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Mechanisms and Methods of Decision Making / Ed. by Ewa Roszkowska

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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2199-6059
ISSN
0860-150X
Pierwsze wydanie
08 Aug 2013
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 62 (2020): Zeszyt 1 (June 2020)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2199-6059
ISSN
0860-150X
Pierwsze wydanie
08 Aug 2013
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

12 Artykułów
access type Otwarty dostęp

Slurs: Departures from Genuine Uses and Derogation

Data publikacji: 11 Oct 2020
Zakres stron: 9 - 24

Abstrakt

Abstract

Some non-appropriated uses of slurs seem to be non–derogatory. In this paper, I argue that in a range of cases, the lack of derogation is owed to the term not being genuinely used. I first examine so–called pedagogical uses and show that they can be assimilated to what I call “distancing uses.” I then turn to a range of other apparently non–derogatory, non–appropriated uses of slurs – such as non–weapon uses, comedic uses – and argue that they can depart from standard, genuine usage in relevant ways. I finally turn to so–called “affectionate” uses, and show that, if the conditions in which they obtain can be described as standard, then they are derogatory because they are genuine uses, no matter the benevolent feelings of the speaker.

Słowa kluczowe

  • slurs
  • semantics
  • pragmatics
  • use
  • mention
  • derogation
  • offensiveness
access type Otwarty dostęp

Descriptive Indexicals, Deferred Reference, and Anaphora

Data publikacji: 11 Oct 2020
Zakres stron: 25 - 52

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objectives of this paper are twofold. The first is to present a differentiation between two kinds of deferred uses of indexicals: those in which indexical utterances express singular propositions (I term them deferred reference proper) and those where they express general propositions (called descriptive uses of indexicals). The second objective is the analysis of the descriptive uses of indexicals. In contrast to Nunberg, who treats descriptive uses as a special case of deferred reference in which a property contributes to the proposition expressed, I argue that examples in which a general proposition is indeed expressed by an indexical cannot be treated by assuming that the property is a deferred referent of the pronoun. I propose an analysis of descriptive uses of indexicals by means of a pragmatic mechanism of ‘descriptive anaphora’, which attempts to explain the special kind of contribution of the property retrieved from the context to the proposition that is characteristic of the descriptive interpretation.

Słowa kluczowe

  • descriptive indexicals
  • deferred reference
  • anaphora
  • demonstratives
  • singular terms
access type Otwarty dostęp

The Knowability Paradox and Unsuccessful Updates

Data publikacji: 11 Oct 2020
Zakres stron: 53 - 71

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this paper we undertake an analysis of the knowability paradox in the light of modal epistemic logics and of the phenomena of unsuccessful updates. The knowability paradox stems from the Church-Fitch observation that the plausible knowability principle, according to which all truths are knowable, yields the unacceptable conclusion that all truths are known. We show that the phenomenon of an unsuccessful update is the reason for the paradox arising. Based on this diagnosis, we propose a restriction on the knowability principle which resolves the paradox.

Słowa kluczowe

  • knowability paradox
  • knowability principle
  • dynamic epistemic logic
  • logic of public announcements
  • unsuccessful update
  • successful formulas
access type Otwarty dostęp

