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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1899-7562
Pierwsze wydanie
13 Jan 2009
Częstotliwość wydawania
5 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 48 (2015): Zeszyt 1 (December 2015)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1899-7562
Pierwsze wydanie
13 Jan 2009
Częstotliwość wydawania
5 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

18 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Sport and Disabled Individuals – Theory and Practice

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2015
Zakres stron: 5 - 6

Abstrakt

Otwarty dostęp

Medical Care Before and During the Winter Paralympic Games in Turin 2006, Vancouver 2010 and Sochi 2014

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2015
Zakres stron: 7 - 16

Abstrakt

Abstract

Medical care in disabled sports is crucial both as prophylaxis and as ongoing medical intervention. The aim of this paper was to present changes in the quality of medical care over the consecutive Paralympic Games (PG). The study encompassed 31 paralympians: Turin (11), Vancouver (12), and Sochi (8) competing in cross-country skiing, alpine skiing, biathlon and snowboarding. The first, questionnaire-based, part of the study was conducted in Poland before the PG. The athletes assessed the quality of care provided by physicians, physiologists, dieticians, and physiotherapists, as well as their cooperation with the massage therapist and the psychologist. The other part of the study concerned the athletes’ health before leaving for the PG, as well as their diseases and injuries during the PG. The quality of medical care was poor before the 2006 PG, but satisfactory before the subsequent PG. Only few athletes made use of psychological support, assessing it as poor before the 2006 PG and satisfactory before the 2010 and 2014 PG. The athletes’ health condition was good during all PG. The health status of cross-country skiers was confirmed by a medical fitness certificate before all PG, while that of alpine skiers only before the 2014 PG. There were no serious diseases; training injuries precluded two athletes from participation. The quality of medical care before the PG was poor, however, became satisfactory during the actual PG. The resulting ad hoc pattern deviates from the accepted standards in medical care in disabled sports.

Słowa kluczowe

  • disabled sports
  • paralympic sports
  • quality of care
  • diseases
  • injuries
Otwarty dostęp

Atlanto-Axial Instability in People with Down’s Syndrome and its Impact on the Ability to Perform Sports Activities – A Review

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2015
Zakres stron: 17 - 24

Abstrakt

Abstract

Atlanto-axial instability (AAI) is a developmental anomaly often occurring in persons with Down’s syndrome (DS). According to various reports, AAI affects from 6.8 to 27% of the population with DS. The aim of this review was to illustrate the issue of AAI with regard to the progressively changing state of scientific knowledge. The extended distance between the rear surface of the frontal arcus of the C1 cervical vertebra and the anterior surface of C2 cervical vertebra dens (anterior atlanto-odontoid distance, AAOD) indicates the occurrence of AAI and is detectable through X-ray examination. Hypoplasia of the C2 dens, also detectable through X-ray examination, is another suggested risk factor for AAI. According to current data, the methodology of taking measurements is inconsistent, which leads to errors in interpretation. As research focusing on AAI was progressing, new data emerged from other studies on persons with DS, suggesting that neurological symptoms in persons with DS that indicated the occurrence of spinal cord compression were an important factor in medical imaging detection of AAI. One of the main arguments supporting this thesis is that in isolated cases spinal cord (SC) damage was noted during screening examinations conducted on a large population of subjects. Moreover, cases in which the neurological symptoms indicate spinal cord compression existed long before the occurrence of the actual damage also remain of significant importance. Therefore, it is necessary to promote neurological studies on persons with DS to enable early diagnosis of spinal cord compression and, at the same time, reduce the use of medical imaging in cases of neurological symptoms.

Słowa kluczowe

  • atlanto-axial instability
  • Down’s syndrome
  • spinal cord compression
  • medical imaging
Otwarty dostęp

Relationships Between Anaerobic Performance, Field Tests and Game Performance of Sitting Volleyball Players

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2015
Zakres stron: 25 - 32

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate relationships between anaerobic performance, field tests, game performance and anthropometric variables of sitting volleyball players. Twenty elite Polish sitting volleyball players were tested using the 30 s Wingate Anaerobic Test for arm crank ergometer and participated in six physical field tests. Heights in position to block and to spike, as well as arm reach were measured. Players were observed during the game on the court in terms of effectiveness of the serve, block, attack, receive and defense. Pearson analysis and the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were used. The strongest correlations were found between the chest pass test and mean power and peak power (r=.846; p=.001 and r=.708; p=.0005, respectively), and also between the T-test and peak power (r= −.718; p=.001). Mean power correlated with the 3 m test (r= −.540; p=.014), the 5 m test (r= −.592; p=.006), and the T-test (r= −.582; p=.007). Peak power correlated with the 3 m test (r= −.632; p=.003), the 5 m test (r= −.613; p=.004), speed & agility (r= −.552; p=.012) and speed & endurance (r=−.546; p=.013). Significant correlations were observed between anthropometric parameters and anaerobic performance variables (p≤.001), and also between anthropometric parameters and field tests (p≤.05). Game performance and physical fitness of sitting volleyball players depended on their anthropometric variables: reach of arms, the position to block and to spike. The chest pass test could be used as a non-laboratory field test of anaerobic performance of sitting volleyball players.

Słowa kluczowe

  • disability sport
  • physical fitness
Otwarty dostęp

Kinetic and Kinematic Differences in a Golf Swing in One and Both Lower Limb Amputees

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2015
Zakres stron: 33 - 41

Abstrakt

Abstract

Amputee golfers need to cope with the absence of sole proprioception, a decreased range of swing motion and other factors which should be recognized for training purposes. The aim of this study was to determine the kinetic and kinematic differences in the golf swing in one leg and two legs amputees. The participants consisted of two males and one female at a professional or amateur level with a different degree of disability. Each participant was taped by 3D markers and performed five golf swings with the iron 6. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) did not vary between individuals in kinematics, however, it was low in kinetic variables of two leg amputees. The Kendal rank correlation showed a significant relationship between the level of amputation and a large number of kinetic and kinematic variables such as X factor, O factor, S factor and individual body angles. The fluency and similarity of the golf swing did not depend on the level of amputation. One lower limb amputation did not seem to increase movement variability contrary to two lower limb amputation. The most variable parameter was a weight-shift in all golfers. The takeaway and horizontal force angle depended on the level of amputation rather than individual technique, thus, their modification by training may be difficult. Estimation of golf swing „mistakes“ in amputees in respect to the leading arm in an early follow or late follow position appeared to be useless.

