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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1338-0532
Pierwsze wydanie
03 Mar 2011
Częstotliwość wydawania
2 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 25 (2017): Zeszyt 40 (June 2017)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1338-0532
Pierwsze wydanie
03 Mar 2011
Częstotliwość wydawania
2 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

14 Artykułów

Research Papers

Otwarty dostęp

Determination of the Explosion Characteristics of Wheat Flour

Data publikacji: 16 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 9 - 16

Abstrakt

Abstract

The article deals with the measurement of explosion characteristics of wheat flour. The measurements were carried out according to STN EN 14034-1+A1:2011 Determination of explosion characteristics of dust clouds. Part 1: Determination of the maximum explosion pressure pmax of dust clouds, the maximum rate of explosion pressure rise according to STN EN 14034-2+A1:2012 Determination of explosion characteristics of dust clouds - Part 2: Determination of the maximum rate of explosion pressure rise (dp/dt)max of dust clouds and LEL according to STN EN 14034-3+A1:2011 Determination of explosion characteristics of dust clouds: Determination of the lower explosion limit LEL of dust clouds. The testing of explosions of wheat flour dust clouds showed that the maximum value of the pressure was reached at the concentrations of 600 g/m3 and its value is 8.32 bar/s. The fastest increase of pressure was observed at the concentration of 750 g/m3 and its value was 54.2 bar/s.

Słowa kluczowe

  • wheat flour dust clouds
  • explosion characteristics
  • maximum explosion pressure
  • maximum rate of explosion pressure rise
  • lower explosion limit
Otwarty dostęp

Study of Explosion Characteristics of Wood Dust Clouds in Dependence of the Particle Size Distribution

Data publikacji: 16 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 17 - 23

Abstrakt

Abstract

The article deals with the measurement of explosion characteristics of wood dust. The measurements were carried out according to STN EN 14034-1+A1:2011 Determination of explosion characteristics of dust clouds. Part 1: Determination of the maximum explosion pressure pmax of dust clouds and the maximum rate of explosion pressure rise according to STN EN 14034-2+A1:2012 Determination of explosion characteristics of dust clouds - Part 2: Determination of the maximum rate of explosion pressure rise (dp/dt)max of dust clouds. On the basis of measurements, we found that the distribution of the particles has a significant impact on the parameters of wood dust samples.

Słowa kluczowe

  • wood dust clouds
  • explosion characteristics
  • maximum explosion pressure
  • maximum rate of explosion pressure rise
  • lower explosion limit
Otwarty dostęp

Human Health Concenrs of Metalworking Fluid Components

Data publikacji: 16 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 25 - 32

Abstrakt

Abstract

Exploration of 209 available Material safety data sheets of 85 straight oils, 46 emulsions, 51 semi-synthetics and 27 synthetics was carried out to provide a report on the most widely used components defined as dangerous substances. As many as 217 of different substances of which 15 were identified as biocides, 17 as corrosion inhibitors or neutralizing agent, 17 were lubricity improvers and 38 different base fluids, lubricity solvents or surfactants, while 93 substances were not identified specifically and 37 substances occurred only once. This article is focused on the list of base fluids in straight oils and their possible health effects.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Metalworking Fluids
  • Composition
  • Base oils
  • Mineral oil
  • Health effects
Otwarty dostęp

Human Health Concenrs of the Metalworking Fluid Components

Data publikacji: 16 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 33 - 40

Abstrakt

Abstract

The exploration of 209 available Material safety data sheets of 85 straight oils, 46 emulsions, 51 semi-synthetics and 27 synthetics was carried out to provide a report on the most used components defined as dangerous substances. As many as 217 of different substances of which 15 were identified as biocides, 17 as corrosion inhibitors or neutralizing agent, 17 were lubricity improvers and 38 different base fluids, lubricity solvents or surfactants, while 93 substances were not identified specifically and 37 substances occurred only once. This article is focused on the list of biocides, neutralizing agents and corrosion inhibitors identified in all types of MWFs and their possible health effects.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Metalworking Fluids
  • Composition
  • Exposure
  • Health effects
  • Biocides
  • Corrosion inhibitors
Otwarty dostęp

