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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2083-5965
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 1989
Częstotliwość wydawania
2 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

AHEAD OF PRINT

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2083-5965
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 1989
Częstotliwość wydawania
2 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

13 Artykułów
Open Access

Bibliometric analysis of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) research from Plant Sciences category based on Web of Science

Data publikacji: 13 Oct 2021
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) is one of the most significant horticultural cash crops in the world. The study aimed to identify and analyse the 2,930 articles and review type papers of strawberry research from the Plant Sciences category based on the Web of Science. Papers mainly written in English (2,894, 98.771%), were from a total of 8,838 authors, 96 countries/territories, 1,845 organisations and published in 197 journals and book series. The top seven core journals are ranked as Plant Disease (252, 8.601%), Phytopathology (229, 7.816%), Plant Pathology (93, 3.174%), Frontiers in Plant Science (89, 3.308%), Canadian Journal of Plant Science (86, 2.935%), European Journal of Plant Pathology (86, 2.935%) and Journal of Experimental Botany (86, 2.935%), and these journals each published >86 papers. The top five countries and regions were the USA, People's Republic of China, Spain, Canada and England. The top five organisations were the University of Florida, USDA ARS, University of Malaga, University of California Davis, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. The top five authors are Peres, Natalia A. (Peres, Natalia; Peres, N.A.); Madden, LV; Munoz-Blanco, Juan (Munoz-Blanco, J); Schwab, Wilfried (Schwab, W) and Ellis, MA, each published >25 papers. All keywords of the strawberry research from the Plant Sciences category were separated into 11 clusters for different research topics. Visualisations offer exploratory information on the current state in a scientific field or discipline as well as indicate possible developments in the future. The review could provide a valuable guide for designing future studies.

Słowa kluczowe

  • bibliometric analysis
  • Plant Sciences category
  • strawberry ( × Duch.)
  • VOSviewer
  • Web of Science
Open Access

Retraction

Data publikacji: 17 Nov 2021
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Open Access

Foliar application of potassium silicate, potassium fulvate and betaine improve summer-time tomato yield by promoting plant nitrogen and potassium uptake

Data publikacji: 16 Aug 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

During the summer months, greenhouse tomato production is challenged by the heat, causing yield reduction; therefore, we conducted a study to test the effectiveness of different foliar spray compositions for the improvement of Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme ‘Qianxi’ nutrition uptake and fruit yield. Two forms of silicon, two kinds of organic nitrogenous compounds and water as the control factor were two-two paired to become nine different recipes, which were as follows: CK (H2O), ISi (K2SiO3), organic silicon (OSi), potassium fulvate (BSFA), BSFA + ISi, BSFA + OSi, betaine (GB), GB + ISi and GB + OSi. The plants were sprayed three times during the period of the first, second and third truss fruit expansions with a 2-week interval. As a result, BSFA or K2SiO3 generated higher yield in plants compared with the other compositions. Also, K2SiO3 significantly enhanced the total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium accumulation in fruit and the whole plant. Comparing across the nine recipes, BSFA + ISi, ISi and GB had improved the fruit yield by 17%, 12.7% and 9.5%, performing the best. BSFA + ISi, ISi and GB also improved the plant nitrogen uptake by 8.2%, 18.8% and 9.8%, as well as the potassium uptake by 16.2%, 12.3% and 15.2%, compared with CK, respectively. Thus, K2SiO3, BSFA and GB stimulated the plant nitrogen and potassium uptake, which improved the marketable yield.

Słowa kluczowe

  • biostimulant
  • leaf spray
  • macronutrients translocation
  • tomato fruit quality
Open Access

Mathematical modelling of Hass avocado firmness by using destructive and non-destructive devices at different maturity stages and under two storage conditions

Data publikacji: 05 Aug 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Devices which are used to determine firmness of non-destructive nature do not penetrate the skin or damage the underlying flesh of the fruit and do provide real-time results, avoid raw biomass loss and allow the testing of every individual fruit and repeated testing of the same fruit, thus providing many advantages for researchers and the industry alike. Contrarily, destructive methods puncture the fruit and thus only a subsample, selected to represent all fruit, can be tested. In addition, different operators can generate quite different values for the same fruit using a hand-held penetrometer. Hass avocado from two commercial orchards was collected, and fruit firmness was measured at harvest, during two storage conditions controlled atmosphere (CA) and regular air (RA), during shelf-life and at the ready-to-eat stage using both destructive (Fruit Pressure Tester, mod. FT327, Wagner Instruments, Greenwich, USA) and non-destructive devices (Model TA.XT plusC, Stable Micro Systems Ltd, England). Then, the mathematical relationship between these two devices was assessed using Spearman Correlation coefficient (rho) and p-values adjusted by Benjamini-Hochberg and Bonferroni procedures. Thus, 3,200 fruits were evaluated during two harvests and two subsequent seasons. A moderate and positive association between destructive and non-destructive devices was found (rho coefficient ranging from 0.41 to 0.51). The variance explained by the regression models ranged from 0.53 to 0.63; all of them were significant with good accuracies (i.e., 0.79; 0.78; 0.73; 0.76). The results prompt us to conclude that a non-destructive texture analyser device can be used to accurately predict firmness measured by a penetrometer in Hass avocado fruit and contribute to avoiding fruit discards.