Słowa kluczowe

  • golf swing
  • lower limb amputee
  • handicap
  • X factor
  • S factor
  • O factor
  • disability
Otwarty dostęp

Game Performance Evaluation in Male Goalball Players

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2015
Zakres stron: 43 - 51

Abstrakt

Abstract

Goalball is a Paralympic sport exclusively for athletes who are visually impaired and blind. The aims of this study were twofold: to describe game performance of elite male goalball players based upon the degree of visual impairment, and to determine if game performance was related to anthropometric characteristics of elite male goalball players. The study sample consisted of 44 male goalball athletes. A total of 38 games were recorded during the Summer Paralympic Games in London 2012. Observations were reported using the Game Efficiency Sheet for Goalball. Additional anthropometric measurements included body mass (kg), body height (cm), the arm span (cm) and length of the body in the defensive position (cm). The results differentiating both groups showed that the players with total blindness obtained higher means than the players with visual impairment for game indicators such as the sum of defense (p = 0.03) and the sum of good defense (p = 0.04). The players with visual impairment obtained higher results than those with total blindness for attack efficiency (p = 0.04), the sum of penalty defenses (p = 0.01), and fouls (p = 0.01). The study showed that athletes with blindness demonstrated higher game performance in defence. However, athletes with visual impairment presented higher efficiency in offensive actions. The analyses confirmed that body mass, body height, the arm span and length of the body in the defensive position did not differentiate players’ performance at the elite level.

Słowa kluczowe

  • visual impairment
  • disability sport
Otwarty dostęp

Electromyographic Analysis of the Hip Extension Pattern in Visually Impaired Athletes

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2015
Zakres stron: 53 - 61

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine the order of muscle recruitment during the active hip joint extension in particular positions in young visually impaired athletes. The average recruitment time (ART) of the gluteus maximus (GM) and the hamstring muscle group (HMG) was assessed by the means of surface electromyography (sEMG). The sequence of muscle recruitment in the female and male group was also taken into consideration. This study followed a prospective, cross – sectional, randomised design, where 76 visually impaired athletes between the age of 18–25 years were enrolled into the research and selected on chosen inclusion and exclusion criteria. Finally, 64 young subjects (32 men and 32 women) were included in the study (age: 21.1 ± 1.05 years; body mass: 68.4 ± 12.4 kg; body height: 1.74 ± 0.09 m; BMI: 22.20 ± 2.25 kg/m2). All subjects were analysed for the ART of the GM and HMG during the active hip extension performed in two different positions, as well as resting and functional sEMG activity of each muscle. Between gender differences were comprised and the correlations between the ART of the GM and HMG with their functional sEMG activity during hip extension in both positions were shown. No significant differences between the ART of the GM and HMG were found (p>0.05). Furthermore, there was no significant difference of ART among both tested positions, as well in male as female subjects (p>0.05).

Słowa kluczowe

  • visually impaired athletes
  • movement pattern
  • hip extension
  • muscle recruitment time
  • surface electromyography
Otwarty dostęp

Laboratory and Field-Based Evaluation of Short-Term Effort with Maximal Intensity in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2015
Zakres stron: 63 - 70

Abstrakt

Abstract

Results of previous studies have not indicated clearly which tests should be used to assess short-term efforts of people with intellectual disabilities. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate laboratory and field-based tests of short-term effort with maximal intensity of subjects with intellectual disabilities. Twenty four people with intellectual disability, who trained soccer, participated in this study. The 30 s Wingate test and additionally an 8 s test with maximum intensity were performed on a bicycle ergometer. The fatigue index, maximal and mean power, relative maximal and relative mean power were measured. Overall, nine field-based tests were conducted: 5, 10 and 20 m sprints, a 20 m shuttle run, a seated medicine ball throw, a bent arm hang test, a standing broad jump, sit-ups and a hand grip test. The reliability of the 30 s and 8 s Wingate tests for subjects with intellectual disability was confirmed. Significant correlation was observed for mean power between the 30 s and 8 s tests on the bicycle ergometer at a moderate level (r >0.4). Moreover, significant correlations were indicated between the results of laboratory tests and field tests, such as the 20 m sprint, the 20 m shuttle run, the standing long jump and the medicine ball throw. The strongest correlation was in the medicine ball throw. The 30 s Wingate test is a reliable test assessing maximal effort in subjects with intellectual disability. The results of this research confirmed that the 8 s test on a bicycle ergometer had a moderate correlation with the 30 s Wingate test in this population, thus, this comparison needs further investigation to examine alternativeness of the 8 s to 30 s Wingate tests. The non-laboratory tests could be used to indirectly assess performance in short-term efforts with maximal intensity.

Słowa kluczowe

  • anaerobic performance
  • physical fitness
  • intellectual disability
  • Wingate test
Otwarty dostęp

Effects of Krankcycle Training on Performance and Body Composition in Wheelchair Users

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2015
Zakres stron: 71 - 78

Abstrakt

Abstract

Innovation in training equipment is important for increasing training effectiveness, performance and changes in body composition, especially in wheelchair users with paraplegia. The main objective of a workout session is to induce an adaptation stimulus, which requires overload of involved muscles by voluntary effort, yet this overload may be highly influenced by the size of the spinal cord lesion. Krancykl construction is designed to allow exercise on any wheelchair and with adjustable height or width of crank handles, where even the grip handle may be altered. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in body composition, performance and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) in paraplegics with a different level of paralyses after a 12 week training programme of a unilateral regime on Krankcycle equipment (a crank machine). The study sample included four men and one women at a different spine lesion level. The 12 weeks programme was successfully completed by four participants, while one subject got injured during the intervention process. Three participants were paraplegics and one was quadriplegic with innervation of the biceps humeri, triceps humeri and deltoideus. The Krankcycle 30 min programme was followed by four other exercises, which were performed after themselves rather than in a circuit training manner as the latter would result in much longer rest periods between exercises, because paraplegics have to be fixed by straps during exercise on hydraulic machines. The RPE after the workout decreased following the twelve week adaptation period.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Krankcycle
  • wheelchair user
  • paraplegia
  • body composition
  • training methods
Otwarty dostęp