DTA Evaluation of Spruce Wood Degradation Process

Data publikacji: 16 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 41 - 48

Abstrakt

Abstract

The decomposition stages of spruce wood sawdust were analyzed by means of sequential differential calorimetry. Two stages of decomposition were identified and activation energy of one stage was calculated using the Kissinger method. The DTA was conducted by means of SEDEX safety calorimeter. Sample was analyzed under three heating rates of 10, 20 and 45 °C/h in temperature range from room temperature to 400 °C. The calculated activation energy for the last and most clear decomposition peak was 122.63 KJ/mol. The results are comparable with the data calculated by J.V. Rissanen et al., who calculated activation energy for Spruce hemicellulose as 120 KJ/mol.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Spruce wood
  • DTA
  • activation energy
Otwarty dostęp

Calcination of Nickel Mud

Data publikacji: 16 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 49 - 53

Abstrakt

Abstract

Different characterizations were carried out on uncalcinated nickel mud and samples calcined in the temperature range of 200–600 °C. In the present paper, the phase composition and structure transition of the nickel mud heated from room temperature are indicated by SEM, EDX analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Samples of nickel mud were collected in Sereď, where nickel was produced from Albanian iron-nickel ore. It was found that calcination has effect on the structure and composition of nickel mud. The obtained results provide an important base for the further studies of comprehensive utilization of nickel mud.

Słowa kluczowe

  • nickel mud
  • calcination
  • SEM
  • EDX analysis
  • Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
Otwarty dostęp

Flammability Parameters of Candles

Data publikacji: 16 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 55 - 61

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paper deals with the assessment of selected fire safety characteristics of candles. Weight loss of a candle during the burning process, candle burning rate, soot index, heat release rate and yield of carbon oxides were determined. Soot index was determined according to EN 15426: 2007 - Candles - Specification for Sooting Behavior. All samples met the prescribed amount of produced soot. Weight loss, heat release rate and the yield of carbon oxides were determined for one selected sample. While yield of CO increased during the measurement, the yield of CO2 decreased by half in 40 minutes.

Słowa kluczowe

  • candle
  • soot index
  • weight loss
  • heat release rate
  • fire safety characteristics of candles
Otwarty dostęp

Study of Wastewaters Contaminated with Heavy Metals in Bioethanol Production

Data publikacji: 16 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 63 - 71

Abstrakt

Abstract

Bioethanol as a substitute for traditional sources of energy, especially oil transport, is currently one of the most researched alternative motor fuels. Normally, bioethanol is produced from agricultural crops such as sugar cane or corn. However, this is counter-productive, because agriculture is primarily serving to ensure enough food for the people. It is therefore necessary to look for new production of appropriate non-food crops or find an added value to this process. Utilisation of contaminated water from metal industry could be one of them. Based on the hypothesis of reduction of some toxic metals with higher oxidation number is opening the possibility of using this wastewater in alcohol fermentation of any kind of biomass. In this study, hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) was used as a model contaminant in the process of aerobic fermentation of corn to bioethanol. To determine the reduction potential of glucose to Cr(VI), and to quantitatively determinate the glucose content after saccharification, UV/VIS spectrophotometry was used. As a method of qualitative determination of fermentation product, gas chromatography with mass detection was used. Infrared spectrometry was used for qualitative analyses of produced ethanol. Based on the established results shown in this paper, we can conclude that the presence of hexavalent chromium in the fermentation process does not have a significant negative impact, while offering the opportunity of using the industrial wastewaters for the production of bioethanol fuel.

Słowa kluczowe

  • bioethanol
  • wastewater
  • heavy metals
  • hexavalent chromium
  • reduction
Otwarty dostęp

Gas Chromatographic Determination of Fatty Acids in Oils with Regard to the Assessment of Fire Hazard

Data publikacji: 16 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 73 - 81

