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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2083-831X
Pierwsze wydanie
09 Nov 2012
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 41 (2019): Zeszyt 3 (September 2019)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2083-831X
Pierwsze wydanie
09 Nov 2012
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

6 Artykułów

Research Article

Otwarty dostęp

Slurry shield tunneling in soft ground. Comparison between field data and 3D numerical simulation

Data publikacji: 30 Sep 2019
Zakres stron: 115 - 128

Abstrakt

Abstract

In urban areas, the control of ground surface settlement is an important issue during shield tunnel-boring machine (TBM) tunneling. These ground movements are affected by many machine control parameters. In this article, a finite difference (FD) model is developed using Itasca FLAC-3D to numerically simulate the whole process of shield TBM tunneling. The model simulates important components of the mechanized excavation process including slurry pressure on the excavation face, shield conicity, installation of segmental lining, grout injection in the annular void, and grout consolidation. The analysis results from the proposed method are compared and discussed in terms of ground movements (both vertical and horizontal) with field measurements data. The results reveal that the proposed 3D simulation is sufficient and can reasonably reproduce all the operations achieved by the TBM. In fact, the results show that the TBM parameters can be controlled to have acceptable levels of surface settlement. In particular, it seems that moderate face pressure can reduce ground movement significantly and, most importantly, can prevent the occurrence of face-expected instability when the shield crosses very weak soil layers. The shield conicity has also an important effect on ground surface settlement, which can be partly compensated by the grout pressure during tail grouting. Finally, the injection pressure at the rear of the shield significantly reduces the vertical displacements at the crown of the tunnel and, therefore, reduces the settlement at the ground surface.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Shield tunneling
  • soil–structure interaction
  • 3D numerical simulation
  • back analysis
  • settlement
Otwarty dostęp

Penetrative convection due to absorption of radiation in a magnetic nanofluid saturated porous layer

Data publikacji: 30 Sep 2019
Zakres stron: 129 - 142

Abstrakt

Abstract

The present study investigates the onset of penetrative convection in- duced by selective absorption of radiation in a magnetic nanofluid saturated porous medium. The influence of Brownian motion, thermophoresis, and magnetophoresis on magnetic nanofluid treatment is taken into consideration. The Darcy’s model is selected for the porous medium. We conduct a linear stability analysis to examine the onset of instability and evaluate the results for two different configurations, namely, when the layer is heated from below and when the layer is heated from above. The numerical investigations are carried out by applying the Chebyshev pseudospectral method. The effect of the porosity parameter E, parameter Y (represents the ratio of internal heating to boundary heating), Lewis number Le, concentration Rayleigh number Rn, Langevin parameter αL, width of nanofluid layer d, diffusivity ratio η, and modified diffusivity ratio NA is examined at the onset of convection. The results indicate that the convection commences easily with an increase in the value of Y, Le, and NA but opposite in the case with a decrease in the value of E, αL, η and d for both the two configurations. The parameter Rn advances the onset of convection when the layer is heated from below, while delays the onset of convection when the layer is heated from above.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Magnetic nanofluids
  • Penetrative convection
  • Darcy model
  • Radiation absorption
  • Magnetic field