The Duhem-Quine Thesis Reconsidered

Data publikacji: 11 Oct 2020
Zakres stron: 73 - 93

Abstrakt

Abstract

The high point of the falsification of physical theories in a standard view of the philosophy of science is the so-called crucial experiment. This experiment is a kind of manipulated empirical test, which provides the criterion for distinguishing between two rival hypotheses, where one is an acceptable theory due to passing the test, and the other turns out to be an unacceptable theory as it does not pass the test. The crucial experiment was supposed to play a significant role because, in virtue of an empirical disconfirmation of one theory, the experiment was assumed to confirm the other as true. However, in 1906, in La théorie physique, son object et la structure (hereafter quoted in English translation as The Aim and Structure of Physical Theory (1906/1954)), Pierre Duhem famously argued against this view and stated that crucial experiments in physics are impossible as they are necessarily ambiguous and logically incomplete. His contention rested on the claim that, “[a] physical theory is not an explanation [of true reality in itself in virtue of some broad metaphysical ramification of physics]. It is a system of mathematical propositions, deduced from a small number of principles, which aim to represent as simply, as completely, and as accurately as possible a set of experimental laws” (ibid., p. 19). Furthermore, different theories could be equally suitable to represent a given group of experimental laws. And, assuming holism, no hypothesis could be tested in isolation, but merely as a part of a set of an entire scientific theory. The problem which Duhem identified in 1906 was slightly overshadowed and neglected in mainstream philosophy of science until the appearance of a challenging paper by Willard Van Orman Quine published in 1951 and entitled “Two Dogmas of Empiricism”. Quine’s paper caused a revival of interest in Duhem’s original formulation and gave a new impulse towards the problem in the form of the so-called Duhem-Quine thesis. The aim of this paper is to reconsider whether Duhem was right to argue that there are no crucial experiments in physics. In order to assess the validity of the thesis, first, this paper makes an exposition of Duhem’s arguments in their favour, and analyses the major criticisms of this position offered in the subject-literature of Adolf Grünbaum, who explicitly attacked the arguments for the thesis as inconclusive and false. Then, this paper presents possible modes of defence of the Duhem-Quine thesis and argues that the original formulation of the thesis is well qualified and plausible. Finally, this paper offers a pragmatic interpretation of the theory choice.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Duhem
  • Quine
  • Crucial Experiments
  • Holism
  • Theory Choice
  • Virtue Epistemology
  • Pragmatism
access type Otwarty dostęp

Dialetheism and Metaphor

Data publikacji: 11 Oct 2020
Zakres stron: 95 - 111

Abstrakt

Abstract

In the paper two seemingly distinct areas of philosophical investigations are brought together: metaphor and dialetheism. They both turn out to be deeply related, which becomes visible against a background, i.e. the hybrid structure of metaphor delineated in the first part. This network elicits three variations of dissonance subsequently called: (1) phantom-contradiction, which is combined with unconventionality of metaphors; (2) indexed-bound contradiction, bearing some cognitive tension but no real truth value gluts and; (3) logical contradiction “spread” between the two layers of metaphorical structure. Finally, the analysis allows for approaching a theoretically pending question concerning the influence of dialetheic aspects of metaphor upon human cognition and thinking in general.

Słowa kluczowe

  • contradiction
  • fuzziness
  • dialetheism
  • metaphor
  • cognition
  • metaphorical reasoning
access type Otwarty dostęp

Filum Cogitationis. Remarks on Leibnizian Projects of a Universal Language

Data publikacji: 11 Oct 2020
Zakres stron: 113 - 136

Abstrakt

Abstract

This essay is an attempt to offer at least a partial answer to the question concerning Leibniz's motivation for the need to create a universal language. It is relevant, among other things, due to Leibniz's claim which contradicts the idea of a universal language, in which he clearly stresses that “every language, even the poorest one, can express everything”, as well as owing to Leibniz's historical contribution to the idea of formalization and to the mechanization of the reasoning processes. This paper is also an attempt to reconstruct the paradigm of language research pursued in a specific period of time in 17th century language theory.

Słowa kluczowe

  • G. W. Leibniz
  • the universal language
  • philosophy of language
access type Otwarty dostęp

Epistemic Justification of Testimonial Beliefs and the Categories of Egophoricity and Evidentiality in Natural Languages: An Insoluble Paradox of Thomas Reid's Anti-Reductionism

Data publikacji: 11 Oct 2020
Zakres stron: 137 - 168

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paper is concerned with the epistemological status of testimony and the question of what may confer justification on true testimonial beliefs and enable us to call such beliefs knowledge. In particular, it addresses certain anti-reductionist arguments in the epistemology of testimony and their incompatibility with the grammatical categories of egophoricity (conjunct/disjunct marking) and evidentiality (information source marking) present in the architecture of natural languages. First, the tradition of epistemological individualism and its rationale are discussed, as well as certain attempts within this tradition to include testimony-based beliefs in the body of legitimate and rational beliefs. The next section is concerned with the anti-reductionist approach to testimonial beliefs and some arguments supporting ‘the credulity principle’ grounded in Thomas Reid's philosophy of common sense. The last two sections show how the anti-reductionist argumentation is threatened with an insoluble dilemma when considered in the context of languages with the grammatical categories of egophoricity (conjunct/disjunct marking) and evidentiality (information source marking). Special attention is paid to the justificatory role of egophoric and evidential marking; how these grammatical categories may influence the process of belief formation, and consequently, how this bears upon the nature of justification for testimonial beliefs. The final conclusion of the paper is that the anti-reductionist claim concerning the directness and non-inferential nature of testimonial knowledge is bound to meet objections grounded in the structure of many natural languages. This leads to a paradox: in discussion with reductionism, anti-reductionists do seek support for their arguments in common sense beliefs reflected in everyday language, and, on the other hand, their claims are incompatible with the linguistic data found in a number of natural languages.