Sexuality of Disabled Athletes Depending on the Form of Locomotion

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2015
Zakres stron: 79 - 86

Abstrakt

Abstract

The main purpose of this study was to determine sexuality of disabled athletes depending on the form of locomotion. The study included 170 disabled athletes, aged between 18 and 45. The entire population was divided into 3 research groups depending on the form of locomotion: moving on wheelchairs (n=52), on crutches (n=29) and unaided (n=89). The research tool was a questionnaire voluntarily and anonymously completed by the respondents of the research groups. The questionnaire was composed of a general part concerning the socio-demographic conditions, medical history, health problems, a part dedicated to physical disability as well as the Polish version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) evaluating sexual life. STATISTICA 10.0 for Windows was used in the statistical analysis. Subjects moving on crutches were significantly older than ones moving on wheelchairs and unaided (34.41 ±11.00 vs. 30.49 ±10.44 and 27.99 ±10.51 years, respectively) (p=0.018). Clinically significant erectile dysfunctions were most often diagnosed in athletes moving on wheelchairs (70.27%), followed by athletes moving on crutches and moving unaided (60% and 35.42%, respectively; p=0.048). Clinical sexual dysfunctions were diagnosed on a similar level among all female athletes. It was concluded that the form of locomotion may determine sexuality of disabled men. Males on wheelchair revealed the worst sexual functioning. Female athletes moving on wheelchairs, on crutches and moving unaided were comparable in the aspect of their sexual life.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Paralympic games
  • paralympians
  • physical activity
  • sexual functioning
Otwarty dostęp

Visual Impairment does not Limit Training Effects in Development of Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity in Tandem Cyclists

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2015
Zakres stron: 87 - 97

Abstrakt

Abstract

The study aimed to investigate the differences in the effects of 7-month training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity in tandem cycling athletes with and without visual impairment. In this study, Polish elite (n=13) and sub-elite (n=13) visually impaired (VI) (n=13; 40.8 ±12.8 years) and properly sighted (PS) (n=13; 36.7 ±12.2 years) tandem-cycling athletes participated voluntarily in 7-month routine training. The following pre-/post-training measurements were conducted on separate days: maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was estimated with age correction using the Physical Working Capacity test on a bicycle ergometer according to the Astrand-Ryhming method. Maximal power output (Pmax) was evaluated using the Quebec test on a bicycle ergometer. At baseline, VO2max (47.8 ±14.1 vs 42.0 ±8.3 ml/kg/min, respectively) and Pmax (11.5 ±1.5 vs 11.5 ±1.0 W/kg) did not differ significantly between PS and VI cyclists. However, differences in aerobic capacity were considered as clinically significant. Two-way ANOVA revealed that after 7 month training, there were statistically significant increases in VO2max (p=0.003) and Pmax (p=0.009) among VI (VO2max, +9.1%; Pmax, +6.3%) and PS (VO2max, +9.1%; Pmax, +11.7%) cyclists, however, no time x visual impairment interaction effect was found (VO2max, p=0.467; Pmax, p=0.364). After training, VO2max (p=0.03), but not Pmax (p=0.13), was significantly greater in elite compared to sub-elite tandem cyclists. VI and PS tandem cyclists showed similar rates of improvement in VO2max and Pmax after 7-month training. VO2max was a significant determinant of success in tandem cycling. This is one of the first studies providing reference values for aerobic and anaerobic capacity in visually impaired cyclists.

Słowa kluczowe

  • adults
  • athletes
  • cycling
  • exercise
  • fitness test
  • physiological profile
Otwarty dostęp

Balance Functional Assessment in People with Visual Impairment

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2015
Zakres stron: 99 - 109

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aims of this study were twofold: to assess the level of balance of people with visual impairment against the BOT-2 standard scores for the able-bodied, and to identify in which trials subjects had the greatest difficulties in maintaining balance with respect to the degree of vision loss and age categories. One hundred twenty-seven subjects with visual impairment aged 6-16 years, participated in the study (68 girls and 59 boys). The division for partially sighted people (61) and the blind (66) was made according to the WHO classification. Functional balance assessment was made using a balance subtest from the Bruininks-Oseretsky test. Significant relationships were noticed between age and the level of balance (χ2 = 8.35 p <0,05), as well as between the degree of vision loss and the level of balance (χ2 = 24.53 p <0,001). The level of balance of almost all blind subjects was below (20%) or well-below (60%) the average for the able-bodied. The subjects’ ability to maintain balance was not dependent on gender and was associated primarily with the degree of visual impairment and age. Partially sighted people had better balance than the blind and the decrease in visual acuity resulted in reduction of balance skills. The lowest level of balance was observed in blind students aged 7-11 years. Elaborating physical fitness improvement programs for children and adolescents with visual impairment, diversity of age, the degree of vision loss and limitations of ablility to maintain balance should be taken into account.

Słowa kluczowe

  • body balance
  • people with visual impairment
  • functional tests
Otwarty dostęp

Standards of Conditions During Preparations for the Summer Paralympic Games Between 2004 and 2012 Assessed by Polish Athletes

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2015
Zakres stron: 111 - 121

Abstrakt

Abstract

The quality of training conditions affects sporting success, injuries and health. The aim of the work was to present the conditions during the preparations of Polish athletes for the Summer Paralympic Games 2004-2012. The study encompassed 271 paralympians: Athens (91), Beijing (89) and London (91), competing in 13 disciplines. The research was based on a two-part questionnaire by Kłodecka-Różalska adjusted for disabled sports, and was conducted one month before each PG. Part 1 contained 20 closed-ended questions regarding conditions during preparations, while Part 2 concerned socio-demographic and sports-related data. Three levels of conditions: good, satisfactory and poor, were identified. The analysis showed that while the relationships between the athletes were good in all the preparatory periods, the co-operation with the paralympic coaches worsened. The standards of accommodation, food and sports facilities lowered. Personal orthopaedic supply was satisfactory in London; personal sporting equipment was good at all PG. The quality of medical care was the highest in London. The co-operation with physicians, physiotherapists and massage therapists was satisfactory. Consultations with the dietician were sporadic and assessed as poor. Psychological consultations were rare but satisfactory in Beijing and London. Contacts with the mass media were poor at all PG. Although combining private life, work, and education with sport was satisfactory, it was increasingly difficult to manage, particularly before London. The conditions during preparations for the PG 2004-2012 varied. Improvement was noticed only in the quality of medical care and personal orthopaedic supply.

