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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1899-7562
Pierwsze wydanie
13 Jan 2009
Częstotliwość wydawania
5 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 56 (2017): Zeszyt 1 (February 2017)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1899-7562
Pierwsze wydanie
13 Jan 2009
Częstotliwość wydawania
5 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

24 Artykułów

Section I – Kinesiology

access type Wymagane uwierzytelnienie

Core Muscle Activation in Suspension Training Exercises

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 61 - 71

Abstrakt

Abstract

A quantitative observational laboratory study was conducted to characterize and classify core training exercises executed in a suspension modality on the base of muscle activation. In a prospective single-group repeated measures design, seventeen active male participants performed four suspension exercises typically associated with core training (roll-out, bodysaw, pike and knee-tuck). Surface electromyographic signals were recorded from lower and upper parts of rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, lower and upper parts of erector spinae muscles using concentric bipolar electrodes. The average rectified values of electromyographic signals were normalized with respect to individual maximum voluntary isometric contraction of each muscle. Roll-out exercise showed the highest activation of rectus abdominis and oblique muscles compared to the other exercises. The rectus abdominis and external oblique reached an activation higher than 60% of the maximal voluntary contraction (or very close to that threshold, 55%) in roll-out and bodysaw exercises. Findings from this study allow the selection of suspension core training exercises on the basis of quantitative information about the activation of muscles of interest. Roll-out and bodysaw exercises can be considered as suitable for strength training of rectus abdominis and external oblique muscles.

Key words

  • core stability
  • core strength
  • electromyography
  • abdominal muscles
access type Wymagane uwierzytelnienie

Technique Selection ‘the Coaches Challenge’ Influencing Injury Risk During the First Contact Hand of the Round off Skill in Female Gymnastics

Data publikacji: 12 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 51 - 59

Abstrakt

Abstract

The importance of technique selection on elbow injury risk has been identified for the key round off skill in female gymnastics, with a focus on the second contact limb. The aim of this study was to shift the focus to the first contact limb and investigate the biomechanical injury risk during parallel and T-shape round-off (RO) techniques. Seven international-level female gymnasts performed 10 trials of the RO to back-handspring with parallel and T-shape hand positions. Synchronized kinematic (3D motion analysis system; 247 Hz) and kinetic (two force plates; 1235 Hz) data were collected for each trial. The t-test with effect size statistics determined differences between the two techniques. No significant differences were found for vertical, anterior posterior and resultant ground reaction force, elbow joint kinematics and kinetics. Specifically, the results highlighted that change in technique in RO skills did not influence first contact limb elbow joint mechanics and therefore, injury risk. The findings of the present study suggest the injury potential of this skill is focused on the second limb during the parallel technique of this fundamental gymnastic skill.

Key words

  • gymnastics
  • fundamental skill
  • upper extremity
  • prevention
access type Wymagane uwierzytelnienie

Muscle Force-Velocity Relationships Observed in Four Different Functional Tests

Data publikacji: 13 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 39 - 49

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aims of the present study were to investigate the shape and strength of the force-velocity relationships observed in different functional movement tests and explore the parameters depicting force, velocity and power producing capacities of the tested muscles. Twelve subjects were tested on maximum performance in vertical jumps, cycling, bench press throws, and bench pulls performed against different loads. Thereafter, both the averaged and maximum force and velocity variables recorded from individual trials were used for force–velocity relationship modeling. The observed individual force-velocity relationships were exceptionally strong (median correlation coefficients ranged from r = 0.930 to r = 0.995) and approximately linear independently of the test and variable type. Most of the relationship parameters observed from the averaged and maximum force and velocity variable types were strongly related in all tests (r = 0.789-0.991), except for those in vertical jumps (r = 0.485-0.930). However, the generalizability of the force-velocity relationship parameters depicting maximum force, velocity and power of the tested muscles across different tests was inconsistent and on average moderate. We concluded that the linear force-velocity relationship model based on either maximum or averaged force-velocity data could provide the outcomes depicting force, velocity and power generating capacity of the tested muscles, although such outcomes can only be partially generalized across different muscles.

Key words

  • power
  • parameter
  • output
  • load
  • generalizability
access type Wymagane uwierzytelnienie

Biomechanical Differences in the Sprint Start Between Faster and Slower High-Level Sprinters

Data publikacji: 12 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 29 - 38

Abstrakt

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the kinematic and kinetic differences of the sprint start and first two steps between faster and slower high-level sprinters. Twelve male sprinters were dichotomized according to personal best 60- and 100-m times. Each participant performed five starts under constant conditions. An eight-camera system was used for 3-D kinematic analysis. Dynamic forces at the start were determined with starting blocks mounted on bipedal force plates. Measures of front and rear block total force, front and rear block maximal force, time to front and rear block peak force, total force impulse, total horizontal and vertical impulse, front and rear block force impulse, time of block clearance, block leaving velocity and block leaving acceleration were collected. Between-group comparisons were made using independent samples t tests (p < 0.05) and by calculating effect sizes (Cohen’s d). Spearman’s correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationships between sprint start kinematics, kinetic measures and sprint performance. Significant between-group differences were observed in rear block total force (p = 0.0059), rear block maximal vertical force (p = 0.0037) and total force impulse (p = 0.0493). Only front block total force significantly correlated with 100 m sprint performance in both the slower and faster groups (r = 0.94 and 0.54, respectively; p = 0.05). Our findings suggest that faster sprinters show enhanced sprint start motor performance with greater force development than slower sprinters.

Key words

  • sprinters
  • block start
  • biomechanics
  • kinematics
  • dynamics
access type Wymagane uwierzytelnienie

Isokinetic Dynamometry and 1RM Tests Produce Conflicting Results for Assessing Alterations in Muscle Strength

Data publikacji: 12 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 19 - 27

Abstrakt

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to compare strength gains in the lower limbs, assessed by one maximum repetition (1RM) and isokinetic peak torque (PT), in young men undergoing a resistance training (RT) program. Twenty-seven young men performed resistance training twice a week for 11 weeks. Training involved two exercises for the lower body, two for the upper body and one for the midsection performed with three sets of 8-12 repetitions to momentary muscle failure. Before and after the training period, participants performed the 1RM test in the 45° leg press and knee extension PT in isokinetic dynamometry. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the relationship between the changes in 1RM and PT, and the Bland-Altman test was performed to check for agreement between the strength changes of both tests. There were significant changes in 1RM and PT of 23.98% and 15.96%, respectively (p < 0.05). The changes in leg press 1RM were significantly higher than the ones in PT. The Bland-Altman analysis revealed that the tests were not equivalent. In conclusion, professionals and researchers involved in strength assessment should be aware that the results obtained by PT and 1RM are not equivalent when evaluating individual responsiveness and/or the efficacy of an intervention on muscle strength, as the results obtained show large variations and can be even conflicting.

Key words

  • knee extensors
  • lower body strength
  • resistance training
access type Wymagane uwierzytelnienie

Changes in Impact Signals and Muscle Activity in Response to Different Shoe and Landing Conditions

Data publikacji: 12 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 5 - 18

Abstrakt

Abstract

Few rigorous scientific studies have investigated how the corresponding neuromuscular activity in the lower extremity occurs during different landing control movements in response to different impact signals. This study aimed to determine the potential shoe effects on impact signals, neuromuscular responses and their possible interactions in different human landing movements. Twelve male basketball players were required to wear high-cushioned basketball shoes (BS) and minimally cushioned control shoes (CC) to perform active drop jump landings (DJL) and passive landings (PL). Ground reaction forces and EMG amplitude (root mean square, EMGRMS) of the leg muscles within 50 ms before and after the landing movements were collected simultaneously. No shoe effect was found on the characteristics of impact signals and neuromuscular activity during the contact phase of DJL. By contrast, for PL, the values of maximal ground reaction force and the peak loading rate were evidently lower in the BS condition than in the CC condition (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the EMGRMS of all muscles demonstrated a significant decrease in the BS condition compared with the CC condition within 50 ms after contact (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that under the condition in which related muscles are activated improperly, a neuromuscular adaptation occurs in response to different impact signals.