Słowa kluczowe

  • epistemology of testimony
  • justification
  • testimonial belief
  • Thomas Reid
  • reductionism
  • anti-reductionism
  • egophoricity
  • evidentiality
access type Otwarty dostęp

Reductions of Consciousness. From Husserl to Churchland

Data publikacji: 11 Oct 2020
Zakres stron: 169 - 185

Abstrakt

Abstract

The author juxtaposes two extreme approaches to the relationship between consciousness and the physical world: phenomenological-idealistic (represented by Edmund Husserl) and radically naturalistic (represented by Paul Churchland). These two positions are interpreted in terms of opposite if symmetrical types of reduction (on the one hand, the reduction of the world to a sense for consciousness, and on the other hand, the reduction of consciousness to an element of the physical world). They emerge as two ways of abstracting from the ambivalence of ordinary experience, in which consciousness and the physical world are both mutually entangled and non-identical with each other. In conclusion, the author argues that contemporary philosophy, which follows both the idealistic and the naturalistic path, fails to solve the problem of this relationship.

Słowa kluczowe

  • phenomenology
  • idealism
  • naturalism
  • reduction
  • consciousness
access type Otwarty dostęp

How Does Ritualized Behavior Lower Anxiety? The Role of Cognitive Load and Conscious Preoccupation in Anxiety Reduction

Data publikacji: 11 Oct 2020
Zakres stron: 187 - 205

Abstrakt

Abstract

Although rituals are believed to lower anxiety, the underlying mechanism of anxiety reduction has not been explained well enough. According to Boyer and Liénard (2006), ritualized behavior decreases the anxiety levels because it swamps working memory. This blocks anxious thoughts’ access to consciousness. As a result, ritualized behavior lowers anxiety temporarily but maintains it in the long run. In the article, I analyze what processes should be engaged in ritualized behavior to bring the aforementioned outcomes. I propose that ritualized behavior has anxiolytic properties if it preoccupies consciousness without placing too many demands on cognitive control. While conscious preoccupation with ritualized behavior should reduce anxiety, cognitive control load related to efforts to concentrate on ritualized behavior may bring immediate paradoxical effects of self-regulation, i.e., anxiety increases. Moreover, since anxiety disrupts attentional control capabilities, ritualized behavior should not be too cognitively demanding if an anxious person is to perform it.

Słowa kluczowe

  • ritual
  • ritualized behavior
  • anxiety
  • cognitive load
  • conscious preoccupation
access type Otwarty dostęp

Auditory Perception – Its Functions and Disorders. Towards a Mechanistic Analyses of Auditory Hybrid Systems

Data publikacji: 11 Oct 2020
Zakres stron: 207 - 227

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to present and analyze problems associated with the mechanisms of auditory perception (especially those responsible for speech perception), their specific disorders and functions. I discuss research on speech perception in the broader theoretical context of the mechanistic model of scientific explanation and the perspective of cognitive implantology that explores the possibilities for building hybrid auditory systems.