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the paper was to study and research the application of processing gas chromatographic method for the rapid and accurate determination of the composition of different types of oils, such as substances with the possibility of an adverse event spontaneous combustion or self-heating. Tendency to spontaneous combustion is chemically characterized mainly by the amount of unsaturated fatty acids, which have one or more double bonds in their molecule. Vegetable oils essentially consist of the following fatty acids: palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linoleic. For the needs of assessment, the fire hazard must be known, in which the double bond is present, as well as their number in a molecule. As an analytical method, GCMS was used for determination of oils content. Three types of oil were used - rapeseed, sunflower, and coconut oil. Owing to the occurrence of linoleic acid C18:2 (49.8 wt.%) and oleic acid C18:1 (43.3 wt.%) with double bonds, sunflower oil is the most prone to self-heating. The coconut and rapeseed oils contain double bond FAME in lesser amount, and their propensity to self-heating is relatively low.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Gas chromatography
  • oil
  • fatty acid
  • ester
  • oxidation
  • saturation
  • fire
Otwarty dostęp

Thermal Properties of Lignocellulose Pellets

Data publikacji: 16 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 83 - 90

Abstrakt

Abstract

This article deals with the characterization of biomass pellets using Differential Scanning Calorimetry. We used three types of industrially produced and commercially available pellets as samples: wood pellets containing grass, wood pellet containing bark and wood pellets without bark. Each of the samples were examined using the DSC method. Based on the measurements in atmosphere of air and nitrogen temperature, the changes caused by thermal degradation of various kinds of test fuels were observed. Subsequently, limits of exothermic processes, reaction enthalpy changes and the temperature at which exothermic reactions reached peaks were determined.

Słowa kluczowe

  • lignocellulose pellets
  • wood
  • Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)
  • biomass
  • thermal decomposition
  • pyrolysis
Otwarty dostęp

Review: Utilization of Waste From Coffee Production

Data publikacji: 16 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 91 - 101

Abstrakt

Abstract

Coffee is one of the most valuable primary products in the world trade, and also a central and popular part of our culture. However, coffees production generate a lot of coffee wastes and by-products, which, on the one hand, could be used for more applications (sorbent for the removal of heavy metals and dyes from aqueous solutions, production of fuel pellets or briquettes, substrate for biogas, bioethanol or biodiesel production, composting material, production of reusable cups, substrat for mushroom production, source of natural phenolic antioxidants etc.), but, on the other hand, it could be a source of severe contamination posing a serious environmental problem. In this paper, we present an overview of utilising the waste from coffee production.

Słowa kluczowe

  • coffee waste product
  • waste utilization
  • coffee husk
  • coffee pulp
  • silverskin
  • spent coffee grounds
Otwarty dostęp

Usage of FTIR-ATR as Non-Destructive Analysis of Selected Toxic Dyes

Data publikacji: 16 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 103 - 111

Abstrakt

Abstract

The degradation of the environment which is due to the discharge of polluting wastewater from industrial sources poses a real problem in several countries. Textile industries use large volumes of water in their operations, discharging thus large volume of wastewater into the environment, most of which is untreated. The wastewater contains a variety of chemicals from various stages of process operations, including desizing, scouring, bleaching and dyeing. The main purpose of this paper is to introduce Infrared Spectrometry with Fourier transformation as a non-destructive method for study, identifation and rapid determination of selected representatives of cationic (Methylene Blue), azo (Congo Red, Eriochrome Black T) and nitroso (Naphthol Green B) dyes. In conjunction with the ATR technique, FTIR offers a reliable detection method of dyes without extraction by other dangerous substances.

Spectral interpretation of dye spectra revealed valuable information about the identification and characterization of each group of dyes.

Słowa kluczowe

  • FTIR-ATR
  • azo dye
  • nitroso dye
  • basic dye
  • spectrum
Otwarty dostęp

Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds

Data publikacji: 16 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 113 - 121

Abstrakt

Abstract

The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.

Słowa kluczowe

  • waste utilization
  • coffee waste
  • spent coffee grounds
  • biodiesel
  • FAME
  • oil extraction
Otwarty dostęp

The Effect of the Heat Flux on the Self-Ignition of Oriented Strand Board

Data publikacji: 16 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 123 - 129

Abstrakt

Abstract

This article deals with the initiation phase of flaming and smouldering burning of oriented strand board. The influence of heat flux on thermal degradation of OSB boards, time to ignition, heat release rate and mass loss rate using thermal analysis and vertical electrical radiation panel methods were studied. Significant information on the influence of the heat flux density and the thickness of the material on time to ignition was obtained.