Key words

  • vertical ground reaction force
  • EMG amplitude
  • drop landing

Section II– Exercise Physiology & Sports Medicine

access type Wymagane uwierzytelnienie

IL-6, Antioxidant Capacity and Muscle Damage Markers Following High-Intensity Interval Training Protocols

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 139 - 148

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate changes of interleukin-6 (IL-6), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and muscle damage markers (creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)) in response to three different high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols of identical external work. Twelve moderately-trained males participated in the three HIIT trials which consisted of a warm-up, followed by 12 min of 15 s, 30 s or 60 s HIIT sequences with the work/rest ratio 1. The biochemical markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and muscle damage were analysed POST, 3 h and 24 h after the exercise. All HIIT protocols caused an immediate increase in IL-6, TAC, CK, myoglobin and LDH. The most pronounced between-trials differences were found for the POST-exercise changes in IL-6 (Effect size ± 90% confidence interval: 1.51 ± 0.63, 0.84 ± 0.34 and 1.80 ± 0.60 for the 15s/15s, 30s/30s and 60s/60s protocol, respectively) and myoglobin (1.11 ± 0.29, 0.45 ± 0.48 and 1.09 ± 0.22 for the 15s/15s, 30s/30s and 60s/60s protocol, respectively). There were no substantial between-trial differences in other biochemical variables. In conclusion, the 15s/15s and 60s/60s protocols might be preferred to the 30s/30s protocols in order to maximize the training stimulus.

Key words

  • inflammation
  • oxidative stress
  • creatine kinase
  • myoglobin
  • lactate dehydrogenase
access type Wymagane uwierzytelnienie

Physiological Acute Response to High-Intensity Intermittent and Moderate-Intensity Continuous 5 km Running Performance: Implications for Training Prescription

Data publikacji: 11 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 127 - 137

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological responses to moderate-intensity continuous and high-intensity intermittent exercise. Twelve physically active male subjects were recruited and completed a 5-km run on a treadmill in two experimental sessions in randomized order: continuously (70% sVO2max) and intermittently (1:1 min at sVO2max). Oxygen uptake, excess post-exercise oxygen consumption, lactate concentration, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion data were recorded during and after each session. The lactate levels exhibited higher values immediately post-exercise than at rest (High-Intensity: 1.43 ± 0.25 to 7.36 ± 2.78; Moderate-Intensity: 1.64 ± 1.01 to 4.05 ± 1.52 mmol⋅L−1, p = 0.0004), but High-Intensity promoted higher values (p = 0.001) than Moderate-Intensity. There was a difference across time on oxygen uptake at all moments tested in both groups (High-Intensity: 100.19 ± 8.15L; Moderate-Intensity: 88.35 ± 11.46, p < 0.001). Both exercise conditions promoted increases in excess postexercise oxygen consumption (High-Intensity: 6.61 ± 1.85 L; Moderate-Intensity: 5.32 ± 2.39 L, p < 0.005), but higher values were observed in the High-Intensity exercise protocol. High-Intensity was more effective at modifying the heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (High-Intensity: 183 ± 12.54 and 19; Moderate-Intensity: 172 ± 8.5 and 16, respectively, p < 0.05). In conclusion, over the same distance, Moderate-Intensity and High-Intensity exercise exhibited different lactate concentrations, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion. As expected, the metabolic contribution also differed, and High-Intensity induced higher energy expenditure, however, the total duration of the session may have to be taken into account. Moreover, when following moderate-intensity training, the percentage of sVO2max and the anaerobic threshold might influence exercise and training responses.

Key words

  • physiologic responses
  • energy expenditure
  • lactate concentration
  • high intensity intermittent exercise
  • acute exercise
  • excess post-exercise oxygen uptake
access type Wymagane uwierzytelnienie

The Effect of Previous Wingate Performance Using one Body Region on Subsequent Wingate Performance Using a Different Body Region

Data publikacji: 12 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 119 - 126

Abstrakt

Abstract

The 30 second Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) is the gold standard measure of anaerobic performance. The present investigation aimed to determine if a previous WAnT using one body region significantly affected a subsequent WAnT using a different body region. Twelve male university students (n = 12, 23 ± 2 years, 84 ± 16.1 kg, 178.5 ± 7.4 cm) volunteered to complete two repeated WAnT protocols (either lower body WAnT followed by an upper body WAnT or vice versa) on two separate testing occasions. The upper body WAnT was conducted on a modified electromagnetically braked cycle ergometer using a flywheel braking force corresponding to 5% bodyweight. The lower body WAnT was conducted on an electronically braked cycle ergometer using a flywheel braking force corresponding to 7.5% bodyweight. Participants had a 1 minute rest period for transition between WAnTs. Data are reported as mean ± standard deviation. No significant differences were identified in power indices for the lower body between 30 s WAnTs. When the upper body WAnT was performed 2nd, absolute peak power (p < 0.01), mean power (p < 0.001) and relative mean power (p < 0.001) were significantly lower compared to when the upper body WAnT was performed 1st. The value of maximum revolutions per minute was significantly lower (p < 0.001) when the upper body WAnT was performed after the lower body WAnT, compared to when it was performed 1st (193.3 ± 11.4 1st vs 179.8 ± 14.4 2nd). Previous upper body sprint exercise does not significantly affect lower body sprint exercise; however, previous lower body sprint exercise severely compromises subsequent upper body sprint performance.

Key words

  • repeated
  • WAnT
  • upper body
  • lower body
access type Wymagane uwierzytelnienie

Determination of Aerobic Performance in Youth Soccer Players: Effect of Direct And Indirect Methods

Data publikacji: 11 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 109 - 118

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study was conducted to correlate and compare values for variables determined in indirect tests with the values determined directly in youth soccer players. The study subjects were 27 youth soccer players (age 16.77 ± 0.75 years; body mass 63.29 ± 7.37 kg; body height 174.14 ± 8.46 cm) playing in the basic categories of a first division team at the regional level of Brazilian soccer. Each subject was evaluated with the following tests: a) a treadmill test to directly determine values of VO2max and Vamax (Treadmill); b) an indirect Shuttle Run Test (SRT); c) an indirect Carminatti’s test (TCar). VO2max showed significantly different values in the Treadmill and the SRT (59.21 ± 5.88 and 50.67 ± 3.58 ml⋅kg−1⋅min−1, respectively). Similarly, values obtained for VPeak in the treadmill test and for Vamax in TCar were different from values for SRT VPeak (15.01 ± 1.10, 14.92 ± 0.87 and 12.64 ± 0.62 km⋅h−1, respectively). A correlation analysis showed a moderate relationship between values for VPeak TCar and VO2max determined on a treadmill (r = 0.46) and Vamax determined on a treadmill (r = 0.54). The analysis also showed a high correlation between values of VO2max determined on the treadmill and VO2max evaluated in the SRT (r = 0.69), as well as VPeak determined in the SRT and VO2max tested on the treadmill (r = 0.71), as well as between VPeak determined in the SRT and VO2max evaluated on the treadmill (r = 0.77). We concluded that the SRT underestimated values of VO2max and Vamax. Additionally, VPeak TCar showed no difference compared to Vamax, although it did show a low correlation with it. In addition the SRT, even with high correlations, did not seem to be a great predictor of aerobic fitness in youth soccer players.

Key words

  • treadmill test
  • shuttle run test
  • Carminatti’s test
  • maximal oxygen uptake
  • youth soccer
access type Wymagane uwierzytelnienie

Plasma Actin, Gelsolin and Orosomucoid Levels after Eccentric Exercise

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 99 - 108

Abstrakt

Abstract

The present study investigated the acute effect of eccentric exercise on blood plasma actin, gelsolin (GSN) and orosomucoid (AGP) levels in untrained and moderately trained individuals, and their correlation with exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) markers (CK, intensity of muscle soreness and maximal voluntary contraction torque deficit). Healthy physical education students (6 untrained, 12 moderately trained) participated in this research. Actin, GSN, AGP and CK levels were measured in blood plasma at baseline, immediately, 1 h, 6 h and 24 h post-exercise comprising 90 eccentric quadriceps contractions performed on a dynamometer. There was significant time main effect for GSN, AGP, CK and significant difference was found between baseline and the lowest value of post-exercise GSN (p < 0.05), as well as baseline and the highest value of post-exercise AGP (p < 0.05). Relationships were found between GSN levels and other indirect EIMD markers (between all GSN levels at post-exercise and CK activity at 6 h, p < 0.05; GSNMIN and muscle soreness at post-exercise, p < 0.04), GSN and AGP; however, actin did not correlate at any time points with GSN. Actin, GSN, AGP and CK responses after eccentric exercise do not seem sensitive to training status. The plasma actin level is used as an indicator of injury, however, our results suggest that it is not an accurate marker of EIMD, while plasma GSN concentrations show a better relationship with EIMD and the post-exercise inflammatory process. The elevated plasma AGP and the correlation between GSN and AGP seem to be promising for assessment of exercise-induced muscle injury.