Słowa kluczowe

  • auditory perception
  • mechanistic model of explanation
  • functions
  • mechanisms
  • disorders
  • hybrid auditory systems
  • cochlear implant
  • cognitive implantology
  • philosophy of cognitive science
access type Otwarty dostęp

Linguistic Challenges to International Commercial Arbitration in Poland

Data publikacji: 11 Oct 2020
Zakres stron: 229 - 244

Abstrakt

Abstract

In the realm of Polish law, arbitration is anything but a new concept. In an ever-developing economy, arbitration has become a useful tool in resolving disputes that are commercial in nature. The issue pertinent to the choice of language in an arbitral proceeding has been thoroughly investigated in the doctrine of international arbitration, yet the conclusions are not set in stone and are likely to change and evolve over time. As evidenced by the technological revolution, introduction of mechanical translations, and artificial intelligence (“AI”) it may seem that the challenges will be difficult to predict. Alternatively, the status quo of the English language as the number one language in the arbitral proceedings will remain. The parties can easily dismiss the linguistic and interpretative problems surrounding arbitration agreements. Thus, this article endeavors to consider the possible implications of a case scenario, wherein a party would attempt to arbitrate an international dispute with a Polish party on the basis of a contract that would be in a language that differs from Polish. Additionally, attention is drawn to the role of witnesses in an arbitration proceeding as such witnesses may speak languages that are the same, similar, or entirely different to the language spoken by the parties involved in the arbitration, as well as differ from the primary language of the arbiters. This article examines the aforementioned hypothetical case-scenario with the emphasis on relevant Polish acts of law. The research presented in this article is also focused on the examination of regulations vested in the statute of the most prominent Arbitration Court in Poland, and its provisions pertinent to language.

Słowa kluczowe

  • arbitration proceedings
  • Polish language
  • translation
  • contract interpretation
  • witnesses
access type Otwarty dostęp

Economic Mind: From Attribution Error to Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

Data publikacji: 11 Oct 2020
Zakres stron: 245 - 264

Abstrakt

Abstract

I argue in this text that the economic mind is a culturally hegemonic, naturalistic interpretation of the behavior produced by the revolutionary nature of the economic and technical developments of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Despite persistent criticism, people fulfilled the predictions of the economic model of a human being for so long that they committed an attribution error and took it to be the adequate vision of human nature. Neoclassical economic theory played a significant, even if involuntary, role in the spread of this illusion. I also claim that the concept of economic mind—as the dominant interpretation of human nature—currently functions as a self-fulfilling prophecy, reproducing behaviors that would have a chance to change (refuting the theory developed on their basis), were it not for the popularity of this concept as commonsensical definition of human nature.

Słowa kluczowe

  • economic mind
  • economic man
  • Gary Becker
  • human nature
  • attribution error
  • self-fulfilling prophecy
  • happiness paradox
12 Artykułów
access type Otwarty dostęp

Slurs: Departures from Genuine Uses and Derogation

Data publikacji: 11 Oct 2020
Zakres stron: 9 - 24

Abstrakt

Abstract

Some non-appropriated uses of slurs seem to be non–derogatory. In this paper, I argue that in a range of cases, the lack of derogation is owed to the term not being genuinely used. I first examine so–called pedagogical uses and show that they can be assimilated to what I call “distancing uses.” I then turn to a range of other apparently non–derogatory, non–appropriated uses of slurs – such as non–weapon uses, comedic uses – and argue that they can depart from standard, genuine usage in relevant ways. I finally turn to so–called “affectionate” uses, and show that, if the conditions in which they obtain can be described as standard, then they are derogatory because they are genuine uses, no matter the benevolent feelings of the speaker.

Słowa kluczowe

  • slurs
  • semantics
  • pragmatics
  • use
  • mention
  • derogation
  • offensiveness
access type Otwarty dostęp

Descriptive Indexicals, Deferred Reference, and Anaphora

Data publikacji: 11 Oct 2020
Zakres stron: 25 - 52

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objectives of this paper are twofold. The first is to present a differentiation between two kinds of deferred uses of indexicals: those in which indexical utterances express singular propositions (I term them deferred reference proper) and those where they express general propositions (called descriptive uses of indexicals). The second objective is the analysis of the descriptive uses of indexicals. In contrast to Nunberg, who treats descriptive uses as a special case of deferred reference in which a property contributes to the proposition expressed, I argue that examples in which a general proposition is indeed expressed by an indexical cannot be treated by assuming that the property is a deferred referent of the pronoun. I propose an analysis of descriptive uses of indexicals by means of a pragmatic mechanism of ‘descriptive anaphora’, which attempts to explain the special kind of contribution of the property retrieved from the context to the proposition that is characteristic of the descriptive interpretation.