Słowa kluczowe

  • destructive fruit firmness
  • mathematical modelling
  • non-destructive device
  • relationships
Open Access

First characterisation of chrysanthemum virus B infecting chrysanthemum in Thailand and development of colourimetric RT-LAMP for rapid and sensitive detection

Data publikacji: 19 Aug 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Chrysanthemum is among the world's most important ornamental plants because of its high economic and cultural value. Our report is the first to describe the detection of chrysanthemum virus B (CVB) in chrysanthemum leaf samples collected from Thailand, which showed yellowing and mild mottling symptoms. The coat protein sequences of CVB isolated in this study share 95.15% identity with previously characterised CVB isolates. Biological indexing found that CVB induced both local and systemic symptoms in tobacco plants, while petunia displayed systemic symptoms. To improve the rapidity and sensitivity of CVB detection, the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique was developed. LAMP detection was found to be optimal when incubation was conducted at 65 °C for 45 min, wherein the LAMP reaction demonstrated 106 times higher sensitivity than polymerase chain reaction. To simplify the interpretation of results, we designed the method such that a positive result is clearly indicated based on a change of colour (colourimetry), from pink to yellow, as observed visually and via gel electrophoresis. To our best knowledge, this is the first report on the characterisation of molecular, biological and morphological characteristics of CVB infecting chrysanthemum in Thailand, along with the development of colourimetric RT-LAMP for improving detection efficiency.

Słowa kluczowe

  • ornamental plant
  • rapid detection
  • virus detection
  • virus disease
  • virus particle
Open Access

Optimization of solvent-free microwave-assisted extraction of antioxidant compounds from Lagenaria siceraria fruit by response surface methodology

Data publikacji: 19 Aug 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd) fruit is highly celebrated for its nutritional as well as therapeutic properties. The present study was undertaken with the aim of exploring an efficient green solvent-free microwave-assisted extraction method for bioactives from this fruit. Optimization was done according to response surface methodology (RSM), where microwave power (W) and time (s) were independent factors, and percent extraction yield, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and iron chelating activity (ICA) were the responses. TPC, TFC, DPPH radical scavenging activity, FRAP and ICA were highest at 480 W and 60 s. The TPC was 288.9 mg GAE · g−1 DW (milligram gallic acid equivalent per gram dry weight), TFC was 214.1 mg RE · g−1 (rutin equivalent per gram DW), anti-radical activity was 32.96%, FRAP was 289.7 mg AAE · g−1 (mg ascorbic acid equivalents per gram) and ICA was 19.52%. The results of the study thus demonstrate that the solvent-free microwave-assisted extraction method, which utilised an optimum power of 480 W and a time of 60 s, is an effective and green method for extraction of antioxidant compounds from bottle gourd fruit.

Słowa kluczowe

  • antioxidant
  • bottle gourd
  • green extraction
  • iron chelation
  • phenolics
Open Access

Waste apple wood: A safe and economical alternative substrate for the cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinula edodes

Data publikacji: 01 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The use of waste apple-wood as a source of sawdust to cultivate the mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinula edodes is a common practice, but it is imperative to ensure that the wood does not contain unsafe amounts of heavy-metals or pesticide residues. In this study, we sampled and investigated the pollution of heavy metals and pesticide residues in apple-wood from Yantai, Shandong, China and cultivated P. ostreatus and L. edodes using apple-wood as substrate. Heavy metals, pesticide residues, mineral elements, and biological efficiency were measured. Heavy metals were more commonly detected in the 73 apple-wood samples, but serious pollution was only an isolated phenomenon. No Pb was detected in P. ostreatus and L. edodes. The contents of Hg, As, Cd, and Cr were at safe levels. The contents of Ni were equivalent to those of wild mushrooms. Most notably, chlorpyrifos was detected in all the apple-wood tested. However, chlorpyrifos was only detected in L. edodes cultivated with apple sawdust. No other pesticide residues were detected in the other mushroom samples. The biological efficiency of P. ostreatus cultivated by apple sawdust was 89%, which was 80% of the control. The biological efficiency of L. edodes cultivated with apple sawdust was 81%, which did not differ significantly from the control. Apple-wood can replace wild oak as the material for L. edodes cultivation, but producers should ensure that the raw materials are safe. The main materials chosen to cultivate P. ostreatus should balance the two factors of raw material price and biological efficiency.