Key words

  • eccentric exercise
  • muscle damage
  • biomarker
  • actin
  • gelsolin
  • exercise
access type Wymagane uwierzytelnienie

Effects of Karate Fights on Achilles Tendon Stiffness Measured by Myotonometry

Data publikacji: 12 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 93 - 97

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of karate fights on Achilles tendon stiffness in karate competitors. Eleven male karate fighters participated in the present study. A handheld MyotonPRO device (MyotonPRO, Myoton Ltd, Estonia) was applied to measure Achilles tendon stiffness in karate fighters. The Achilles tendon was tested 5 cm above the tuber calcanei. Stiffness measurements were performed before and after eight sparring fights. Each fight lasted 2 min and was separated by a 2 min rest period. Achilles tendon stiffness for the dominant leg increased significantly from before fights (751.57 ± 123.493 N/m) to immediately after fights (809.43 ± 160.425 N/m) (p = 0.012). Presented results should be used by strength and conditioning coaches in training programs as a way to decrease the risk of injury.

Key words

  • tendon stiffness
  • karate
  • myotonometry
access type Wymagane uwierzytelnienie

Low-Carbohydrate-High-Fat Diet: Can it Help Exercise Performance?

Data publikacji: 12 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 81 - 92

Abstrakt

Abstract

Low-carbohydrate-high-fat (LCHF) diets have been used as a means of weight loss and control of symptoms in several clinical conditions. There is emerging evidence that the metabolic changes induced by LCHF diets enhance endurance performance. The aims of this review are to examine the evidence of LCHF diets in improving various aspects of athletic performance. Long-term LCHF dietary intake may help control body weight and fat mass while maintaining lean body mass in athletes in weight-sensitive sports. LCHF-adapted endurance athletes can reach the maximal fat oxidation rate of approximately 1.5 g/min, with a lower carbohydrate oxidation rate and similar muscle glycogen content and a resynthesis rate compared to their counterparts consuming high-carbohydrate-low-fat (HCLF) diets. The elevated fat oxidation rate and glycogen sparing effect may improve performance in ultra-endurance events. These metabolic changes may also prevent the decline in performance in later stages of repeated high-intensity movements, in which the aerobic metabolism becomes more important. However, elevated blood concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids and ammonia during exercise after LCHF diets may lead to early development of central fatigue. It appears that at least several months of adaptation to a LCHF diet are required for the metabolic changes and restoration of muscle glycogen to occur. Further investigations on LCHF diets are needed regarding (1) performance after weight loss in weight-categorized sports; (2) repeated high-intensity exercise performance; (3) development of central fatigue during endurance events; (4) perceptual-motor performance during prolonged intermittent sports; and (5) ideal dietary fatty acid compositions.

Key words

  • ketogenic diet
  • substrate metabolism
  • endurance exercise
  • repeated high-intensity exercise
  • central fatigue
  • perceptual-motor performance
access type Wymagane uwierzytelnienie

Adequacy of the Ultra-Short-Term HRV to Assess Adaptive Processes in Youth Female Basketball Players

Data publikacji: 12 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 73 - 80

Abstrakt

Abstract

Heart rate variability has been widely used to monitor athletes’ cardiac autonomic control changes induced by training and competition, and recently shorter recording times have been sought to improve its practicality. The aim of this study was to test the agreement between the (ultra-short-term) natural log of the root-mean-square difference of successive normal RR intervals (lnRMSSD - measured in only 1 min post-1 min stabilization) and the criterion lnRMSSD (measured in the last 5 min out of 10 min of recording) in young female basketball players. Furthermore, the correlation between training induced delta change in the ultra-short-term lnRMSSD and the criterion lnRMSSD was calculated. Seventeen players were assessed at rest pre- and post-eight weeks of training. Trivial effect sizes (-0.03 in the pre- and 0.10 in the post- treatment) were found in the comparison between the ultra-short-term lnRMSSD (3.29 ± 0.45 and 3.49 ± 0.35 ms, in the pre- and post-, respectively) and the criterion lnRMSSD (3.30 ± 0.40 and 3.45 ± 0.41 ms, in the pre- and post-, respectively) (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.95 and 0.93). In both cases, the response to training was significant, with Pearson’s correlation of 0.82 between the delta changes of the ultra-short-term lnRMSSD and the criterion lnRMSSD. In conclusion, the lnRMSSD can be calculated within only 2 min of data acquisition (the 1st min discarded) in young female basketball players, with the ultra-short-term measure presenting similar sensitivity to training effects as the standard criterion measure.

Key words

  • team sports
  • youth athletes
  • body position
  • vagal activity
  • court sports

Section III – Sports Training

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Lower Leg Length is Associated with Running Economy in High Level Caucasian Distance Runners

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 229 - 239

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate lower limb anthropometric and composition variables related to running economy (RE) and running performance in a homogeneous group of high level European distance runners. RE at the speeds of 14, 16 and 18 km·h−1 (189 ± 12; 188 ± 11; 187 ± 11 O2 ml·kg−1·km−1) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) (67.3 ± 2.9 ml·kg−1·min−1) of 13 high level distance runners were determined on a motorised treadmill. Anthropometric variables and body composition were measured. The BMI was related to RE at the speed of 14 (r2 = 0.434; p = 0.014), 16 (r2 = 0.436; p = 0.014) and 18 km·h−1 (r2 = 0.389; p = 0.023). Lower leg length was negatively related to RE at the speed of 16 and showed such a tendency at the speed of 14 and 18 km·h−1. VO2max indicated a moderate relationship with RE at the speeds of 14, 16 and 18 km·h−1 (r2 = 0.372, p = 0.030; r2 = 0.350, p = 0.033; r2 = 0.376, p = 0.026, respectively) which was confirmed by subsequent partial correlation analysis. While lower leg length and the BMI presented a relationship with RE, none of the calculated body composition and anthropometric proportions were related to RE or performance. The relationship between RE and VO2max would confirm the notion that RE could be at least partly compensated by VO2max to achieve high performance results.

Key words

  • running economy
  • maximal oxygen uptake
  • running performance
  • anthropometric characteristics
  • body composition
  • DEXA scan
access type Wymagane uwierzytelnienie

Reliability and Validity of a New Test of Agility and Skill for Female Amateur Soccer Players

Data publikacji: 12 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 219 - 227

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the Agility and Skill Test, which had been recently developed to assess agility and skill in female athletes. Following a 10 min warm-up, two trials to test the reliability and validity of the test were conducted one week apart. Measurements were collected to compare soccer players’ physical performance in a 20 m sprint, a T-Drill test, the Illinois Agility Run Test, change-of-direction and acceleration, as well as agility and skill. All tests were completed following the same order. Thirty-four amateur female soccer players were recruited (age = 20.8 ± 1.9 years; body height = 166 ± 6.9 cm; body mass = 55.5 ± 5.8 kg). To determine the reliability and usefulness of these tests, paired sample t-tests, intra-class correlation coefficients, typical error, coefficient of variation, and differences between the typical error and smallest worthwhile change statistics were computed. Test results showed no significant differences between the two sessions (p > 0.01). There were higher intra-class correlations between the test and retest values (r = 0.94–0.99) for all tests. Typical error values were below the smallest worthwhile change, indicating ‘good’ usefulness for these tests. A near perfect Pearson correlation between the Agility and Skill Test (r = 0.98) was found, and there were moderate-to-large levels of correlation between the Agility and Skill Test and other measures (r = 0.37 to r = 0.56). The results of this study suggest that the Agility and Skill Test is a reliable and valid test for female soccer players and has significant value for assessing the integrative agility and skill capability of soccer players.

Key words

  • agility and skill test
  • ability
  • change direction
  • female soccer fitness test
access type Wymagane uwierzytelnienie

Factors Determining Success in Youth Judokas

Data publikacji: 12 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 207 - 217

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare two models of determining factors for success in judo. The first model (Model A) included testing motor abilities of high-level Croatian judokas in the cadet age category. The sample in Model A consisted of 71 male and female judokas aged 16 ± 0.6 years who were divided into four subsamples according to sex and weight category. The second model (Model B) consisted of interviewing 40 top-level judo experts on the importance of motor abilities for cadets’ success in judo. According to Model A, the greatest impact on the criterion variable of success in males and females of heavier weight categories were variables assessing maximum strength, coordination and jumping ability. In the lighter weight male categories, the highest correlation with the criterion variable of success was the variable assessing agility. However, in the lighter weight female categories, the greatest impact on success had the variable assessing muscular endurance. In Model B, specific endurance was crucial for success in judo, while flexibility was the least important, regardless of sex and weight category. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients showed that there were no significant correlations in the results obtained in Models A and B for all observed subsamples. Although no significant correlations between the factors for success obtained through Models A and B were found, common determinants of success, regardless of the applied model, were identified.

