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

It has been illustrated that using mixtures of feed additives is more efficient than using individual additives in aquaculture. Hence, this study aimed to study a dietary mixture of betaine, lactic acid bacteria, and exogenous digestive enzymes (BLE) on the growth performance, digestion capacity, intestinal health, and blood indices of Nile tilapia reared outdoors in concrete tanks. Five diets were prepared where the basal diets mixed with BLE at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1%. After 90 days, the growth performance of Nile tilapia-fed BLE was markedly enhanced in fish fed 0.25 and 0.5% of BLE, while the feed conversion ratio (FCR) was reduced (P<0.05). The lipase activity was significantly higher in tilapia fed BLE at 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75% than 0 and 1%. The amylase activity was meaningfully increased by 0.5% of BLE than 0, 0.25, 0.75, and 1%. The protease activity was significantly higher in tilapia fed BLE at 0.25 and 0.5 than 0, 0.75, and 1% (P<0.05). The intestine of fish fed on BLE showed an increase in intestinal villi density. The villi length, width, and the number of goblet cells were markedly higher in the anterior, middle, and posterior segments of the intestines of tilapia fed BLE than in the control group (P<0.05). Further, fish fed BLE had higher intestinal morphometry indices and count of goblet cells than the control. Significantly fish fed 0.25, and 0.5% of BLE had higher hemoglobulin, and hematocrit levels than fish fed 0, 0.75, and 1%. While, fish fed 0.5% had higher red blood cells than fish fed the remaining BLE levels (P<0.05). On the other hand, no marked effects for BLE supplementation were seen on the alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total protein, albumin, globulin, creatinine, uric acid, and urea. The regression analysis showed that the maximum dose of BLE supplementation to achieve the highest final weight and the lowest FCR is 0.46% and 0.42%, respectively.

Słowa kluczowe

  • mixtures additives
  • production
  • finfish species
  • wellbeing
  • digestion
Otwarty dostęp

Synbiotic Lactic Dry® enhanced the growth performance, growth-related genes, intestinal health, and immunity of Nile tilapia reared in inland brackish groundwater

Data publikacji: 15 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Nile tilapia is recognized as a suitable candidate for intensive farming and sustainability of the aquaculture industry. However, one issue limiting Nile tilapia expansion in arid and semi-arid areas is the scarcity of freshwater resources. In this study, the supplementation of synbiotics was investigated to enhance the growth performance, growth-related genes, intestinal health, and immunity of Nile tilapia reared in inland brackish groundwater. Four diets were prepared where the basal diets were mixed with the dietary mixture of probiotics and prebiotics (Synbiotic Lactic Dry®, a blend of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus faecium, and Bacillus subtilis, mannan oligosaccharides and β-1.3/1.6-D-glucan) at 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 g/kg. After eight weeks, the final weight and weight gain are linearly increasing with increasing the supplementation level of synbiotic. Markedly fish fed 0.5, 1, and 2 g/kg of synbiotic had higher final weight, weight gain, and feed intake and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) than fish fed synbiotic free diet. The specific growth rate (SGR) was significantly higher in fish fed 1 and 2 g/kg than in fish fed 0 and 0.5 g/kg. The intestine of fish fed on synbiotic shows an increase in intestinal villi density. Further, the intestine of fish fed on synbiotic showed an increase in the length and branching intestinal villi (anterior, middle, and posterior) in a dose-dependent manner. The lysozyme and phagocytic activities were significantly different from the control, while synbiotic supplementation did not affect the phagocytic index. Interestingly, the results showed marked upregulation of ghrelin, IGF-1, and GH genes in fish fed synbiotics at 0.5, 1, and 2 g/kg. In addition, fish fed 2 g/kg had the highest expression of ghrelin, IGF-1, and GH genes. In conclusion, growing Nile tilapia in inland brackish groundwater can be achieved without negative impacts on the growth performance and health status. Supplementing synbiotics (1-2 g/kg) in Nile tilapia feeds enhanced the growth and feed performances, intestinal histomorphological features, growth-related genes, and immune response.

Słowa kluczowe

  • euryhaline fish species
  • feed additives
  • productivity
  • sustainable aquaculture
  • water scarcity
Otwarty dostęp

Performance indicators, coccidia oocyst counts, plasma biochemical parameters and fermentation processes in the cecum of rabbits fed a diet with the addition of black cumin seed meal

Data publikacji: 15 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with black cumin seed meal on growth performance parameters, coccidia oocyst counts, plasma biochemical parameters and cecal fermentation processes in growing rabbits. A total of 40 male Californian rabbits at 35 days of age were divided into two feeding groups: Control (complete rabbit diet) and Black cumin (2% of the complete diet was replaced with black cumin seed meal). Dietary supplementation with black cumin did not affect growth performance parameters, but it reduced coccidia oocyst counts in the feces of 63-day-old rabbits. Increased liver weight and elevated plasma albumin levels were noted in these rabbits. A significant decrease in small intestinal digesta viscosity was also observed in rabbits fed a diet supplemented with black cumin seed meal. The above change suppressed the formation of putrefactive compounds, i.e. ammonia and branched short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the cecum, but it did not decrease the production of major SCFAs, i.e. acetic, propionic and butyric acids. The current study demonstrated that the dietary addition of 2% black cumin seed meal exerted a modulatory effect on gastrointestinal function, but it did not compromise microbial enzyme activity or SCFA production in the cecum.