PACS

  • 44.40.+a
  • 47.20.-k
  • 47.56.+r
  • 47.65.Cb
  • 47.35.Tv
  • 47.65.-d

MSC 2010

  • 76E06
  • 76E25
  • 76S05
  • 76W05
Otwarty dostęp

Effective Friction Angle Of Deltaic Soils In The Vistula Marshlands

Data publikacji: 30 Sep 2019
Zakres stron: 143 - 150

Abstrakt

Abstract

This article presents the results of laboratory tests on soft, normally consolidated soils from the Vistula Marshlands. Samples of high-plasticity organic soils (muds) taken from 3.2–4.0 m and 9.5–10.0 m depth, as well as peat deposit at 14.0 m, are analysed. Presented case study confirms the applicability of the Norwegian Institute of Technology (NTH) method based on Cone Penetration Tests (CPTU) and allows for a conservative estimation of effective friction angle for muds. The plastification angle equal to 14.5° for organic silt, applied in the modified NTH method, fits well the triaxial test (TX) results. Moreover, the dilative-contractive behaviour according to the CPTU soil classification based on the Robertson’s proposal from 2016 corresponds well with volumetric changes observed in the consolidated drained triaxial compression tests. The internal friction angles of the Vistula Marshlands’ muds and peats are lower in comparison with the database of similar soft soils.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Angle of internal friction
  • CPTU
  • triaxial testing
  • soft soils
  • peat
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of randomly distributed polypropylene fiber reinforcement on the shear behavior of sandy soil

Data publikacji: 30 Sep 2019
Zakres stron: 151 - 159

Abstrakt

Abstract

The inclusions of geosynthetic materials (fibers, geomembranes and geotextiles) is a new improvement technique that ensures uniformity in the soil during construction. The use of tension resisting discreet inclusions like polypropylene fibers has attracted a significant amount of attention these past years in the improvement of soil performance in a cost-efficient manner. A series of direct shear box tests were conducted on unreinforced and reinforced Chlef sand with different contents of fibers (0, 0.25, 0.5 and0.75%) in order to study the mechanical behavior of sand reinforced with polypropylene fibers. Samples were prepared at three different relative densities 30%, 50% and 80% representing loose, medium dense and dense states,respectively, and performed at normal stresses of 50, 100 and 200 kPa. The experimental results show that the mechanical characteristics are improved with the addition of polypropylene fibers. The inclusion of randomly distributed fibers has a significant effect on the shear strength and dilation of sandy soil. The increase in strength is a function of fiber content, where it has been shown that the mechanical characteristics improve with the increase in fiber content up to 0.75%, this improvement is more significant at a higher normal stress and relative density.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Sand
  • direct shear box tests
  • polypropylene fibers
  • shear strength
  • normal stress
  • relative density
Otwarty dostęp

Analysis of crack propagation in a “pull-out” test

Data publikacji: 30 Sep 2019
Zakres stron: 160 - 170

Abstrakt

Abstract

The article describes a computer analysis of the pull-out test used to calculate the force needed to pull out a rock fragment and determine the shape of this broken fragment. The analyzed material is sandstone and porphyry. The analysis included the first approach to using own subroutine in the Simulia Abaqus system, that is, which task is undertaken to accurately determine the crack path of the Finite Element Method model. The work also contains a description of laboratory tests and analytical considerations.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Pull-out test
  • rock mechanics
  • fracture mechanics
  • numerical modeling of fracture
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of settlement of foundations on the failure risk of the bottom of cylindrical steel vertical tanks for liquids

Data publikacji: 30 Sep 2019
Zakres stron: 171 - 176

Abstrakt

Abstract

Different types of foundations are used in steel, above-ground cylindrical storage tanks for liquids. If a sand-gravel foundation is used under the entire bottom of the tank or only in the central part of the tank, settlement can be expected, and it increases after many years of operation. The paper presents the typical kinds and types of soil settlements under the bottoms of the tanks, in which different types of foundations were used. Numerical analyses of the effect of the soil settlement on the state of deformations and stresses in steel sheets of the bottom under one of the real tanks, in which different types of foundations and different cases of settlement were assumed. The results of numerical analyses indicated the possibility of evaluating the state of the soil settlement and bottom sheet deformations on the basis of simple measurements of deformations of the lower part of the tank cylinder. These measurements can be very useful in assessing the possible risk of failure of the tank bottom during each period of its operation, as measurements of settlement of the bottom of a filled tank are not feasible in practice. It has been proposed that in each steel tank, the deformation of the cylinder’s sheets should be measured even before the beginning of exploitation, and that in subsequent periodical measurements, the influence of the soil settlement under the tank on the state of the cylinder deformation and bottom’s strain should be assessed more accurately.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Steel tank
  • soil settlement
  • tank deformations
  • plastic deformations
  • failure risk
6 Artykułów