Key words

  • motor abilities
  • sex
  • weight categories
  • questionnaire
  • combat sports
access type Wymagane uwierzytelnienie

Frequent Immediate Knowledge of Results Enhances the Increase of Throwing Velocity in Overarm Handball Performance

Data publikacji: 12 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 197 - 205

Abstrakt

Abstract

In the present study, the effect of frequent, immediate, augmented feedback on the increase of throwing velocity was investigated. An increase of throwing velocity of a handball set shot when knowledge of results was provided or not provided during training was compared. Fifty female and seventy-three male physical education students were assigned randomly to the experimental or control group. All participants performed two series of ten set shots with maximal effort twice a week for six weeks. The experimental group received information regarding throwing velocity measured by a radar gun immediately after every shot, whereas the control group did not receive any feedback. Measurements of maximal throwing velocity of an ordinary handball and a heavy ball were performed, before and after the training period and compared. Participants who received feedback on results attained almost a four times greater relative increase of the velocity of the normal ball (size 2) as compared to the same intervention when feedback was not provided (8.1 ± 3.6 vs. 2.7 ± 2.9%). The velocity increases were smaller, but still significant between the groups for throws using the heavy ball (5.1 ± 4.2 and 2.5 ± 5.8 for the experimental and control group, respectively). Apart from the experimental group throwing the normal ball, no differences in velocity change for gender were obtained. The results confirmed that training oriented towards an increase in throwing velocity became significantly more effective when frequent knowledge of results was provided.

Key words

  • overarm throw
  • augmented feedback
  • team handball
  • set shot
  • ball velocity
access type Wymagane uwierzytelnienie

Analysis of Motor Activities of Professional Soccer Players during the 2014 World Cup in Brazil

Data publikacji: 12 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 187 - 195

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to analyze motor activities of soccer players in seven consecutive rounds of matches of the 2014 World Cup in Brazil and to compare the performance of the world champions, the German national team with other participating teams. The study sample comprised 905 observations of 340 soccer players, who played full-time matches in all seven rounds of the tournament. The study was conducted using data collected from the Castrol Performance Index, a kinematic game analysis system that records movements of players with semi-automatic cameras. The following variables were analyzed: total distance covered, the percentage of total distance covered at high intensity, the number of sprints, frequency of sprints and peak running speed. A statistically significant increase (p ≤ 0.01) was noted in total distance covered, the percentage of distance covered at high intensity and total number of sprints, between the quarter-finals and semi-finals of the World Cup tournament in Brazil. The German national team covered a significantly longer total distance (p ≤ 0.05) and had a greater percentage of distance covered at high intensity (p ≤ 0.001) than players from other teams. The obtained results point to the necessity of development of players’ aerobic endurance and speed-endurance abilities while preparing for top-level soccer tournaments. Winning a soccer championship requires players to run longer mean total distances and longer distances at high intensity during a single match.

Key words

  • match analysis
  • group stage
  • knockout stage
  • distance covered
  • sprints
  • World Champion
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Effect of Core Training on Male Handball Players’ Throwing Velocity

Data publikacji: 12 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 177 - 185

Abstrakt

Abstract

In handball, throwing velocity is considered to be one of the essential factors in achieving the ultimate aim of scoring a goal. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effect of a core training program on throwing velocity in 30 handball players (age 18.7 ± 3.4 years, body height 179.3 ± 7.0 cm, body mass 78.9 ± 7.7 kg), 16 of whom were in the junior category and 14 of whom were in the senior category. The 30 players were randomly divided into two groups, the control group (n = 15) and the experimental group (n = 15). For a period of ten weeks, both groups attended their regular handball training sessions (four per week), but in addition, the experimental group participated in a program specifically aimed at progressively strengthening the lumbo-pelvic region and consisting of seven exercises performed after the general warm-up in each regular session. Pre- and post-tests were carried out to analyze each player’s throwing velocity from different throwing positions and thus assess the effects of this specific training program. Statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in throwing velocity were observed between the experimental group, which presented a percentage improvement of 4.5%, and the control group, which did not show any improvement. The results seem to indicate that an increase in the strength and stability of the lumbo-pelvic region can contribute to an improvement in the kinetic chain of the specific movement of throwing in handball, thus, increasing throwing velocity.

Key words

  • Lumbo-pelvic region
  • team sports
  • performance factors
  • kinetic chain
access type Wymagane uwierzytelnienie

Can Different Complex Training Improve the Individual Phenomenon of Post-Activation Potentiation?

Data publikacji: 12 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 167 - 175

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aims of the present study were (a) to determine whether the two types of complex training and vibration complex training would improve the individual phenomenon of post-activation potentiation (PAP) for every athlete in a team setting; and (b) to compare the acute effect of resistance and plyometric exercise, whole body vibration, complex training and vibration complex training on vertical jump performance. The participants were ten male division I college volleyball and basketball players. They were asked to perform three vertical jumps as a pre-test and were then randomly assigned to one of five PAP protocols, resistance exercise using half squat exercise, plyometric exercise using drop jumps with individualized drop height, whole body vibration using squats on a vibration plate, complex training combining resistance exercise with plyometric exercise, vibration complex training combining whole body vibration with plyometric exercise. Three vertical jumps were performed four minutes after the PAP protocol as a post-test. A two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to examine the differences among the five PAP protocols and between the two testing times. Our results showed that the post-test results were significantly improved compared to the pre-test for the vertical jump height (p = .015) in all PAP protocols. There was, however, an individual phenomenon of PAP in the response to all PAP protocols. In conclusion, this study found that resistance and plyometric exercise, whole body vibration, complex training and vibration complex training induce similar group PAP benefits. However, some athletes decreased their performances in some of the exercises in the study. Therefore, it is not recommended for coaches to arrange the exercises in a team setting.

Key words

  • plyometric exercise
  • resistance exercise
  • whole body vibration
  • warm-up
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Effects of the off-Season Period on Field and Assistant Soccer Referees `Physical Performance

Data publikacji: 12 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 159 - 166

Abstrakt

Abstract

The evolution of referees’ physical fitness has been studied over one or several seasons, however, the variation of the physical performance between the end of the competitive season (T1) and the start of the following pre-season (T2) has not been ascertained. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the transition period on physical performance variables (i.e. linear straight sprint, change of direction ability and endurance) in National Soccer Division referees. Forty-five Spanish referees volunteered to participate in this study. Participants were classified according to competitive status, field referees (FR, n = 23) and assistant referees (AR, n = 22). A loss of performance (p < 0.05) was observed in the 20 and 30 m linear straight sprint between T1 and T2 in both FR (1.64-1.56%, d = 0.29 to 0.32) and AR (2.01-3.41%, d = 0.33 to 0.60). In T2 the FR significantly improved the distance covered (p < 0.05, 13.11%, d = 0.39) in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test (YYIR1). Besides, significant differences were observed between FR and AR in the distance covered (p < 0.05, −23.55%, d = −0.97) in the YYIR1 test in T2. More research may be necessary to focus on the off-season period in order to implement specific training programs and consequently reduce the loss of sprint ability in field and assistant referees and the decrease in cardiovascular fitness in assistant referees.

Key words

  • detraining
  • acceleration
  • change of direction
  • endurance
  • physical fitness
  • soccer
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The Effect of Acute and Chronic Exposure to Hypobaric Hypoxia on Loaded Squat Jump Performance

Data publikacji: 11 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 149 - 158

Abstrakt

Abstract

The present study aimed (1) to compare loaded squat jump performance after an acute and chronic exposure to a moderate natural altitude between normoxia and hypobaric hypoxia conditions, and (2) to analyze the effect of an altitude training camp on loaded jump squat development. Sixteen male swimmers (17.1 ± 0.8 years) took part in a 17-day training camp at a natural moderate altitude. They were randomly tested in counterbalanced order on days 1 and 3 in normoxia and hypoxia (pretest) and on days 15 and 17 again in normoxia and hypoxia (posttest). The peak velocity reached with loads equivalent to 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of swimmers’ pretest body weight in the loaded squat jump exercise was the dependent variable analyzed. An overall increase in peak velocity during the test performed in hypoxia of 6.5% in pretest (p < 0.001, ES = 0.98) and 4.5% in posttest (p < 0.001, ES = 0.81) was observed. An overall increment in peak velocity of 4.0% considering the data for normoxia tests (p < 0.001, ES = 0.61) and 2.1% considering the data for hypoxia tests (p = 0.008, ES = 0.36) was achieved after the altitude training camp. These results highlight the beneficial effects of hypobaric hypoxia on jump performance after short and longer term exposure to a natural moderate altitude. The increase in loaded squat jump performance following the 17-day training camp suggests that altitude training could constitute a favorable stimulus in explosive strength.