Słowa kluczowe

  • disabled sports
  • preparation for competition
  • paralympians
Otwarty dostęp

Sports Injuries in Wheelchair Rugby – A Pilot Study

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2015
Zakres stron: 123 - 132

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to analyze etiology and the incidence of sports injuries among wheelchair rugby players. Moreover, we verified if the levels of aggressiveness and anger presented by the athletes and their roles in the team influenced the incidence and severity of the injuries. The study involved 14 male players, members of the Polish National Wheelchair Rugby Team. During a 9-month period, the athletes participated in up to 9 training camps and 4 Wheelchair Rugby tournaments. The study was based on the Competitive Aggressiveness and Anger Scale, registry of sports injuries consulted and non-consulted with a physician and a demographic questionnaire. The following observations were made during the 9-month period corresponding to a mean of 25 training and tournament days: 1) wheelchair rugby players experienced primarily minor injuries (n=102) that did not require a medical intervention, 2) only four injuries needed to be consulted by a physician, 3) sports injuries occurred more frequently among offensive players than in defensive players, 4) offensive players showed a tendency to higher levels of anger and aggressiveness than defensive players. It can be concluded that wheelchair rugby is a discipline associated with a high incidence of minor injuries that do not require a medical intervention. The incidence rate of injuries during the analyzed period was 0.3 per athlete per training day.

Słowa kluczowe

  • tetraplegia
  • team sports
  • disability
Otwarty dostęp

Hand Grip Strength Vs. Sprint Effectiveness in Amputee Soccer Players

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2015
Zakres stron: 133 - 139

Abstrakt

Abstract

Amputee soccer is one of the types of soccer designed for the disabled, especially those who have undergone amputations, as well as those with extremity dysfunction. The objective of the study was to find the relationship between hand grip strength and sprint time in amputee soccer players. Thirteen field amputee soccer players participated in the study. A SAEHAN hydraulic hand dynamometer manufactured by Jamar was used for hand grip strength measurements. The sprint running test was conducted over a distance of 30 m. The Fusion Smart Speed System was employed for running time measurements. No statistically significant relationships were found between hand grip strength of the left or right hand, and sprint times over 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 m. Analysis of the running velocity curve of the subjects showed an interesting profile characterized by a 15 meter-long acceleration phase and a significant velocity increase over a distance of 20 – 25 m. The study suggests that there is no relationship between hand grip strength and sprint effectiveness in amputee soccer players. The specificity of locomotion with the use of elbow crutches among elite Polish amputee soccer players probably accounts for the profile of the sprint velocity curve. Extension of the acceleration phase in the sprint run and a velocity increase in the subsequent part of the run were observed.

Słowa kluczowe

  • amputee athletes
  • running velocity
  • soccer
Otwarty dostęp

Evaluation of Lipid Metabolism and Nutritional Status in Male Goalball Players

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2015
Zakres stron: 141 - 147

Abstrakt

Abstract

Lipid disorders, obesity and overweight are considered one of the most important modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. Population surveys carried out in Poland have demonstrated a tendency for lipid disorders to occur in 70% and overweight and obesity in more than half of Poles. No such studies have been conducted in groups of people with vision impairment so far. Yet, regular involvement of visually impaired people in sports is likely to reduce cardiovascular risk. Therefore, the authors attempted to evaluate the lipid profile and nutritional status of male goalball players. Thirty two blind or visually impaired male goalball players aged 20 to 45 years participated in the study during which somatic variables (BH, BM, WC, VFR, BMI) and the lipid profile (TC, LDL, HDL, TG) were evaluated. Overweight was found in 40.6% of athletes, with obesity being at the level of 9.3%. A high correlation was found between visceral fat and the BMI (r=0.7; p<0.001), as well as between visceral fat and WC (r=0.8; p<0.001). Abnormal total cholesterol levels were recorded for LDL (22% of study participants), HDL (17%) and triglycerides (13%). Lower levels of individual components of lipid profiles (and higher levels for HDL) were found in athletes with a normal BMI. A correlation was found between the BMI and TG (r=0.4, p<0.01), WC and TG (r=0.4, p<0.01), VFR and LDL (r=0.4, p<0.05) and TG (r=0.5, p<0.001). The percentage of overweight and obese subjects with vision impairment was lower compared to the general population of men in Poland, with a more beneficial lipid profile. Regular physical activity of the study participants is likely to have a positive effect on their health.

Słowa kluczowe

  • lipid metabolism
  • nutrition
  • goalball
Otwarty dostęp

Comparison of Designated Coefficients and their Predictors in Functional Evaluation of Wheelchair Rugby Athletes

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2015
Zakres stron: 149 - 156

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objectives of the present study were twofold: to determine differences between groups by means of chosen coefficients and to create significant predictors using regression models for athletes in wheelchair rugby who had the same spinal cord injury (tetraplegia) and were classified as low point and high point players. The study sample consisted of 24 subjects, who had sustained cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI). They were divided into low point (n=15) and high point (n=9) groups according to the IWRF Classification System. A one-way ANOVA revealed statistically significant differences in the following coefficients differentiating the groups: AC (η2=0.778), LC (η2=0.687), IC (η2=0.565), SC (η2=0.580). The Tukey’s HSD post-hoc test indicated statistically significant higher values of coefficients in the HP compared to the LP group: AC=0.958 (p=0.022), LC=0.989 (p=0.031), IC=0.971 (p=0.044), SC=0.938 (p=0.039). In the HP group, the most significant predictor was the sum of visceral and trunk fat which was negatively correlated with the SC (what constituted a positive adaptive change in response to training). With regard to the LP group, body height and circumference of the chest appeared to be most significant predictors and were positively correlated with the SC. In the LP group no predictor with respect to the SC was significantly correlated to sports training. Therefore, the functional classification system confirmed lower status of the LP players. The results of the present study indicate that both metabolic and somatic profiles which highly determine potential of wheelchair rugby athletes are significantly different in LP and HP players, what confirms the reliability of the functional classification system.

Słowa kluczowe

  • wheelchair rugby
  • functional classification
  • regression models
  • correlation coefficients
Otwarty dostęp

Changes in Body Composition and Physical Performance in Wheelchair Basketball Players During a Competitive Season

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2015
Zakres stron: 157 - 165

Abstrakt

Abstract

The present study analyzed the changes in body composition and physical performance in wheelchair basketball (WB) players during one competitive season. Players from a WB team competing in the first division of the Spanish League (n = 8, age: 26.5 ± 2.9 years, body mass: 79.8 ± 12.6 kg, sitting height: 91.4 ± 4.4 cm) participated in this research. The upper limbs showed a decrease in subcutaneous adipose tissue and there was an improvement in physical abilities such as sprinting with the ball (5 and 20 m), handgrip and aerobic capacity. However, the changes in physical fitness concerning sprinting without the ball and agility tests were low. It would be interesting to study the effects of implementing specific programs to improve physical performance in WB and to establish more test sessions to monitor the effects of the programs followed.