Słowa kluczowe

  • thermal degradation
  • oriented strand board
  • thermal analysis
  • mass loss
  • heat release rate
  • time to ignition
  • heat flux
14 Artykułów

Research Papers

Otwarty dostęp

Determination of the Explosion Characteristics of Wheat Flour

Data publikacji: 16 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 9 - 16

Abstrakt

Abstract

The article deals with the measurement of explosion characteristics of wheat flour. The measurements were carried out according to STN EN 14034-1+A1:2011 Determination of explosion characteristics of dust clouds. Part 1: Determination of the maximum explosion pressure pmax of dust clouds, the maximum rate of explosion pressure rise according to STN EN 14034-2+A1:2012 Determination of explosion characteristics of dust clouds - Part 2: Determination of the maximum rate of explosion pressure rise (dp/dt)max of dust clouds and LEL according to STN EN 14034-3+A1:2011 Determination of explosion characteristics of dust clouds: Determination of the lower explosion limit LEL of dust clouds. The testing of explosions of wheat flour dust clouds showed that the maximum value of the pressure was reached at the concentrations of 600 g/m3 and its value is 8.32 bar/s. The fastest increase of pressure was observed at the concentration of 750 g/m3 and its value was 54.2 bar/s.

Słowa kluczowe

  • wheat flour dust clouds
  • explosion characteristics
  • maximum explosion pressure
  • maximum rate of explosion pressure rise
  • lower explosion limit
Otwarty dostęp

Study of Explosion Characteristics of Wood Dust Clouds in Dependence of the Particle Size Distribution

Data publikacji: 16 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 17 - 23

Abstrakt

Abstract

The article deals with the measurement of explosion characteristics of wood dust. The measurements were carried out according to STN EN 14034-1+A1:2011 Determination of explosion characteristics of dust clouds. Part 1: Determination of the maximum explosion pressure pmax of dust clouds and the maximum rate of explosion pressure rise according to STN EN 14034-2+A1:2012 Determination of explosion characteristics of dust clouds - Part 2: Determination of the maximum rate of explosion pressure rise (dp/dt)max of dust clouds. On the basis of measurements, we found that the distribution of the particles has a significant impact on the parameters of wood dust samples.

Słowa kluczowe

  • wood dust clouds
  • explosion characteristics
  • maximum explosion pressure
  • maximum rate of explosion pressure rise
  • lower explosion limit
Otwarty dostęp

Human Health Concenrs of Metalworking Fluid Components

Data publikacji: 16 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 25 - 32

Abstrakt

Abstract

Exploration of 209 available Material safety data sheets of 85 straight oils, 46 emulsions, 51 semi-synthetics and 27 synthetics was carried out to provide a report on the most widely used components defined as dangerous substances. As many as 217 of different substances of which 15 were identified as biocides, 17 as corrosion inhibitors or neutralizing agent, 17 were lubricity improvers and 38 different base fluids, lubricity solvents or surfactants, while 93 substances were not identified specifically and 37 substances occurred only once. This article is focused on the list of base fluids in straight oils and their possible health effects.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Metalworking Fluids
  • Composition
  • Base oils
  • Mineral oil
  • Health effects
Otwarty dostęp

Human Health Concenrs of the Metalworking Fluid Components

Data publikacji: 16 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 33 - 40

Abstrakt

Abstract

The exploration of 209 available Material safety data sheets of 85 straight oils, 46 emulsions, 51 semi-synthetics and 27 synthetics was carried out to provide a report on the most used components defined as dangerous substances. As many as 217 of different substances of which 15 were identified as biocides, 17 as corrosion inhibitors or neutralizing agent, 17 were lubricity improvers and 38 different base fluids, lubricity solvents or surfactants, while 93 substances were not identified specifically and 37 substances occurred only once. This article is focused on the list of biocides, neutralizing agents and corrosion inhibitors identified in all types of MWFs and their possible health effects.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Metalworking Fluids
  • Composition
  • Exposure
  • Health effects
  • Biocides
  • Corrosion inhibitors
Otwarty dostęp

DTA Evaluation of Spruce Wood Degradation Process

Data publikacji: 16 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 41 - 48