Key words

  • altitude training
  • lower-limb muscular power
  • linear velocity transducer
  • swimmers

Erratum

access type Wymagane uwierzytelnienie

Erratum

Data publikacji: 12 Feb 2017
Zakres stron: 1 - 1

Abstrakt

24 Artykułów

Section I – Kinesiology

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Core Muscle Activation in Suspension Training Exercises

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 61 - 71

Abstrakt

Abstract

A quantitative observational laboratory study was conducted to characterize and classify core training exercises executed in a suspension modality on the base of muscle activation. In a prospective single-group repeated measures design, seventeen active male participants performed four suspension exercises typically associated with core training (roll-out, bodysaw, pike and knee-tuck). Surface electromyographic signals were recorded from lower and upper parts of rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, lower and upper parts of erector spinae muscles using concentric bipolar electrodes. The average rectified values of electromyographic signals were normalized with respect to individual maximum voluntary isometric contraction of each muscle. Roll-out exercise showed the highest activation of rectus abdominis and oblique muscles compared to the other exercises. The rectus abdominis and external oblique reached an activation higher than 60% of the maximal voluntary contraction (or very close to that threshold, 55%) in roll-out and bodysaw exercises. Findings from this study allow the selection of suspension core training exercises on the basis of quantitative information about the activation of muscles of interest. Roll-out and bodysaw exercises can be considered as suitable for strength training of rectus abdominis and external oblique muscles.

Key words

  • core stability
  • core strength
  • electromyography
  • abdominal muscles
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Technique Selection ‘the Coaches Challenge’ Influencing Injury Risk During the First Contact Hand of the Round off Skill in Female Gymnastics

Data publikacji: 12 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 51 - 59

Abstrakt

Abstract

The importance of technique selection on elbow injury risk has been identified for the key round off skill in female gymnastics, with a focus on the second contact limb. The aim of this study was to shift the focus to the first contact limb and investigate the biomechanical injury risk during parallel and T-shape round-off (RO) techniques. Seven international-level female gymnasts performed 10 trials of the RO to back-handspring with parallel and T-shape hand positions. Synchronized kinematic (3D motion analysis system; 247 Hz) and kinetic (two force plates; 1235 Hz) data were collected for each trial. The t-test with effect size statistics determined differences between the two techniques. No significant differences were found for vertical, anterior posterior and resultant ground reaction force, elbow joint kinematics and kinetics. Specifically, the results highlighted that change in technique in RO skills did not influence first contact limb elbow joint mechanics and therefore, injury risk. The findings of the present study suggest the injury potential of this skill is focused on the second limb during the parallel technique of this fundamental gymnastic skill.

Key words

  • gymnastics
  • fundamental skill
  • upper extremity
  • prevention
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Muscle Force-Velocity Relationships Observed in Four Different Functional Tests

Data publikacji: 13 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 39 - 49

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aims of the present study were to investigate the shape and strength of the force-velocity relationships observed in different functional movement tests and explore the parameters depicting force, velocity and power producing capacities of the tested muscles. Twelve subjects were tested on maximum performance in vertical jumps, cycling, bench press throws, and bench pulls performed against different loads. Thereafter, both the averaged and maximum force and velocity variables recorded from individual trials were used for force–velocity relationship modeling. The observed individual force-velocity relationships were exceptionally strong (median correlation coefficients ranged from r = 0.930 to r = 0.995) and approximately linear independently of the test and variable type. Most of the relationship parameters observed from the averaged and maximum force and velocity variable types were strongly related in all tests (r = 0.789-0.991), except for those in vertical jumps (r = 0.485-0.930). However, the generalizability of the force-velocity relationship parameters depicting maximum force, velocity and power of the tested muscles across different tests was inconsistent and on average moderate. We concluded that the linear force-velocity relationship model based on either maximum or averaged force-velocity data could provide the outcomes depicting force, velocity and power generating capacity of the tested muscles, although such outcomes can only be partially generalized across different muscles.

Key words

  • power
  • parameter
  • output
  • load
  • generalizability
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Biomechanical Differences in the Sprint Start Between Faster and Slower High-Level Sprinters

Data publikacji: 12 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 29 - 38

Abstrakt

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the kinematic and kinetic differences of the sprint start and first two steps between faster and slower high-level sprinters. Twelve male sprinters were dichotomized according to personal best 60- and 100-m times. Each participant performed five starts under constant conditions. An eight-camera system was used for 3-D kinematic analysis. Dynamic forces at the start were determined with starting blocks mounted on bipedal force plates. Measures of front and rear block total force, front and rear block maximal force, time to front and rear block peak force, total force impulse, total horizontal and vertical impulse, front and rear block force impulse, time of block clearance, block leaving velocity and block leaving acceleration were collected. Between-group comparisons were made using independent samples t tests (p < 0.05) and by calculating effect sizes (Cohen’s d). Spearman’s correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationships between sprint start kinematics, kinetic measures and sprint performance. Significant between-group differences were observed in rear block total force (p = 0.0059), rear block maximal vertical force (p = 0.0037) and total force impulse (p = 0.0493). Only front block total force significantly correlated with 100 m sprint performance in both the slower and faster groups (r = 0.94 and 0.54, respectively; p = 0.05). Our findings suggest that faster sprinters show enhanced sprint start motor performance with greater force development than slower sprinters.

Key words

  • sprinters
  • block start
  • biomechanics
  • kinematics
  • dynamics
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Isokinetic Dynamometry and 1RM Tests Produce Conflicting Results for Assessing Alterations in Muscle Strength

Data publikacji: 12 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 19 - 27

Abstrakt

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to compare strength gains in the lower limbs, assessed by one maximum repetition (1RM) and isokinetic peak torque (PT), in young men undergoing a resistance training (RT) program. Twenty-seven young men performed resistance training twice a week for 11 weeks. Training involved two exercises for the lower body, two for the upper body and one for the midsection performed with three sets of 8-12 repetitions to momentary muscle failure. Before and after the training period, participants performed the 1RM test in the 45° leg press and knee extension PT in isokinetic dynamometry. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the relationship between the changes in 1RM and PT, and the Bland-Altman test was performed to check for agreement between the strength changes of both tests. There were significant changes in 1RM and PT of 23.98% and 15.96%, respectively (p < 0.05). The changes in leg press 1RM were significantly higher than the ones in PT. The Bland-Altman analysis revealed that the tests were not equivalent. In conclusion, professionals and researchers involved in strength assessment should be aware that the results obtained by PT and 1RM are not equivalent when evaluating individual responsiveness and/or the efficacy of an intervention on muscle strength, as the results obtained show large variations and can be even conflicting.

Key words

  • knee extensors
  • lower body strength
  • resistance training
access type Wymagane uwierzytelnienie

Changes in Impact Signals and Muscle Activity in Response to Different Shoe and Landing Conditions

Data publikacji: 12 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 5 - 18

Abstrakt

Abstract

Few rigorous scientific studies have investigated how the corresponding neuromuscular activity in the lower extremity occurs during different landing control movements in response to different impact signals. This study aimed to determine the potential shoe effects on impact signals, neuromuscular responses and their possible interactions in different human landing movements. Twelve male basketball players were required to wear high-cushioned basketball shoes (BS) and minimally cushioned control shoes (CC) to perform active drop jump landings (DJL) and passive landings (PL). Ground reaction forces and EMG amplitude (root mean square, EMGRMS) of the leg muscles within 50 ms before and after the landing movements were collected simultaneously. No shoe effect was found on the characteristics of impact signals and neuromuscular activity during the contact phase of DJL. By contrast, for PL, the values of maximal ground reaction force and the peak loading rate were evidently lower in the BS condition than in the CC condition (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the EMGRMS of all muscles demonstrated a significant decrease in the BS condition compared with the CC condition within 50 ms after contact (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that under the condition in which related muscles are activated improperly, a neuromuscular adaptation occurs in response to different impact signals.