Słowa kluczowe

  • adapted sports
  • anthropometrics
  • skinfolds
  • physical performance
  • field tests
18 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Sport and Disabled Individuals – Theory and Practice

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2015
Zakres stron: 5 - 6

Abstrakt

Otwarty dostęp

Medical Care Before and During the Winter Paralympic Games in Turin 2006, Vancouver 2010 and Sochi 2014

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2015
Zakres stron: 7 - 16

Abstrakt

Abstract

Medical care in disabled sports is crucial both as prophylaxis and as ongoing medical intervention. The aim of this paper was to present changes in the quality of medical care over the consecutive Paralympic Games (PG). The study encompassed 31 paralympians: Turin (11), Vancouver (12), and Sochi (8) competing in cross-country skiing, alpine skiing, biathlon and snowboarding. The first, questionnaire-based, part of the study was conducted in Poland before the PG. The athletes assessed the quality of care provided by physicians, physiologists, dieticians, and physiotherapists, as well as their cooperation with the massage therapist and the psychologist. The other part of the study concerned the athletes’ health before leaving for the PG, as well as their diseases and injuries during the PG. The quality of medical care was poor before the 2006 PG, but satisfactory before the subsequent PG. Only few athletes made use of psychological support, assessing it as poor before the 2006 PG and satisfactory before the 2010 and 2014 PG. The athletes’ health condition was good during all PG. The health status of cross-country skiers was confirmed by a medical fitness certificate before all PG, while that of alpine skiers only before the 2014 PG. There were no serious diseases; training injuries precluded two athletes from participation. The quality of medical care before the PG was poor, however, became satisfactory during the actual PG. The resulting ad hoc pattern deviates from the accepted standards in medical care in disabled sports.

Słowa kluczowe

  • disabled sports
  • paralympic sports
  • quality of care
  • diseases
  • injuries
Otwarty dostęp

Atlanto-Axial Instability in People with Down’s Syndrome and its Impact on the Ability to Perform Sports Activities – A Review

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2015
Zakres stron: 17 - 24

Abstrakt

Abstract

Atlanto-axial instability (AAI) is a developmental anomaly often occurring in persons with Down’s syndrome (DS). According to various reports, AAI affects from 6.8 to 27% of the population with DS. The aim of this review was to illustrate the issue of AAI with regard to the progressively changing state of scientific knowledge. The extended distance between the rear surface of the frontal arcus of the C1 cervical vertebra and the anterior surface of C2 cervical vertebra dens (anterior atlanto-odontoid distance, AAOD) indicates the occurrence of AAI and is detectable through X-ray examination. Hypoplasia of the C2 dens, also detectable through X-ray examination, is another suggested risk factor for AAI. According to current data, the methodology of taking measurements is inconsistent, which leads to errors in interpretation. As research focusing on AAI was progressing, new data emerged from other studies on persons with DS, suggesting that neurological symptoms in persons with DS that indicated the occurrence of spinal cord compression were an important factor in medical imaging detection of AAI. One of the main arguments supporting this thesis is that in isolated cases spinal cord (SC) damage was noted during screening examinations conducted on a large population of subjects. Moreover, cases in which the neurological symptoms indicate spinal cord compression existed long before the occurrence of the actual damage also remain of significant importance. Therefore, it is necessary to promote neurological studies on persons with DS to enable early diagnosis of spinal cord compression and, at the same time, reduce the use of medical imaging in cases of neurological symptoms.

Słowa kluczowe

  • atlanto-axial instability
  • Down’s syndrome
  • spinal cord compression
  • medical imaging
Otwarty dostęp

Relationships Between Anaerobic Performance, Field Tests and Game Performance of Sitting Volleyball Players

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2015
Zakres stron: 25 - 32

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate relationships between anaerobic performance, field tests, game performance and anthropometric variables of sitting volleyball players. Twenty elite Polish sitting volleyball players were tested using the 30 s Wingate Anaerobic Test for arm crank ergometer and participated in six physical field tests. Heights in position to block and to spike, as well as arm reach were measured. Players were observed during the game on the court in terms of effectiveness of the serve, block, attack, receive and defense. Pearson analysis and the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were used. The strongest correlations were found between the chest pass test and mean power and peak power (r=.846; p=.001 and r=.708; p=.0005, respectively), and also between the T-test and peak power (r= −.718; p=.001). Mean power correlated with the 3 m test (r= −.540; p=.014), the 5 m test (r= −.592; p=.006), and the T-test (r= −.582; p=.007). Peak power correlated with the 3 m test (r= −.632; p=.003), the 5 m test (r= −.613; p=.004), speed & agility (r= −.552; p=.012) and speed & endurance (r=−.546; p=.013). Significant correlations were observed between anthropometric parameters and anaerobic performance variables (p≤.001), and also between anthropometric parameters and field tests (p≤.05). Game performance and physical fitness of sitting volleyball players depended on their anthropometric variables: reach of arms, the position to block and to spike. The chest pass test could be used as a non-laboratory field test of anaerobic performance of sitting volleyball players.

Słowa kluczowe

  • disability sport
  • physical fitness
Otwarty dostęp

Kinetic and Kinematic Differences in a Golf Swing in One and Both Lower Limb Amputees

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2015
Zakres stron: 33 - 41

Abstrakt

Abstract

Amputee golfers need to cope with the absence of sole proprioception, a decreased range of swing motion and other factors which should be recognized for training purposes. The aim of this study was to determine the kinetic and kinematic differences in the golf swing in one leg and two legs amputees. The participants consisted of two males and one female at a professional or amateur level with a different degree of disability. Each participant was taped by 3D markers and performed five golf swings with the iron 6. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) did not vary between individuals in kinematics, however, it was low in kinetic variables of two leg amputees. The Kendal rank correlation showed a significant relationship between the level of amputation and a large number of kinetic and kinematic variables such as X factor, O factor, S factor and individual body angles. The fluency and similarity of the golf swing did not depend on the level of amputation. One lower limb amputation did not seem to increase movement variability contrary to two lower limb amputation. The most variable parameter was a weight-shift in all golfers. The takeaway and horizontal force angle depended on the level of amputation rather than individual technique, thus, their modification by training may be difficult. Estimation of golf swing „mistakes“ in amputees in respect to the leading arm in an early follow or late follow position appeared to be useless.