Abstrakt

Abstract

The decomposition stages of spruce wood sawdust were analyzed by means of sequential differential calorimetry. Two stages of decomposition were identified and activation energy of one stage was calculated using the Kissinger method. The DTA was conducted by means of SEDEX safety calorimeter. Sample was analyzed under three heating rates of 10, 20 and 45 °C/h in temperature range from room temperature to 400 °C. The calculated activation energy for the last and most clear decomposition peak was 122.63 KJ/mol. The results are comparable with the data calculated by J.V. Rissanen et al., who calculated activation energy for Spruce hemicellulose as 120 KJ/mol.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Spruce wood
  • DTA
  • activation energy
Otwarty dostęp

Calcination of Nickel Mud

Data publikacji: 16 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 49 - 53

Abstrakt

Abstract

Different characterizations were carried out on uncalcinated nickel mud and samples calcined in the temperature range of 200–600 °C. In the present paper, the phase composition and structure transition of the nickel mud heated from room temperature are indicated by SEM, EDX analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Samples of nickel mud were collected in Sereď, where nickel was produced from Albanian iron-nickel ore. It was found that calcination has effect on the structure and composition of nickel mud. The obtained results provide an important base for the further studies of comprehensive utilization of nickel mud.

Słowa kluczowe

  • nickel mud
  • calcination
  • SEM
  • EDX analysis
  • Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
Otwarty dostęp

Flammability Parameters of Candles

Data publikacji: 16 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 55 - 61

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paper deals with the assessment of selected fire safety characteristics of candles. Weight loss of a candle during the burning process, candle burning rate, soot index, heat release rate and yield of carbon oxides were determined. Soot index was determined according to EN 15426: 2007 - Candles - Specification for Sooting Behavior. All samples met the prescribed amount of produced soot. Weight loss, heat release rate and the yield of carbon oxides were determined for one selected sample. While yield of CO increased during the measurement, the yield of CO2 decreased by half in 40 minutes.

Słowa kluczowe

  • candle
  • soot index
  • weight loss
  • heat release rate
  • fire safety characteristics of candles
Otwarty dostęp

Study of Wastewaters Contaminated with Heavy Metals in Bioethanol Production

Data publikacji: 16 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 63 - 71

Abstrakt

Abstract

Bioethanol as a substitute for traditional sources of energy, especially oil transport, is currently one of the most researched alternative motor fuels. Normally, bioethanol is produced from agricultural crops such as sugar cane or corn. However, this is counter-productive, because agriculture is primarily serving to ensure enough food for the people. It is therefore necessary to look for new production of appropriate non-food crops or find an added value to this process. Utilisation of contaminated water from metal industry could be one of them. Based on the hypothesis of reduction of some toxic metals with higher oxidation number is opening the possibility of using this wastewater in alcohol fermentation of any kind of biomass. In this study, hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) was used as a model contaminant in the process of aerobic fermentation of corn to bioethanol. To determine the reduction potential of glucose to Cr(VI), and to quantitatively determinate the glucose content after saccharification, UV/VIS spectrophotometry was used. As a method of qualitative determination of fermentation product, gas chromatography with mass detection was used. Infrared spectrometry was used for qualitative analyses of produced ethanol. Based on the established results shown in this paper, we can conclude that the presence of hexavalent chromium in the fermentation process does not have a significant negative impact, while offering the opportunity of using the industrial wastewaters for the production of bioethanol fuel.

Słowa kluczowe

  • bioethanol
  • wastewater
  • heavy metals
  • hexavalent chromium
  • reduction
Otwarty dostęp

Gas Chromatographic Determination of Fatty Acids in Oils with Regard to the Assessment of Fire Hazard

Data publikacji: 16 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 73 - 81

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the paper was to study and research the application of processing gas chromatographic method for the rapid and accurate determination of the composition of different types of oils, such as substances with the possibility of an adverse event spontaneous combustion or self-heating. Tendency to spontaneous combustion is chemically characterized mainly by the amount of unsaturated fatty acids, which have one or more double bonds in their molecule. Vegetable oils essentially consist of the following fatty acids: palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linoleic. For the needs of assessment, the fire hazard must be known, in which the double bond is present, as well as their number in a molecule. As an analytical method, GCMS was used for determination of oils content. Three types of oil were used - rapeseed, sunflower, and coconut oil. Owing to the occurrence of linoleic acid C18:2 (49.8 wt.%) and oleic acid C18:1 (43.3 wt.%) with double bonds, sunflower oil is the most prone to self-heating. The coconut and rapeseed oils contain double bond FAME in lesser amount, and their propensity to self-heating is relatively low.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Gas chromatography
  • oil
  • fatty acid
  • ester
  • oxidation
  • saturation
  • fire
Otwarty dostęp