Research Article

Otwarty dostęp

Slurry shield tunneling in soft ground. Comparison between field data and 3D numerical simulation

Data publikacji: 30 Sep 2019
Zakres stron: 115 - 128

Abstrakt

Abstract

In urban areas, the control of ground surface settlement is an important issue during shield tunnel-boring machine (TBM) tunneling. These ground movements are affected by many machine control parameters. In this article, a finite difference (FD) model is developed using Itasca FLAC-3D to numerically simulate the whole process of shield TBM tunneling. The model simulates important components of the mechanized excavation process including slurry pressure on the excavation face, shield conicity, installation of segmental lining, grout injection in the annular void, and grout consolidation. The analysis results from the proposed method are compared and discussed in terms of ground movements (both vertical and horizontal) with field measurements data. The results reveal that the proposed 3D simulation is sufficient and can reasonably reproduce all the operations achieved by the TBM. In fact, the results show that the TBM parameters can be controlled to have acceptable levels of surface settlement. In particular, it seems that moderate face pressure can reduce ground movement significantly and, most importantly, can prevent the occurrence of face-expected instability when the shield crosses very weak soil layers. The shield conicity has also an important effect on ground surface settlement, which can be partly compensated by the grout pressure during tail grouting. Finally, the injection pressure at the rear of the shield significantly reduces the vertical displacements at the crown of the tunnel and, therefore, reduces the settlement at the ground surface.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Shield tunneling
  • soil–structure interaction
  • 3D numerical simulation
  • back analysis
  • settlement
Otwarty dostęp

Penetrative convection due to absorption of radiation in a magnetic nanofluid saturated porous layer

Data publikacji: 30 Sep 2019
Zakres stron: 129 - 142

Abstrakt

Abstract

The present study investigates the onset of penetrative convection in- duced by selective absorption of radiation in a magnetic nanofluid saturated porous medium. The influence of Brownian motion, thermophoresis, and magnetophoresis on magnetic nanofluid treatment is taken into consideration. The Darcy’s model is selected for the porous medium. We conduct a linear stability analysis to examine the onset of instability and evaluate the results for two different configurations, namely, when the layer is heated from below and when the layer is heated from above. The numerical investigations are carried out by applying the Chebyshev pseudospectral method. The effect of the porosity parameter E, parameter Y (represents the ratio of internal heating to boundary heating), Lewis number Le, concentration Rayleigh number Rn, Langevin parameter αL, width of nanofluid layer d, diffusivity ratio η, and modified diffusivity ratio NA is examined at the onset of convection. The results indicate that the convection commences easily with an increase in the value of Y, Le, and NA but opposite in the case with a decrease in the value of E, αL, η and d for both the two configurations. The parameter Rn advances the onset of convection when the layer is heated from below, while delays the onset of convection when the layer is heated from above.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Magnetic nanofluids
  • Penetrative convection
  • Darcy model
  • Radiation absorption
  • Magnetic field