Słowa kluczowe

  • golf swing
  • lower limb amputee
  • handicap
  • X factor
  • S factor
  • O factor
  • disability
Otwarty dostęp

Game Performance Evaluation in Male Goalball Players

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2015
Zakres stron: 43 - 51

Abstrakt

Abstract

Goalball is a Paralympic sport exclusively for athletes who are visually impaired and blind. The aims of this study were twofold: to describe game performance of elite male goalball players based upon the degree of visual impairment, and to determine if game performance was related to anthropometric characteristics of elite male goalball players. The study sample consisted of 44 male goalball athletes. A total of 38 games were recorded during the Summer Paralympic Games in London 2012. Observations were reported using the Game Efficiency Sheet for Goalball. Additional anthropometric measurements included body mass (kg), body height (cm), the arm span (cm) and length of the body in the defensive position (cm). The results differentiating both groups showed that the players with total blindness obtained higher means than the players with visual impairment for game indicators such as the sum of defense (p = 0.03) and the sum of good defense (p = 0.04). The players with visual impairment obtained higher results than those with total blindness for attack efficiency (p = 0.04), the sum of penalty defenses (p = 0.01), and fouls (p = 0.01). The study showed that athletes with blindness demonstrated higher game performance in defence. However, athletes with visual impairment presented higher efficiency in offensive actions. The analyses confirmed that body mass, body height, the arm span and length of the body in the defensive position did not differentiate players’ performance at the elite level.

Słowa kluczowe

  • visual impairment
  • disability sport
Otwarty dostęp

Electromyographic Analysis of the Hip Extension Pattern in Visually Impaired Athletes

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2015
Zakres stron: 53 - 61

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine the order of muscle recruitment during the active hip joint extension in particular positions in young visually impaired athletes. The average recruitment time (ART) of the gluteus maximus (GM) and the hamstring muscle group (HMG) was assessed by the means of surface electromyography (sEMG). The sequence of muscle recruitment in the female and male group was also taken into consideration. This study followed a prospective, cross – sectional, randomised design, where 76 visually impaired athletes between the age of 18–25 years were enrolled into the research and selected on chosen inclusion and exclusion criteria. Finally, 64 young subjects (32 men and 32 women) were included in the study (age: 21.1 ± 1.05 years; body mass: 68.4 ± 12.4 kg; body height: 1.74 ± 0.09 m; BMI: 22.20 ± 2.25 kg/m2). All subjects were analysed for the ART of the GM and HMG during the active hip extension performed in two different positions, as well as resting and functional sEMG activity of each muscle. Between gender differences were comprised and the correlations between the ART of the GM and HMG with their functional sEMG activity during hip extension in both positions were shown. No significant differences between the ART of the GM and HMG were found (p>0.05). Furthermore, there was no significant difference of ART among both tested positions, as well in male as female subjects (p>0.05).

Słowa kluczowe

  • visually impaired athletes
  • movement pattern
  • hip extension
  • muscle recruitment time
  • surface electromyography
Otwarty dostęp

Laboratory and Field-Based Evaluation of Short-Term Effort with Maximal Intensity in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2015
Zakres stron: 63 - 70

Abstrakt

Abstract

Results of previous studies have not indicated clearly which tests should be used to assess short-term efforts of people with intellectual disabilities. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate laboratory and field-based tests of short-term effort with maximal intensity of subjects with intellectual disabilities. Twenty four people with intellectual disability, who trained soccer, participated in this study. The 30 s Wingate test and additionally an 8 s test with maximum intensity were performed on a bicycle ergometer. The fatigue index, maximal and mean power, relative maximal and relative mean power were measured. Overall, nine field-based tests were conducted: 5, 10 and 20 m sprints, a 20 m shuttle run, a seated medicine ball throw, a bent arm hang test, a standing broad jump, sit-ups and a hand grip test. The reliability of the 30 s and 8 s Wingate tests for subjects with intellectual disability was confirmed. Significant correlation was observed for mean power between the 30 s and 8 s tests on the bicycle ergometer at a moderate level (r >0.4). Moreover, significant correlations were indicated between the results of laboratory tests and field tests, such as the 20 m sprint, the 20 m shuttle run, the standing long jump and the medicine ball throw. The strongest correlation was in the medicine ball throw. The 30 s Wingate test is a reliable test assessing maximal effort in subjects with intellectual disability. The results of this research confirmed that the 8 s test on a bicycle ergometer had a moderate correlation with the 30 s Wingate test in this population, thus, this comparison needs further investigation to examine alternativeness of the 8 s to 30 s Wingate tests. The non-laboratory tests could be used to indirectly assess performance in short-term efforts with maximal intensity.

Słowa kluczowe

  • anaerobic performance
  • physical fitness
  • intellectual disability
  • Wingate test
Otwarty dostęp

Effects of Krankcycle Training on Performance and Body Composition in Wheelchair Users

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2015
Zakres stron: 71 - 78

Abstrakt

Abstract

Innovation in training equipment is important for increasing training effectiveness, performance and changes in body composition, especially in wheelchair users with paraplegia. The main objective of a workout session is to induce an adaptation stimulus, which requires overload of involved muscles by voluntary effort, yet this overload may be highly influenced by the size of the spinal cord lesion. Krancykl construction is designed to allow exercise on any wheelchair and with adjustable height or width of crank handles, where even the grip handle may be altered. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in body composition, performance and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) in paraplegics with a different level of paralyses after a 12 week training programme of a unilateral regime on Krankcycle equipment (a crank machine). The study sample included four men and one women at a different spine lesion level. The 12 weeks programme was successfully completed by four participants, while one subject got injured during the intervention process. Three participants were paraplegics and one was quadriplegic with innervation of the biceps humeri, triceps humeri and deltoideus. The Krankcycle 30 min programme was followed by four other exercises, which were performed after themselves rather than in a circuit training manner as the latter would result in much longer rest periods between exercises, because paraplegics have to be fixed by straps during exercise on hydraulic machines. The RPE after the workout decreased following the twelve week adaptation period.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Krankcycle
  • wheelchair user
  • paraplegia
  • body composition
  • training methods
Otwarty dostęp