Słowa kluczowe

  • descriptive indexicals
  • deferred reference
  • anaphora
  • demonstratives
  • singular terms
access type Otwarty dostęp

The Knowability Paradox and Unsuccessful Updates

Data publikacji: 11 Oct 2020
Zakres stron: 53 - 71

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this paper we undertake an analysis of the knowability paradox in the light of modal epistemic logics and of the phenomena of unsuccessful updates. The knowability paradox stems from the Church-Fitch observation that the plausible knowability principle, according to which all truths are knowable, yields the unacceptable conclusion that all truths are known. We show that the phenomenon of an unsuccessful update is the reason for the paradox arising. Based on this diagnosis, we propose a restriction on the knowability principle which resolves the paradox.

Słowa kluczowe

  • knowability paradox
  • knowability principle
  • dynamic epistemic logic
  • logic of public announcements
  • unsuccessful update
  • successful formulas
access type Otwarty dostęp

The Duhem-Quine Thesis Reconsidered

Data publikacji: 11 Oct 2020
Zakres stron: 73 - 93

Abstrakt

Abstract

The high point of the falsification of physical theories in a standard view of the philosophy of science is the so-called crucial experiment. This experiment is a kind of manipulated empirical test, which provides the criterion for distinguishing between two rival hypotheses, where one is an acceptable theory due to passing the test, and the other turns out to be an unacceptable theory as it does not pass the test. The crucial experiment was supposed to play a significant role because, in virtue of an empirical disconfirmation of one theory, the experiment was assumed to confirm the other as true. However, in 1906, in La théorie physique, son object et la structure (hereafter quoted in English translation as The Aim and Structure of Physical Theory (1906/1954)), Pierre Duhem famously argued against this view and stated that crucial experiments in physics are impossible as they are necessarily ambiguous and logically incomplete. His contention rested on the claim that, “[a] physical theory is not an explanation [of true reality in itself in virtue of some broad metaphysical ramification of physics]. It is a system of mathematical propositions, deduced from a small number of principles, which aim to represent as simply, as completely, and as accurately as possible a set of experimental laws” (ibid., p. 19). Furthermore, different theories could be equally suitable to represent a given group of experimental laws. And, assuming holism, no hypothesis could be tested in isolation, but merely as a part of a set of an entire scientific theory. The problem which Duhem identified in 1906 was slightly overshadowed and neglected in mainstream philosophy of science until the appearance of a challenging paper by Willard Van Orman Quine published in 1951 and entitled “Two Dogmas of Empiricism”. Quine’s paper caused a revival of interest in Duhem’s original formulation and gave a new impulse towards the problem in the form of the so-called Duhem-Quine thesis. The aim of this paper is to reconsider whether Duhem was right to argue that there are no crucial experiments in physics. In order to assess the validity of the thesis, first, this paper makes an exposition of Duhem’s arguments in their favour, and analyses the major criticisms of this position offered in the subject-literature of Adolf Grünbaum, who explicitly attacked the arguments for the thesis as inconclusive and false. Then, this paper presents possible modes of defence of the Duhem-Quine thesis and argues that the original formulation of the thesis is well qualified and plausible. Finally, this paper offers a pragmatic interpretation of the theory choice.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Duhem
  • Quine
  • Crucial Experiments
  • Holism
  • Theory Choice
  • Virtue Epistemology
  • Pragmatism
access type Otwarty dostęp

Dialetheism and Metaphor

Data publikacji: 11 Oct 2020
Zakres stron: 95 - 111

Abstrakt

Abstract

In the paper two seemingly distinct areas of philosophical investigations are brought together: metaphor and dialetheism. They both turn out to be deeply related, which becomes visible against a background, i.e. the hybrid structure of metaphor delineated in the first part. This network elicits three variations of dissonance subsequently called: (1) phantom-contradiction, which is combined with unconventionality of metaphors; (2) indexed-bound contradiction, bearing some cognitive tension but no real truth value gluts and; (3) logical contradiction “spread” between the two layers of metaphorical structure. Finally, the analysis allows for approaching a theoretically pending question concerning the influence of dialetheic aspects of metaphor upon human cognition and thinking in general.