PACS

  • 44.40.+a
  • 47.20.-k
  • 47.56.+r
  • 47.65.Cb
  • 47.35.Tv
  • 47.65.-d

MSC 2010

  • 76E06
  • 76E25
  • 76S05
  • 76W05
Otwarty dostęp

Effective Friction Angle Of Deltaic Soils In The Vistula Marshlands

Data publikacji: 30 Sep 2019
Zakres stron: 143 - 150

Abstrakt

Abstract

This article presents the results of laboratory tests on soft, normally consolidated soils from the Vistula Marshlands. Samples of high-plasticity organic soils (muds) taken from 3.2–4.0 m and 9.5–10.0 m depth, as well as peat deposit at 14.0 m, are analysed. Presented case study confirms the applicability of the Norwegian Institute of Technology (NTH) method based on Cone Penetration Tests (CPTU) and allows for a conservative estimation of effective friction angle for muds. The plastification angle equal to 14.5° for organic silt, applied in the modified NTH method, fits well the triaxial test (TX) results. Moreover, the dilative-contractive behaviour according to the CPTU soil classification based on the Robertson’s proposal from 2016 corresponds well with volumetric changes observed in the consolidated drained triaxial compression tests. The internal friction angles of the Vistula Marshlands’ muds and peats are lower in comparison with the database of similar soft soils.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Angle of internal friction
  • CPTU
  • triaxial testing
  • soft soils
  • peat
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of randomly distributed polypropylene fiber reinforcement on the shear behavior of sandy soil

Data publikacji: 30 Sep 2019
Zakres stron: 151 - 159

Abstrakt

Abstract

The inclusions of geosynthetic materials (fibers, geomembranes and geotextiles) is a new improvement technique that ensures uniformity in the soil during construction. The use of tension resisting discreet inclusions like polypropylene fibers has attracted a significant amount of attention these past years in the improvement of soil performance in a cost-efficient manner. A series of direct shear box tests were conducted on unreinforced and reinforced Chlef sand with different contents of fibers (0, 0.25, 0.5 and0.75%) in order to study the mechanical behavior of sand reinforced with polypropylene fibers. Samples were prepared at three different relative densities 30%, 50% and 80% representing loose, medium dense and dense states,respectively, and performed at normal stresses of 50, 100 and 200 kPa. The experimental results show that the mechanical characteristics are improved with the addition of polypropylene fibers. The inclusion of randomly distributed fibers has a significant effect on the shear strength and dilation of sandy soil. The increase in strength is a function of fiber content, where it has been shown that the mechanical characteristics improve with the increase in fiber content up to 0.75%, this improvement is more significant at a higher normal stress and relative density.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Sand
  • direct shear box tests
  • polypropylene fibers
  • shear strength
  • normal stress
  • relative density
Otwarty dostęp

Analysis of crack propagation in a “pull-out” test

Data publikacji: 30 Sep 2019
Zakres stron: 160 - 170

Abstrakt

Abstract

The article describes a computer analysis of the pull-out test used to calculate the force needed to pull out a rock fragment and determine the shape of this broken fragment. The analyzed material is sandstone and porphyry. The analysis included the first approach to using own subroutine in the Simulia Abaqus system, that is, which task is undertaken to accurately determine the crack path of the Finite Element Method model. The work also contains a description of laboratory tests and analytical considerations.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Pull-out test
  • rock mechanics
  • fracture mechanics
  • numerical modeling of fracture
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of settlement of foundations on the failure risk of the bottom of cylindrical steel vertical tanks for liquids

Data publikacji: 30 Sep 2019
Zakres stron: 171 - 176

Abstrakt

Abstract

Different types of foundations are used in steel, above-ground cylindrical storage tanks for liquids. If a sand-gravel foundation is used under the entire bottom of the tank or only in the central part of the tank, settlement can be expected, and it increases after many years of operation. The paper presents the typical kinds and types of soil settlements under the bottoms of the tanks, in which different types of foundations were used. Numerical analyses of the effect of the soil settlement on the state of deformations and stresses in steel sheets of the bottom under one of the real tanks, in which different types of foundations and different cases of settlement were assumed. The results of numerical analyses indicated the possibility of evaluating the state of the soil settlement and bottom sheet deformations on the basis of simple measurements of deformations of the lower part of the tank cylinder. These measurements can be very useful in assessing the possible risk of failure of the tank bottom during each period of its operation, as measurements of settlement of the bottom of a filled tank are not feasible in practice. It has been proposed that in each steel tank, the deformation of the cylinder’s sheets should be measured even before the beginning of exploitation, and that in subsequent periodical measurements, the influence of the soil settlement under the tank on the state of the cylinder deformation and bottom’s strain should be assessed more accurately.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Steel tank
  • soil settlement
  • tank deformations
  • plastic deformations
  • failure risk

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