Sexuality of Disabled Athletes Depending on the Form of Locomotion

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2015
Zakres stron: 79 - 86

Abstrakt

Abstract

The main purpose of this study was to determine sexuality of disabled athletes depending on the form of locomotion. The study included 170 disabled athletes, aged between 18 and 45. The entire population was divided into 3 research groups depending on the form of locomotion: moving on wheelchairs (n=52), on crutches (n=29) and unaided (n=89). The research tool was a questionnaire voluntarily and anonymously completed by the respondents of the research groups. The questionnaire was composed of a general part concerning the socio-demographic conditions, medical history, health problems, a part dedicated to physical disability as well as the Polish version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) evaluating sexual life. STATISTICA 10.0 for Windows was used in the statistical analysis. Subjects moving on crutches were significantly older than ones moving on wheelchairs and unaided (34.41 ±11.00 vs. 30.49 ±10.44 and 27.99 ±10.51 years, respectively) (p=0.018). Clinically significant erectile dysfunctions were most often diagnosed in athletes moving on wheelchairs (70.27%), followed by athletes moving on crutches and moving unaided (60% and 35.42%, respectively; p=0.048). Clinical sexual dysfunctions were diagnosed on a similar level among all female athletes. It was concluded that the form of locomotion may determine sexuality of disabled men. Males on wheelchair revealed the worst sexual functioning. Female athletes moving on wheelchairs, on crutches and moving unaided were comparable in the aspect of their sexual life.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Paralympic games
  • paralympians
  • physical activity
  • sexual functioning
Otwarty dostęp

Visual Impairment does not Limit Training Effects in Development of Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity in Tandem Cyclists

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2015
Zakres stron: 87 - 97

Abstrakt

Abstract

The study aimed to investigate the differences in the effects of 7-month training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity in tandem cycling athletes with and without visual impairment. In this study, Polish elite (n=13) and sub-elite (n=13) visually impaired (VI) (n=13; 40.8 ±12.8 years) and properly sighted (PS) (n=13; 36.7 ±12.2 years) tandem-cycling athletes participated voluntarily in 7-month routine training. The following pre-/post-training measurements were conducted on separate days: maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was estimated with age correction using the Physical Working Capacity test on a bicycle ergometer according to the Astrand-Ryhming method. Maximal power output (Pmax) was evaluated using the Quebec test on a bicycle ergometer. At baseline, VO2max (47.8 ±14.1 vs 42.0 ±8.3 ml/kg/min, respectively) and Pmax (11.5 ±1.5 vs 11.5 ±1.0 W/kg) did not differ significantly between PS and VI cyclists. However, differences in aerobic capacity were considered as clinically significant. Two-way ANOVA revealed that after 7 month training, there were statistically significant increases in VO2max (p=0.003) and Pmax (p=0.009) among VI (VO2max, +9.1%; Pmax, +6.3%) and PS (VO2max, +9.1%; Pmax, +11.7%) cyclists, however, no time x visual impairment interaction effect was found (VO2max, p=0.467; Pmax, p=0.364). After training, VO2max (p=0.03), but not Pmax (p=0.13), was significantly greater in elite compared to sub-elite tandem cyclists. VI and PS tandem cyclists showed similar rates of improvement in VO2max and Pmax after 7-month training. VO2max was a significant determinant of success in tandem cycling. This is one of the first studies providing reference values for aerobic and anaerobic capacity in visually impaired cyclists.

Słowa kluczowe

  • adults
  • athletes
  • cycling
  • exercise
  • fitness test
  • physiological profile
Otwarty dostęp

Balance Functional Assessment in People with Visual Impairment

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2015
Zakres stron: 99 - 109

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aims of this study were twofold: to assess the level of balance of people with visual impairment against the BOT-2 standard scores for the able-bodied, and to identify in which trials subjects had the greatest difficulties in maintaining balance with respect to the degree of vision loss and age categories. One hundred twenty-seven subjects with visual impairment aged 6-16 years, participated in the study (68 girls and 59 boys). The division for partially sighted people (61) and the blind (66) was made according to the WHO classification. Functional balance assessment was made using a balance subtest from the Bruininks-Oseretsky test. Significant relationships were noticed between age and the level of balance (χ2 = 8.35 p <0,05), as well as between the degree of vision loss and the level of balance (χ2 = 24.53 p <0,001). The level of balance of almost all blind subjects was below (20%) or well-below (60%) the average for the able-bodied. The subjects’ ability to maintain balance was not dependent on gender and was associated primarily with the degree of visual impairment and age. Partially sighted people had better balance than the blind and the decrease in visual acuity resulted in reduction of balance skills. The lowest level of balance was observed in blind students aged 7-11 years. Elaborating physical fitness improvement programs for children and adolescents with visual impairment, diversity of age, the degree of vision loss and limitations of ablility to maintain balance should be taken into account.

Słowa kluczowe

  • body balance
  • people with visual impairment
  • functional tests
Otwarty dostęp

Standards of Conditions During Preparations for the Summer Paralympic Games Between 2004 and 2012 Assessed by Polish Athletes

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2015
Zakres stron: 111 - 121

Abstrakt

Abstract

The quality of training conditions affects sporting success, injuries and health. The aim of the work was to present the conditions during the preparations of Polish athletes for the Summer Paralympic Games 2004-2012. The study encompassed 271 paralympians: Athens (91), Beijing (89) and London (91), competing in 13 disciplines. The research was based on a two-part questionnaire by Kłodecka-Różalska adjusted for disabled sports, and was conducted one month before each PG. Part 1 contained 20 closed-ended questions regarding conditions during preparations, while Part 2 concerned socio-demographic and sports-related data. Three levels of conditions: good, satisfactory and poor, were identified. The analysis showed that while the relationships between the athletes were good in all the preparatory periods, the co-operation with the paralympic coaches worsened. The standards of accommodation, food and sports facilities lowered. Personal orthopaedic supply was satisfactory in London; personal sporting equipment was good at all PG. The quality of medical care was the highest in London. The co-operation with physicians, physiotherapists and massage therapists was satisfactory. Consultations with the dietician were sporadic and assessed as poor. Psychological consultations were rare but satisfactory in Beijing and London. Contacts with the mass media were poor at all PG. Although combining private life, work, and education with sport was satisfactory, it was increasingly difficult to manage, particularly before London. The conditions during preparations for the PG 2004-2012 varied. Improvement was noticed only in the quality of medical care and personal orthopaedic supply.