Key words

  • vertical ground reaction force
  • EMG amplitude
  • drop landing

Section II– Exercise Physiology & Sports Medicine

access type Wymagane uwierzytelnienie

IL-6, Antioxidant Capacity and Muscle Damage Markers Following High-Intensity Interval Training Protocols

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 139 - 148

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate changes of interleukin-6 (IL-6), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and muscle damage markers (creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)) in response to three different high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols of identical external work. Twelve moderately-trained males participated in the three HIIT trials which consisted of a warm-up, followed by 12 min of 15 s, 30 s or 60 s HIIT sequences with the work/rest ratio 1. The biochemical markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and muscle damage were analysed POST, 3 h and 24 h after the exercise. All HIIT protocols caused an immediate increase in IL-6, TAC, CK, myoglobin and LDH. The most pronounced between-trials differences were found for the POST-exercise changes in IL-6 (Effect size ± 90% confidence interval: 1.51 ± 0.63, 0.84 ± 0.34 and 1.80 ± 0.60 for the 15s/15s, 30s/30s and 60s/60s protocol, respectively) and myoglobin (1.11 ± 0.29, 0.45 ± 0.48 and 1.09 ± 0.22 for the 15s/15s, 30s/30s and 60s/60s protocol, respectively). There were no substantial between-trial differences in other biochemical variables. In conclusion, the 15s/15s and 60s/60s protocols might be preferred to the 30s/30s protocols in order to maximize the training stimulus.

Key words

  • inflammation
  • oxidative stress
  • creatine kinase
  • myoglobin
  • lactate dehydrogenase
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Physiological Acute Response to High-Intensity Intermittent and Moderate-Intensity Continuous 5 km Running Performance: Implications for Training Prescription

Data publikacji: 11 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 127 - 137

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological responses to moderate-intensity continuous and high-intensity intermittent exercise. Twelve physically active male subjects were recruited and completed a 5-km run on a treadmill in two experimental sessions in randomized order: continuously (70% sVO2max) and intermittently (1:1 min at sVO2max). Oxygen uptake, excess post-exercise oxygen consumption, lactate concentration, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion data were recorded during and after each session. The lactate levels exhibited higher values immediately post-exercise than at rest (High-Intensity: 1.43 ± 0.25 to 7.36 ± 2.78; Moderate-Intensity: 1.64 ± 1.01 to 4.05 ± 1.52 mmol⋅L−1, p = 0.0004), but High-Intensity promoted higher values (p = 0.001) than Moderate-Intensity. There was a difference across time on oxygen uptake at all moments tested in both groups (High-Intensity: 100.19 ± 8.15L; Moderate-Intensity: 88.35 ± 11.46, p < 0.001). Both exercise conditions promoted increases in excess postexercise oxygen consumption (High-Intensity: 6.61 ± 1.85 L; Moderate-Intensity: 5.32 ± 2.39 L, p < 0.005), but higher values were observed in the High-Intensity exercise protocol. High-Intensity was more effective at modifying the heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (High-Intensity: 183 ± 12.54 and 19; Moderate-Intensity: 172 ± 8.5 and 16, respectively, p < 0.05). In conclusion, over the same distance, Moderate-Intensity and High-Intensity exercise exhibited different lactate concentrations, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion. As expected, the metabolic contribution also differed, and High-Intensity induced higher energy expenditure, however, the total duration of the session may have to be taken into account. Moreover, when following moderate-intensity training, the percentage of sVO2max and the anaerobic threshold might influence exercise and training responses.

Key words

  • physiologic responses
  • energy expenditure
  • lactate concentration
  • high intensity intermittent exercise
  • acute exercise
  • excess post-exercise oxygen uptake
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The Effect of Previous Wingate Performance Using one Body Region on Subsequent Wingate Performance Using a Different Body Region

Data publikacji: 12 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 119 - 126

Abstrakt

Abstract

The 30 second Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) is the gold standard measure of anaerobic performance. The present investigation aimed to determine if a previous WAnT using one body region significantly affected a subsequent WAnT using a different body region. Twelve male university students (n = 12, 23 ± 2 years, 84 ± 16.1 kg, 178.5 ± 7.4 cm) volunteered to complete two repeated WAnT protocols (either lower body WAnT followed by an upper body WAnT or vice versa) on two separate testing occasions. The upper body WAnT was conducted on a modified electromagnetically braked cycle ergometer using a flywheel braking force corresponding to 5% bodyweight. The lower body WAnT was conducted on an electronically braked cycle ergometer using a flywheel braking force corresponding to 7.5% bodyweight. Participants had a 1 minute rest period for transition between WAnTs. Data are reported as mean ± standard deviation. No significant differences were identified in power indices for the lower body between 30 s WAnTs. When the upper body WAnT was performed 2nd, absolute peak power (p < 0.01), mean power (p < 0.001) and relative mean power (p < 0.001) were significantly lower compared to when the upper body WAnT was performed 1st. The value of maximum revolutions per minute was significantly lower (p < 0.001) when the upper body WAnT was performed after the lower body WAnT, compared to when it was performed 1st (193.3 ± 11.4 1st vs 179.8 ± 14.4 2nd). Previous upper body sprint exercise does not significantly affect lower body sprint exercise; however, previous lower body sprint exercise severely compromises subsequent upper body sprint performance.

Key words

  • repeated
  • WAnT
  • upper body
  • lower body
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Determination of Aerobic Performance in Youth Soccer Players: Effect of Direct And Indirect Methods

Data publikacji: 11 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 109 - 118

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study was conducted to correlate and compare values for variables determined in indirect tests with the values determined directly in youth soccer players. The study subjects were 27 youth soccer players (age 16.77 ± 0.75 years; body mass 63.29 ± 7.37 kg; body height 174.14 ± 8.46 cm) playing in the basic categories of a first division team at the regional level of Brazilian soccer. Each subject was evaluated with the following tests: a) a treadmill test to directly determine values of VO2max and Vamax (Treadmill); b) an indirect Shuttle Run Test (SRT); c) an indirect Carminatti’s test (TCar). VO2max showed significantly different values in the Treadmill and the SRT (59.21 ± 5.88 and 50.67 ± 3.58 ml⋅kg−1⋅min−1, respectively). Similarly, values obtained for VPeak in the treadmill test and for Vamax in TCar were different from values for SRT VPeak (15.01 ± 1.10, 14.92 ± 0.87 and 12.64 ± 0.62 km⋅h−1, respectively). A correlation analysis showed a moderate relationship between values for VPeak TCar and VO2max determined on a treadmill (r = 0.46) and Vamax determined on a treadmill (r = 0.54). The analysis also showed a high correlation between values of VO2max determined on the treadmill and VO2max evaluated in the SRT (r = 0.69), as well as VPeak determined in the SRT and VO2max tested on the treadmill (r = 0.71), as well as between VPeak determined in the SRT and VO2max evaluated on the treadmill (r = 0.77). We concluded that the SRT underestimated values of VO2max and Vamax. Additionally, VPeak TCar showed no difference compared to Vamax, although it did show a low correlation with it. In addition the SRT, even with high correlations, did not seem to be a great predictor of aerobic fitness in youth soccer players.

Key words

  • treadmill test
  • shuttle run test
  • Carminatti’s test
  • maximal oxygen uptake
  • youth soccer
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Plasma Actin, Gelsolin and Orosomucoid Levels after Eccentric Exercise

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 99 - 108

Abstrakt

Abstract

The present study investigated the acute effect of eccentric exercise on blood plasma actin, gelsolin (GSN) and orosomucoid (AGP) levels in untrained and moderately trained individuals, and their correlation with exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) markers (CK, intensity of muscle soreness and maximal voluntary contraction torque deficit). Healthy physical education students (6 untrained, 12 moderately trained) participated in this research. Actin, GSN, AGP and CK levels were measured in blood plasma at baseline, immediately, 1 h, 6 h and 24 h post-exercise comprising 90 eccentric quadriceps contractions performed on a dynamometer. There was significant time main effect for GSN, AGP, CK and significant difference was found between baseline and the lowest value of post-exercise GSN (p < 0.05), as well as baseline and the highest value of post-exercise AGP (p < 0.05). Relationships were found between GSN levels and other indirect EIMD markers (between all GSN levels at post-exercise and CK activity at 6 h, p < 0.05; GSNMIN and muscle soreness at post-exercise, p < 0.04), GSN and AGP; however, actin did not correlate at any time points with GSN. Actin, GSN, AGP and CK responses after eccentric exercise do not seem sensitive to training status. The plasma actin level is used as an indicator of injury, however, our results suggest that it is not an accurate marker of EIMD, while plasma GSN concentrations show a better relationship with EIMD and the post-exercise inflammatory process. The elevated plasma AGP and the correlation between GSN and AGP seem to be promising for assessment of exercise-induced muscle injury.