Słowa kluczowe

  • contradiction
  • fuzziness
  • dialetheism
  • metaphor
  • cognition
  • metaphorical reasoning
access type Otwarty dostęp

Filum Cogitationis. Remarks on Leibnizian Projects of a Universal Language

Data publikacji: 11 Oct 2020
Zakres stron: 113 - 136

Abstrakt

Abstract

This essay is an attempt to offer at least a partial answer to the question concerning Leibniz's motivation for the need to create a universal language. It is relevant, among other things, due to Leibniz's claim which contradicts the idea of a universal language, in which he clearly stresses that “every language, even the poorest one, can express everything”, as well as owing to Leibniz's historical contribution to the idea of formalization and to the mechanization of the reasoning processes. This paper is also an attempt to reconstruct the paradigm of language research pursued in a specific period of time in 17th century language theory.

Słowa kluczowe

  • G. W. Leibniz
  • the universal language
  • philosophy of language
access type Otwarty dostęp

Epistemic Justification of Testimonial Beliefs and the Categories of Egophoricity and Evidentiality in Natural Languages: An Insoluble Paradox of Thomas Reid's Anti-Reductionism

Data publikacji: 11 Oct 2020
Zakres stron: 137 - 168

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paper is concerned with the epistemological status of testimony and the question of what may confer justification on true testimonial beliefs and enable us to call such beliefs knowledge. In particular, it addresses certain anti-reductionist arguments in the epistemology of testimony and their incompatibility with the grammatical categories of egophoricity (conjunct/disjunct marking) and evidentiality (information source marking) present in the architecture of natural languages. First, the tradition of epistemological individualism and its rationale are discussed, as well as certain attempts within this tradition to include testimony-based beliefs in the body of legitimate and rational beliefs. The next section is concerned with the anti-reductionist approach to testimonial beliefs and some arguments supporting ‘the credulity principle’ grounded in Thomas Reid's philosophy of common sense. The last two sections show how the anti-reductionist argumentation is threatened with an insoluble dilemma when considered in the context of languages with the grammatical categories of egophoricity (conjunct/disjunct marking) and evidentiality (information source marking). Special attention is paid to the justificatory role of egophoric and evidential marking; how these grammatical categories may influence the process of belief formation, and consequently, how this bears upon the nature of justification for testimonial beliefs. The final conclusion of the paper is that the anti-reductionist claim concerning the directness and non-inferential nature of testimonial knowledge is bound to meet objections grounded in the structure of many natural languages. This leads to a paradox: in discussion with reductionism, anti-reductionists do seek support for their arguments in common sense beliefs reflected in everyday language, and, on the other hand, their claims are incompatible with the linguistic data found in a number of natural languages.

Słowa kluczowe

  • epistemology of testimony
  • justification
  • testimonial belief
  • Thomas Reid
  • reductionism
  • anti-reductionism
  • egophoricity
  • evidentiality
access type Otwarty dostęp

Reductions of Consciousness. From Husserl to Churchland

Data publikacji: 11 Oct 2020
Zakres stron: 169 - 185

Abstrakt

Abstract

The author juxtaposes two extreme approaches to the relationship between consciousness and the physical world: phenomenological-idealistic (represented by Edmund Husserl) and radically naturalistic (represented by Paul Churchland). These two positions are interpreted in terms of opposite if symmetrical types of reduction (on the one hand, the reduction of the world to a sense for consciousness, and on the other hand, the reduction of consciousness to an element of the physical world). They emerge as two ways of abstracting from the ambivalence of ordinary experience, in which consciousness and the physical world are both mutually entangled and non-identical with each other. In conclusion, the author argues that contemporary philosophy, which follows both the idealistic and the naturalistic path, fails to solve the problem of this relationship.