Słowa kluczowe

  • disabled sports
  • preparation for competition
  • paralympians
Otwarty dostęp

Sports Injuries in Wheelchair Rugby – A Pilot Study

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2015
Zakres stron: 123 - 132

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to analyze etiology and the incidence of sports injuries among wheelchair rugby players. Moreover, we verified if the levels of aggressiveness and anger presented by the athletes and their roles in the team influenced the incidence and severity of the injuries. The study involved 14 male players, members of the Polish National Wheelchair Rugby Team. During a 9-month period, the athletes participated in up to 9 training camps and 4 Wheelchair Rugby tournaments. The study was based on the Competitive Aggressiveness and Anger Scale, registry of sports injuries consulted and non-consulted with a physician and a demographic questionnaire. The following observations were made during the 9-month period corresponding to a mean of 25 training and tournament days: 1) wheelchair rugby players experienced primarily minor injuries (n=102) that did not require a medical intervention, 2) only four injuries needed to be consulted by a physician, 3) sports injuries occurred more frequently among offensive players than in defensive players, 4) offensive players showed a tendency to higher levels of anger and aggressiveness than defensive players. It can be concluded that wheelchair rugby is a discipline associated with a high incidence of minor injuries that do not require a medical intervention. The incidence rate of injuries during the analyzed period was 0.3 per athlete per training day.

Słowa kluczowe

  • tetraplegia
  • team sports
  • disability
Otwarty dostęp

Hand Grip Strength Vs. Sprint Effectiveness in Amputee Soccer Players

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2015
Zakres stron: 133 - 139

Abstrakt

Abstract

Amputee soccer is one of the types of soccer designed for the disabled, especially those who have undergone amputations, as well as those with extremity dysfunction. The objective of the study was to find the relationship between hand grip strength and sprint time in amputee soccer players. Thirteen field amputee soccer players participated in the study. A SAEHAN hydraulic hand dynamometer manufactured by Jamar was used for hand grip strength measurements. The sprint running test was conducted over a distance of 30 m. The Fusion Smart Speed System was employed for running time measurements. No statistically significant relationships were found between hand grip strength of the left or right hand, and sprint times over 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 m. Analysis of the running velocity curve of the subjects showed an interesting profile characterized by a 15 meter-long acceleration phase and a significant velocity increase over a distance of 20 – 25 m. The study suggests that there is no relationship between hand grip strength and sprint effectiveness in amputee soccer players. The specificity of locomotion with the use of elbow crutches among elite Polish amputee soccer players probably accounts for the profile of the sprint velocity curve. Extension of the acceleration phase in the sprint run and a velocity increase in the subsequent part of the run were observed.

Słowa kluczowe

  • amputee athletes
  • running velocity
  • soccer
Otwarty dostęp

Evaluation of Lipid Metabolism and Nutritional Status in Male Goalball Players

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2015
Zakres stron: 141 - 147

Abstrakt

Abstract

Lipid disorders, obesity and overweight are considered one of the most important modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. Population surveys carried out in Poland have demonstrated a tendency for lipid disorders to occur in 70% and overweight and obesity in more than half of Poles. No such studies have been conducted in groups of people with vision impairment so far. Yet, regular involvement of visually impaired people in sports is likely to reduce cardiovascular risk. Therefore, the authors attempted to evaluate the lipid profile and nutritional status of male goalball players. Thirty two blind or visually impaired male goalball players aged 20 to 45 years participated in the study during which somatic variables (BH, BM, WC, VFR, BMI) and the lipid profile (TC, LDL, HDL, TG) were evaluated. Overweight was found in 40.6% of athletes, with obesity being at the level of 9.3%. A high correlation was found between visceral fat and the BMI (r=0.7; p<0.001), as well as between visceral fat and WC (r=0.8; p<0.001). Abnormal total cholesterol levels were recorded for LDL (22% of study participants), HDL (17%) and triglycerides (13%). Lower levels of individual components of lipid profiles (and higher levels for HDL) were found in athletes with a normal BMI. A correlation was found between the BMI and TG (r=0.4, p<0.01), WC and TG (r=0.4, p<0.01), VFR and LDL (r=0.4, p<0.05) and TG (r=0.5, p<0.001). The percentage of overweight and obese subjects with vision impairment was lower compared to the general population of men in Poland, with a more beneficial lipid profile. Regular physical activity of the study participants is likely to have a positive effect on their health.

Słowa kluczowe

  • lipid metabolism
  • nutrition
  • goalball
Otwarty dostęp

Comparison of Designated Coefficients and their Predictors in Functional Evaluation of Wheelchair Rugby Athletes

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2015
Zakres stron: 149 - 156

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objectives of the present study were twofold: to determine differences between groups by means of chosen coefficients and to create significant predictors using regression models for athletes in wheelchair rugby who had the same spinal cord injury (tetraplegia) and were classified as low point and high point players. The study sample consisted of 24 subjects, who had sustained cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI). They were divided into low point (n=15) and high point (n=9) groups according to the IWRF Classification System. A one-way ANOVA revealed statistically significant differences in the following coefficients differentiating the groups: AC (η2=0.778), LC (η2=0.687), IC (η2=0.565), SC (η2=0.580). The Tukey’s HSD post-hoc test indicated statistically significant higher values of coefficients in the HP compared to the LP group: AC=0.958 (p=0.022), LC=0.989 (p=0.031), IC=0.971 (p=0.044), SC=0.938 (p=0.039). In the HP group, the most significant predictor was the sum of visceral and trunk fat which was negatively correlated with the SC (what constituted a positive adaptive change in response to training). With regard to the LP group, body height and circumference of the chest appeared to be most significant predictors and were positively correlated with the SC. In the LP group no predictor with respect to the SC was significantly correlated to sports training. Therefore, the functional classification system confirmed lower status of the LP players. The results of the present study indicate that both metabolic and somatic profiles which highly determine potential of wheelchair rugby athletes are significantly different in LP and HP players, what confirms the reliability of the functional classification system.

Słowa kluczowe

  • wheelchair rugby
  • functional classification
  • regression models
  • correlation coefficients
Otwarty dostęp

Changes in Body Composition and Physical Performance in Wheelchair Basketball Players During a Competitive Season

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2015
Zakres stron: 157 - 165

Abstrakt

Abstract

The present study analyzed the changes in body composition and physical performance in wheelchair basketball (WB) players during one competitive season. Players from a WB team competing in the first division of the Spanish League (n = 8, age: 26.5 ± 2.9 years, body mass: 79.8 ± 12.6 kg, sitting height: 91.4 ± 4.4 cm) participated in this research. The upper limbs showed a decrease in subcutaneous adipose tissue and there was an improvement in physical abilities such as sprinting with the ball (5 and 20 m), handgrip and aerobic capacity. However, the changes in physical fitness concerning sprinting without the ball and agility tests were low. It would be interesting to study the effects of implementing specific programs to improve physical performance in WB and to establish more test sessions to monitor the effects of the programs followed.

Słowa kluczowe

  • adapted sports
  • anthropometrics
  • skinfolds
  • physical performance
  • field tests

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