Key words

  • eccentric exercise
  • muscle damage
  • biomarker
  • actin
  • gelsolin
  • exercise
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Effects of Karate Fights on Achilles Tendon Stiffness Measured by Myotonometry

Data publikacji: 12 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 93 - 97

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of karate fights on Achilles tendon stiffness in karate competitors. Eleven male karate fighters participated in the present study. A handheld MyotonPRO device (MyotonPRO, Myoton Ltd, Estonia) was applied to measure Achilles tendon stiffness in karate fighters. The Achilles tendon was tested 5 cm above the tuber calcanei. Stiffness measurements were performed before and after eight sparring fights. Each fight lasted 2 min and was separated by a 2 min rest period. Achilles tendon stiffness for the dominant leg increased significantly from before fights (751.57 ± 123.493 N/m) to immediately after fights (809.43 ± 160.425 N/m) (p = 0.012). Presented results should be used by strength and conditioning coaches in training programs as a way to decrease the risk of injury.

Key words

  • tendon stiffness
  • karate
  • myotonometry
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Low-Carbohydrate-High-Fat Diet: Can it Help Exercise Performance?

Data publikacji: 12 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 81 - 92

Abstrakt

Abstract

Low-carbohydrate-high-fat (LCHF) diets have been used as a means of weight loss and control of symptoms in several clinical conditions. There is emerging evidence that the metabolic changes induced by LCHF diets enhance endurance performance. The aims of this review are to examine the evidence of LCHF diets in improving various aspects of athletic performance. Long-term LCHF dietary intake may help control body weight and fat mass while maintaining lean body mass in athletes in weight-sensitive sports. LCHF-adapted endurance athletes can reach the maximal fat oxidation rate of approximately 1.5 g/min, with a lower carbohydrate oxidation rate and similar muscle glycogen content and a resynthesis rate compared to their counterparts consuming high-carbohydrate-low-fat (HCLF) diets. The elevated fat oxidation rate and glycogen sparing effect may improve performance in ultra-endurance events. These metabolic changes may also prevent the decline in performance in later stages of repeated high-intensity movements, in which the aerobic metabolism becomes more important. However, elevated blood concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids and ammonia during exercise after LCHF diets may lead to early development of central fatigue. It appears that at least several months of adaptation to a LCHF diet are required for the metabolic changes and restoration of muscle glycogen to occur. Further investigations on LCHF diets are needed regarding (1) performance after weight loss in weight-categorized sports; (2) repeated high-intensity exercise performance; (3) development of central fatigue during endurance events; (4) perceptual-motor performance during prolonged intermittent sports; and (5) ideal dietary fatty acid compositions.

Key words

  • ketogenic diet
  • substrate metabolism
  • endurance exercise
  • repeated high-intensity exercise
  • central fatigue
  • perceptual-motor performance
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Adequacy of the Ultra-Short-Term HRV to Assess Adaptive Processes in Youth Female Basketball Players

Data publikacji: 12 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 73 - 80

Abstrakt

Abstract

Heart rate variability has been widely used to monitor athletes’ cardiac autonomic control changes induced by training and competition, and recently shorter recording times have been sought to improve its practicality. The aim of this study was to test the agreement between the (ultra-short-term) natural log of the root-mean-square difference of successive normal RR intervals (lnRMSSD - measured in only 1 min post-1 min stabilization) and the criterion lnRMSSD (measured in the last 5 min out of 10 min of recording) in young female basketball players. Furthermore, the correlation between training induced delta change in the ultra-short-term lnRMSSD and the criterion lnRMSSD was calculated. Seventeen players were assessed at rest pre- and post-eight weeks of training. Trivial effect sizes (-0.03 in the pre- and 0.10 in the post- treatment) were found in the comparison between the ultra-short-term lnRMSSD (3.29 ± 0.45 and 3.49 ± 0.35 ms, in the pre- and post-, respectively) and the criterion lnRMSSD (3.30 ± 0.40 and 3.45 ± 0.41 ms, in the pre- and post-, respectively) (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.95 and 0.93). In both cases, the response to training was significant, with Pearson’s correlation of 0.82 between the delta changes of the ultra-short-term lnRMSSD and the criterion lnRMSSD. In conclusion, the lnRMSSD can be calculated within only 2 min of data acquisition (the 1st min discarded) in young female basketball players, with the ultra-short-term measure presenting similar sensitivity to training effects as the standard criterion measure.

Key words

  • team sports
  • youth athletes
  • body position
  • vagal activity
  • court sports

Section III – Sports Training

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Lower Leg Length is Associated with Running Economy in High Level Caucasian Distance Runners

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 229 - 239

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate lower limb anthropometric and composition variables related to running economy (RE) and running performance in a homogeneous group of high level European distance runners. RE at the speeds of 14, 16 and 18 km·h−1 (189 ± 12; 188 ± 11; 187 ± 11 O2 ml·kg−1·km−1) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) (67.3 ± 2.9 ml·kg−1·min−1) of 13 high level distance runners were determined on a motorised treadmill. Anthropometric variables and body composition were measured. The BMI was related to RE at the speed of 14 (r2 = 0.434; p = 0.014), 16 (r2 = 0.436; p = 0.014) and 18 km·h−1 (r2 = 0.389; p = 0.023). Lower leg length was negatively related to RE at the speed of 16 and showed such a tendency at the speed of 14 and 18 km·h−1. VO2max indicated a moderate relationship with RE at the speeds of 14, 16 and 18 km·h−1 (r2 = 0.372, p = 0.030; r2 = 0.350, p = 0.033; r2 = 0.376, p = 0.026, respectively) which was confirmed by subsequent partial correlation analysis. While lower leg length and the BMI presented a relationship with RE, none of the calculated body composition and anthropometric proportions were related to RE or performance. The relationship between RE and VO2max would confirm the notion that RE could be at least partly compensated by VO2max to achieve high performance results.

Key words

  • running economy
  • maximal oxygen uptake
  • running performance
  • anthropometric characteristics
  • body composition
  • DEXA scan
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Reliability and Validity of a New Test of Agility and Skill for Female Amateur Soccer Players

Data publikacji: 12 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 219 - 227

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the Agility and Skill Test, which had been recently developed to assess agility and skill in female athletes. Following a 10 min warm-up, two trials to test the reliability and validity of the test were conducted one week apart. Measurements were collected to compare soccer players’ physical performance in a 20 m sprint, a T-Drill test, the Illinois Agility Run Test, change-of-direction and acceleration, as well as agility and skill. All tests were completed following the same order. Thirty-four amateur female soccer players were recruited (age = 20.8 ± 1.9 years; body height = 166 ± 6.9 cm; body mass = 55.5 ± 5.8 kg). To determine the reliability and usefulness of these tests, paired sample t-tests, intra-class correlation coefficients, typical error, coefficient of variation, and differences between the typical error and smallest worthwhile change statistics were computed. Test results showed no significant differences between the two sessions (p > 0.01). There were higher intra-class correlations between the test and retest values (r = 0.94–0.99) for all tests. Typical error values were below the smallest worthwhile change, indicating ‘good’ usefulness for these tests. A near perfect Pearson correlation between the Agility and Skill Test (r = 0.98) was found, and there were moderate-to-large levels of correlation between the Agility and Skill Test and other measures (r = 0.37 to r = 0.56). The results of this study suggest that the Agility and Skill Test is a reliable and valid test for female soccer players and has significant value for assessing the integrative agility and skill capability of soccer players.

Key words

  • agility and skill test
  • ability
  • change direction
  • female soccer fitness test
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Factors Determining Success in Youth Judokas

Data publikacji: 12 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 207 - 217

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare two models of determining factors for success in judo. The first model (Model A) included testing motor abilities of high-level Croatian judokas in the cadet age category. The sample in Model A consisted of 71 male and female judokas aged 16 ± 0.6 years who were divided into four subsamples according to sex and weight category. The second model (Model B) consisted of interviewing 40 top-level judo experts on the importance of motor abilities for cadets’ success in judo. According to Model A, the greatest impact on the criterion variable of success in males and females of heavier weight categories were variables assessing maximum strength, coordination and jumping ability. In the lighter weight male categories, the highest correlation with the criterion variable of success was the variable assessing agility. However, in the lighter weight female categories, the greatest impact on success had the variable assessing muscular endurance. In Model B, specific endurance was crucial for success in judo, while flexibility was the least important, regardless of sex and weight category. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients showed that there were no significant correlations in the results obtained in Models A and B for all observed subsamples. Although no significant correlations between the factors for success obtained through Models A and B were found, common determinants of success, regardless of the applied model, were identified.