Thermal Properties of Lignocellulose Pellets

Data publikacji: 16 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 83 - 90

Abstrakt

Abstract

This article deals with the characterization of biomass pellets using Differential Scanning Calorimetry. We used three types of industrially produced and commercially available pellets as samples: wood pellets containing grass, wood pellet containing bark and wood pellets without bark. Each of the samples were examined using the DSC method. Based on the measurements in atmosphere of air and nitrogen temperature, the changes caused by thermal degradation of various kinds of test fuels were observed. Subsequently, limits of exothermic processes, reaction enthalpy changes and the temperature at which exothermic reactions reached peaks were determined.

Słowa kluczowe

  • lignocellulose pellets
  • wood
  • Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)
  • biomass
  • thermal decomposition
  • pyrolysis
Otwarty dostęp

Review: Utilization of Waste From Coffee Production

Data publikacji: 16 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 91 - 101

Abstrakt

Abstract

Coffee is one of the most valuable primary products in the world trade, and also a central and popular part of our culture. However, coffees production generate a lot of coffee wastes and by-products, which, on the one hand, could be used for more applications (sorbent for the removal of heavy metals and dyes from aqueous solutions, production of fuel pellets or briquettes, substrate for biogas, bioethanol or biodiesel production, composting material, production of reusable cups, substrat for mushroom production, source of natural phenolic antioxidants etc.), but, on the other hand, it could be a source of severe contamination posing a serious environmental problem. In this paper, we present an overview of utilising the waste from coffee production.

Słowa kluczowe

  • coffee waste product
  • waste utilization
  • coffee husk
  • coffee pulp
  • silverskin
  • spent coffee grounds
Otwarty dostęp

Usage of FTIR-ATR as Non-Destructive Analysis of Selected Toxic Dyes

Data publikacji: 16 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 103 - 111

Abstrakt

Abstract

The degradation of the environment which is due to the discharge of polluting wastewater from industrial sources poses a real problem in several countries. Textile industries use large volumes of water in their operations, discharging thus large volume of wastewater into the environment, most of which is untreated. The wastewater contains a variety of chemicals from various stages of process operations, including desizing, scouring, bleaching and dyeing. The main purpose of this paper is to introduce Infrared Spectrometry with Fourier transformation as a non-destructive method for study, identifation and rapid determination of selected representatives of cationic (Methylene Blue), azo (Congo Red, Eriochrome Black T) and nitroso (Naphthol Green B) dyes. In conjunction with the ATR technique, FTIR offers a reliable detection method of dyes without extraction by other dangerous substances.

Spectral interpretation of dye spectra revealed valuable information about the identification and characterization of each group of dyes.

Słowa kluczowe

  • FTIR-ATR
  • azo dye
  • nitroso dye
  • basic dye
  • spectrum
Otwarty dostęp

Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds

Data publikacji: 16 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 113 - 121

Abstrakt

Abstract

The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.

Słowa kluczowe

  • waste utilization
  • coffee waste
  • spent coffee grounds
  • biodiesel
  • FAME
  • oil extraction
Otwarty dostęp

The Effect of the Heat Flux on the Self-Ignition of Oriented Strand Board

Data publikacji: 16 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 123 - 129

Abstrakt

Abstract

This article deals with the initiation phase of flaming and smouldering burning of oriented strand board. The influence of heat flux on thermal degradation of OSB boards, time to ignition, heat release rate and mass loss rate using thermal analysis and vertical electrical radiation panel methods were studied. Significant information on the influence of the heat flux density and the thickness of the material on time to ignition was obtained.

Słowa kluczowe

  • thermal degradation
  • oriented strand board
  • thermal analysis
  • mass loss
  • heat release rate
  • time to ignition
  • heat flux

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