Słowa kluczowe

  • phenomenology
  • idealism
  • naturalism
  • reduction
  • consciousness
access type Otwarty dostęp

How Does Ritualized Behavior Lower Anxiety? The Role of Cognitive Load and Conscious Preoccupation in Anxiety Reduction

Data publikacji: 11 Oct 2020
Zakres stron: 187 - 205

Abstrakt

Abstract

Although rituals are believed to lower anxiety, the underlying mechanism of anxiety reduction has not been explained well enough. According to Boyer and Liénard (2006), ritualized behavior decreases the anxiety levels because it swamps working memory. This blocks anxious thoughts’ access to consciousness. As a result, ritualized behavior lowers anxiety temporarily but maintains it in the long run. In the article, I analyze what processes should be engaged in ritualized behavior to bring the aforementioned outcomes. I propose that ritualized behavior has anxiolytic properties if it preoccupies consciousness without placing too many demands on cognitive control. While conscious preoccupation with ritualized behavior should reduce anxiety, cognitive control load related to efforts to concentrate on ritualized behavior may bring immediate paradoxical effects of self-regulation, i.e., anxiety increases. Moreover, since anxiety disrupts attentional control capabilities, ritualized behavior should not be too cognitively demanding if an anxious person is to perform it.

Słowa kluczowe

  • ritual
  • ritualized behavior
  • anxiety
  • cognitive load
  • conscious preoccupation
access type Otwarty dostęp

Auditory Perception – Its Functions and Disorders. Towards a Mechanistic Analyses of Auditory Hybrid Systems

Data publikacji: 11 Oct 2020
Zakres stron: 207 - 227

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to present and analyze problems associated with the mechanisms of auditory perception (especially those responsible for speech perception), their specific disorders and functions. I discuss research on speech perception in the broader theoretical context of the mechanistic model of scientific explanation and the perspective of cognitive implantology that explores the possibilities for building hybrid auditory systems.

Słowa kluczowe

  • auditory perception
  • mechanistic model of explanation
  • functions
  • mechanisms
  • disorders
  • hybrid auditory systems
  • cochlear implant
  • cognitive implantology
  • philosophy of cognitive science
access type Otwarty dostęp

Linguistic Challenges to International Commercial Arbitration in Poland

Data publikacji: 11 Oct 2020
Zakres stron: 229 - 244

Abstrakt

Abstract

In the realm of Polish law, arbitration is anything but a new concept. In an ever-developing economy, arbitration has become a useful tool in resolving disputes that are commercial in nature. The issue pertinent to the choice of language in an arbitral proceeding has been thoroughly investigated in the doctrine of international arbitration, yet the conclusions are not set in stone and are likely to change and evolve over time. As evidenced by the technological revolution, introduction of mechanical translations, and artificial intelligence (“AI”) it may seem that the challenges will be difficult to predict. Alternatively, the status quo of the English language as the number one language in the arbitral proceedings will remain. The parties can easily dismiss the linguistic and interpretative problems surrounding arbitration agreements. Thus, this article endeavors to consider the possible implications of a case scenario, wherein a party would attempt to arbitrate an international dispute with a Polish party on the basis of a contract that would be in a language that differs from Polish. Additionally, attention is drawn to the role of witnesses in an arbitration proceeding as such witnesses may speak languages that are the same, similar, or entirely different to the language spoken by the parties involved in the arbitration, as well as differ from the primary language of the arbiters. This article examines the aforementioned hypothetical case-scenario with the emphasis on relevant Polish acts of law. The research presented in this article is also focused on the examination of regulations vested in the statute of the most prominent Arbitration Court in Poland, and its provisions pertinent to language.

Słowa kluczowe

  • arbitration proceedings
  • Polish language
  • translation
  • contract interpretation
  • witnesses
access type Otwarty dostęp

Economic Mind: From Attribution Error to Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

Data publikacji: 11 Oct 2020
Zakres stron: 245 - 264

Abstrakt

Abstract

I argue in this text that the economic mind is a culturally hegemonic, naturalistic interpretation of the behavior produced by the revolutionary nature of the economic and technical developments of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Despite persistent criticism, people fulfilled the predictions of the economic model of a human being for so long that they committed an attribution error and took it to be the adequate vision of human nature. Neoclassical economic theory played a significant, even if involuntary, role in the spread of this illusion. I also claim that the concept of economic mind—as the dominant interpretation of human nature—currently functions as a self-fulfilling prophecy, reproducing behaviors that would have a chance to change (refuting the theory developed on their basis), were it not for the popularity of this concept as commonsensical definition of human nature.

Słowa kluczowe

  • economic mind
  • economic man
  • Gary Becker
  • human nature
  • attribution error
  • self-fulfilling prophecy
  • happiness paradox

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