Słowa kluczowe

  • rabbit feeding
  • black cumin
  • intestinal physiology
  • blood biochemical parameters
  • microbial fermentation processes
Otwarty dostęp

Non-targeted analysis of VOCs by HS-SPME-G C/MS coupled with chemometrics as a potential tool for authentication of White Kołuda oat goose

Data publikacji: 15 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study tested the possibility of using non-targeted analysis of volatile organic compounds by headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with chemometrics as a potential tool for differentiating leg meat of oat- and wheat-fed (ad libitum) White Kołuda geese. Thirty-six classification models were obtained for which the correct classification rate and classification accuracy for oatfed and wheat-fed geese were calculated based on a seven-fold cross-validation. Generally, the most advantageous method of the sample preparation was the high-temperature heat treatment version, whereas the highest correct classification rate was obtained when the chemometric analysis was carried out on the female, then male, and finally male + female variant of group comparisons (P<0.01). Furthermore, log-transformation appeared to be a slightly better data preprocessing technique in comparison to systematic ratio normalization. The obtained classification models can potentially differentiate the meat of oat-fattened from wheat-fattened White Kołuda geese.

Słowa kluczowe

  • White Kołuda goose
  • food authentication
  • volatile organic compounds
  • chemometrics
  • Fisher ratio
  • systematic ratio normalization
Otwarty dostęp

Multifunctional role of chitosan in farm animals: a comprehensive review

Data publikacji: 15 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The deacetylation of chitin results in chitosan, a fibrous-like material. It may be produced in large quantities since the raw material (chitin) is plentiful in nature as a component of crustacean (shrimps and crabs) and insect hard outer skeletons, as well as the cell walls of some fungi. Chitosan is a nontoxic, biodegradable, and biocompatible polygluchitosanamine that contains two essential reactive functional groups, including amino and hydroxyl groups. This unique chemical structure confers chitosan with many biological functions and activities such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antitumor, immunostimulatory and hypocholesterolemic, when used as a feed additive for farm animals. Studies have indicated the beneficial effects of chitosan on animal health and performance, aside from its safer use as an antibiotic alternative. This review aimed to highlight the effects of chitosan on animal health and performance when used as a promising feed additive.

Słowa kluczowe

  • chitosan polymer
  • antimicrobial activity
  • antioxidant activity
  • growth
  • reproduction
  • animal health
Otwarty dostęp

Chemical body composition and bone growth of young pigs as affected by deficiency, adequate and excess of dietary phosphorus supply

Data publikacji: 15 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Objective of the experiment was to study the effect of deficiency, adequate and excess dietary phosphorus supply on growth performance, retention and utilisation of phosphorus, length, mass and geometry measurements of the femur shaft, content of protein, ash, phosphorus in viscera, edible (meat and fat) and inedible (bones and skin) parts of the body in pigs ageing from 33 to 110 days. It was found that compared to animals fed according to phosphorus requirement the deficiency and excess of dietary phosphorus did not influenced o total feed intake (mean 120.6 kg) and feed conversion (mean 1.9 kg/kg gain). However phosphorus deficiency lowered total gain of the body mass (P=0.0072), diminished weight of the inedible part of the carcass (P=0.0229), decreased the content of body protein (P=0.0171), ash (P=0.0001), and phosphorus (P=0.0001). Whereas, over-supply of dietary phosphorus did not cause any change of these component. Utilisation of the total phosphorus was diminished (P=0.0001) in pigs fed diet with both excess (by 16.26%) and deficiency (by 12.28%) of the phosphorus, but excess had much lower negative impact than its’ deficiency. When available form of this element was considered over-supply still reduced (P=0.0001) its utilisation the most (by 26.58%) but deficiency made utilisation the best (7.77%). Both dietary deficiency and over-supply of the phosphorus diminished (P=0.0001) femur mass (by 25 and 11 g, respectively). Thus negative impact of phosphorus deficiency was much stronger. Moreover, phosphorus deficiency diminished (P=0.0015) bone length (by 0.5 cm), however, excess did not change this feature. Response of animals to a decrease bone mass and length due disturbances in phosphorus supply (both deficiency and excess) was the increase the vertical external diameter of the femur shaft.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pigs
  • dietary phosphorus supply
  • body phosphorus retention
  • bone growth
Otwarty dostęp

Effects of dietary L-Proline and L-Alanine on growth performance, and flesh quality of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) juveniles

Data publikacji: 15 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of amino acids L-Proline and LAlanine on growth performance, amino acid, and fatty acid levels in the fillet of juvenile common carp. 450 juvenile common carp were randomly distributed in 30 tanks and fed with three levels of proline (5 [P5], 10 [P10], and 15 [P15] g/kg), three levels of Alanine [A] (5 [A5], 10 [A10], and 15 [A15] g/kg), three levels of proline-alanine combination [PA] (2.5 + 2.5 [2.5PA], 5 + 5 [5PA], 7.5 + 7.5 [7.5PA] g/kg feed) and basal diet (control). The highest body weight gain (25.85 ± 0.1 g) and survival rate (91.11 ± 3.84) were observed in 7.5 PA treatment. The highest protein content (64.58 ± 0.49) was noticed in 2.5 PA; however, compared to combined treatments (5 PA and 2.5 PA), it did not show any significant difference (p<0.05). The highest total amount of essential amino acids (48.30 ± 48.3) were observed in 7.5 PA treatment. The highest amount of DHA (5.65 ± 0.08), total EPA, and DHA (8.91 ± 0.13) were in 7.5 PA treatment. Finally, it can be concluded that two amino acids of L-Proline and L-Alanine at the combined level of 5 PA can improve the growth performance, survival, and fillet composition in the juvenile common carp.

Słowa kluczowe

  • L-proline
  • L-Alanine
  • growth performance
  • fillet composition
  • common carp

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