Key words

  • motor abilities
  • sex
  • weight categories
  • questionnaire
  • combat sports
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Frequent Immediate Knowledge of Results Enhances the Increase of Throwing Velocity in Overarm Handball Performance

Data publikacji: 12 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 197 - 205

Abstrakt

Abstract

In the present study, the effect of frequent, immediate, augmented feedback on the increase of throwing velocity was investigated. An increase of throwing velocity of a handball set shot when knowledge of results was provided or not provided during training was compared. Fifty female and seventy-three male physical education students were assigned randomly to the experimental or control group. All participants performed two series of ten set shots with maximal effort twice a week for six weeks. The experimental group received information regarding throwing velocity measured by a radar gun immediately after every shot, whereas the control group did not receive any feedback. Measurements of maximal throwing velocity of an ordinary handball and a heavy ball were performed, before and after the training period and compared. Participants who received feedback on results attained almost a four times greater relative increase of the velocity of the normal ball (size 2) as compared to the same intervention when feedback was not provided (8.1 ± 3.6 vs. 2.7 ± 2.9%). The velocity increases were smaller, but still significant between the groups for throws using the heavy ball (5.1 ± 4.2 and 2.5 ± 5.8 for the experimental and control group, respectively). Apart from the experimental group throwing the normal ball, no differences in velocity change for gender were obtained. The results confirmed that training oriented towards an increase in throwing velocity became significantly more effective when frequent knowledge of results was provided.

Key words

  • overarm throw
  • augmented feedback
  • team handball
  • set shot
  • ball velocity
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Analysis of Motor Activities of Professional Soccer Players during the 2014 World Cup in Brazil

Data publikacji: 12 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 187 - 195

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to analyze motor activities of soccer players in seven consecutive rounds of matches of the 2014 World Cup in Brazil and to compare the performance of the world champions, the German national team with other participating teams. The study sample comprised 905 observations of 340 soccer players, who played full-time matches in all seven rounds of the tournament. The study was conducted using data collected from the Castrol Performance Index, a kinematic game analysis system that records movements of players with semi-automatic cameras. The following variables were analyzed: total distance covered, the percentage of total distance covered at high intensity, the number of sprints, frequency of sprints and peak running speed. A statistically significant increase (p ≤ 0.01) was noted in total distance covered, the percentage of distance covered at high intensity and total number of sprints, between the quarter-finals and semi-finals of the World Cup tournament in Brazil. The German national team covered a significantly longer total distance (p ≤ 0.05) and had a greater percentage of distance covered at high intensity (p ≤ 0.001) than players from other teams. The obtained results point to the necessity of development of players’ aerobic endurance and speed-endurance abilities while preparing for top-level soccer tournaments. Winning a soccer championship requires players to run longer mean total distances and longer distances at high intensity during a single match.

Key words

  • match analysis
  • group stage
  • knockout stage
  • distance covered
  • sprints
  • World Champion
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Effect of Core Training on Male Handball Players’ Throwing Velocity

Data publikacji: 12 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 177 - 185

Abstrakt

Abstract

In handball, throwing velocity is considered to be one of the essential factors in achieving the ultimate aim of scoring a goal. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effect of a core training program on throwing velocity in 30 handball players (age 18.7 ± 3.4 years, body height 179.3 ± 7.0 cm, body mass 78.9 ± 7.7 kg), 16 of whom were in the junior category and 14 of whom were in the senior category. The 30 players were randomly divided into two groups, the control group (n = 15) and the experimental group (n = 15). For a period of ten weeks, both groups attended their regular handball training sessions (four per week), but in addition, the experimental group participated in a program specifically aimed at progressively strengthening the lumbo-pelvic region and consisting of seven exercises performed after the general warm-up in each regular session. Pre- and post-tests were carried out to analyze each player’s throwing velocity from different throwing positions and thus assess the effects of this specific training program. Statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in throwing velocity were observed between the experimental group, which presented a percentage improvement of 4.5%, and the control group, which did not show any improvement. The results seem to indicate that an increase in the strength and stability of the lumbo-pelvic region can contribute to an improvement in the kinetic chain of the specific movement of throwing in handball, thus, increasing throwing velocity.

Key words

  • Lumbo-pelvic region
  • team sports
  • performance factors
  • kinetic chain
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Can Different Complex Training Improve the Individual Phenomenon of Post-Activation Potentiation?

Data publikacji: 12 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 167 - 175

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aims of the present study were (a) to determine whether the two types of complex training and vibration complex training would improve the individual phenomenon of post-activation potentiation (PAP) for every athlete in a team setting; and (b) to compare the acute effect of resistance and plyometric exercise, whole body vibration, complex training and vibration complex training on vertical jump performance. The participants were ten male division I college volleyball and basketball players. They were asked to perform three vertical jumps as a pre-test and were then randomly assigned to one of five PAP protocols, resistance exercise using half squat exercise, plyometric exercise using drop jumps with individualized drop height, whole body vibration using squats on a vibration plate, complex training combining resistance exercise with plyometric exercise, vibration complex training combining whole body vibration with plyometric exercise. Three vertical jumps were performed four minutes after the PAP protocol as a post-test. A two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to examine the differences among the five PAP protocols and between the two testing times. Our results showed that the post-test results were significantly improved compared to the pre-test for the vertical jump height (p = .015) in all PAP protocols. There was, however, an individual phenomenon of PAP in the response to all PAP protocols. In conclusion, this study found that resistance and plyometric exercise, whole body vibration, complex training and vibration complex training induce similar group PAP benefits. However, some athletes decreased their performances in some of the exercises in the study. Therefore, it is not recommended for coaches to arrange the exercises in a team setting.

Key words

  • plyometric exercise
  • resistance exercise
  • whole body vibration
  • warm-up
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Effects of the off-Season Period on Field and Assistant Soccer Referees `Physical Performance

Data publikacji: 12 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 159 - 166

Abstrakt

Abstract

The evolution of referees’ physical fitness has been studied over one or several seasons, however, the variation of the physical performance between the end of the competitive season (T1) and the start of the following pre-season (T2) has not been ascertained. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the transition period on physical performance variables (i.e. linear straight sprint, change of direction ability and endurance) in National Soccer Division referees. Forty-five Spanish referees volunteered to participate in this study. Participants were classified according to competitive status, field referees (FR, n = 23) and assistant referees (AR, n = 22). A loss of performance (p < 0.05) was observed in the 20 and 30 m linear straight sprint between T1 and T2 in both FR (1.64-1.56%, d = 0.29 to 0.32) and AR (2.01-3.41%, d = 0.33 to 0.60). In T2 the FR significantly improved the distance covered (p < 0.05, 13.11%, d = 0.39) in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test (YYIR1). Besides, significant differences were observed between FR and AR in the distance covered (p < 0.05, −23.55%, d = −0.97) in the YYIR1 test in T2. More research may be necessary to focus on the off-season period in order to implement specific training programs and consequently reduce the loss of sprint ability in field and assistant referees and the decrease in cardiovascular fitness in assistant referees.

Key words

  • detraining
  • acceleration
  • change of direction
  • endurance
  • physical fitness
  • soccer
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The Effect of Acute and Chronic Exposure to Hypobaric Hypoxia on Loaded Squat Jump Performance

Data publikacji: 11 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 149 - 158

Abstrakt

Abstract

The present study aimed (1) to compare loaded squat jump performance after an acute and chronic exposure to a moderate natural altitude between normoxia and hypobaric hypoxia conditions, and (2) to analyze the effect of an altitude training camp on loaded jump squat development. Sixteen male swimmers (17.1 ± 0.8 years) took part in a 17-day training camp at a natural moderate altitude. They were randomly tested in counterbalanced order on days 1 and 3 in normoxia and hypoxia (pretest) and on days 15 and 17 again in normoxia and hypoxia (posttest). The peak velocity reached with loads equivalent to 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of swimmers’ pretest body weight in the loaded squat jump exercise was the dependent variable analyzed. An overall increase in peak velocity during the test performed in hypoxia of 6.5% in pretest (p < 0.001, ES = 0.98) and 4.5% in posttest (p < 0.001, ES = 0.81) was observed. An overall increment in peak velocity of 4.0% considering the data for normoxia tests (p < 0.001, ES = 0.61) and 2.1% considering the data for hypoxia tests (p = 0.008, ES = 0.36) was achieved after the altitude training camp. These results highlight the beneficial effects of hypobaric hypoxia on jump performance after short and longer term exposure to a natural moderate altitude. The increase in loaded squat jump performance following the 17-day training camp suggests that altitude training could constitute a favorable stimulus in explosive strength.

Key words

  • altitude training
  • lower-limb muscular power
  • linear velocity transducer
  • swimmers

Erratum

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Erratum

Data publikacji: 12 Feb 2017
Zakres stron: 1 - 1

Abstrakt

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