Słowa kluczowe

  • apple wood
  • biological efficiency
  • heavy metals
  • mineral elements
  • pesticide residues
Open Access

Development of dandelion (Taraxacum spp.) quality evaluation technology based on phenolic acids

Data publikacji: 18 Nov 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

One of the main purposes for which dandelions are cultivated is to derive phenolic acids from their processing. Phenolic acids, which are one of the main useful compounds in dandelion, constitute one of the important groups of therapeutically significant bioactive compounds in traditional Chinese medicine. To carry out a relatively full evaluation of dandelion quality, it was found advisable to use multiple indices to avoid conflict with the single evaluation index stipulated by China Pharmacopoeia. Thus, a quality evaluation method was created based on traditional Chinese medicinal theory and relevant statistics on phenolic acids. Firstly, four main kinds of phenolic acids – caftaric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and cichoric acid – were chosen as the main indices for quality evaluation through the optimisation of high performance liquid chromatography detection conditions and fingerprint comparison analysis; then, the content of each component was divided into five levels based on the descriptive statistics of 578 dandelion samples and references; finally, the equal weight average method was used to convert content levels of the four components into a comprehensive quality index, which served as the means for dandelion quality to be identified and segregated into grades, as follows: Grade 1 (super high, probability of 0.8%), Grade 2 (high, 18.72%), Grade 3 (medium, 37.28%), Grade 4 (qualified, 32%) and Grade 5 (low, 11.2%). This method is the first to comprehensively evaluate dandelion quality for setting an industry standard in China, and has practical and scientific characteristics.

Słowa kluczowe

  • functional compounds
  • gradation
  • quality assessment
Open Access

Does the sunblock alleviate abiotic stress in mango trees grown in the tropical semiarid?

Data publikacji: 08 Dec 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Mango is the most exported fruit of Brazil, especially grown in São Francisco Valley (tropical semiarid) where there is high temperatures and low air humidity, a condition that can cause stress to plants. Thus, the current study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of different sunblocks to alleviate the abiotic stress of “Palmer” mango trees grown in a semiarid environment. The experimental design consisted of randomised blocks with six treatments, four repetitions and three plants per plot. The treatments consisted of different strategies of sunblocks as follows: (T1) control (no sunblock); (T2) calcium carbonate (50 g · L−1); (T3) sunblock (5 mL · L−1); (T4) sunblock (5 mL · L−1) + calcium carbonate (50 g · L−1); (T5) sunblock (5 mL · L−1) + sunblock silicon concentrated (20 mL · L−1) and (T6) sunblock (20 mL · L−1). The results indicate a clear action of sunblock in attenuating the abiotic stress of mango, with a persistent effect with time elapsing, considering the evaluated interval. The sunblock clearly promotes a differentiated leaf coverage pattern, protecting the photosynthetic apparatus and increasing its performance and consequently improving the production of plant reserves. The use of calcium carbonate individually promotes a very short protective effect, without positive reflexes after a few days of application. Mango fruit yield is affected by the sunblock with an increase of 4.2 t · ha−1 from the treatment with sunblock (20 mL · L−1) in relation to the control treatment.

Słowa kluczowe

  • enzyme activity
  • L
  • photosynthesis
  • soluble carbohydrates
Open Access

Growth and yield in taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) grown using different planting materials and exposed to different morphological alteration treatments

Data publikacji: 23 Dec 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study aimed to compare cormels and suckers to determine the better planting material (PM) and to evaluate the effects of morphology-altering treatments on both shoot growth and corm yield in taro plants. The PMs used included cormel (PMC), suckers with two leaves (PMS2) and suckers with four leaves (PMS4). Morphological alteration (MA) treatment included removal of all suckers (MAS), excising the mother plant (MAM), and non-treated control (NMA). Data were collected weekly for non-destructive and at 12, 20, and 28 weeks after planting (WAP) for destructive measurements. Results of this study indicated that the SPAD values were higher in taro plants grown using cormel and morphologically non-altered plants. Removal of all suckers caused the mother plant to increase the number of leaves. The dry weight of the leaf blades, petioles and fibrous roots of the mother plant and the number of suckers decreased after the corm enlargement process took place. Fresh and dry weights of the corm increased at 20 WAP and then slowed down at 28 WAP. The moisture content of corm was relatively constant at 75%. Cormel could form on the fibrous roots and on suckers, but the total wet and dry weights of the cormels were decreased if the suckers were periodically removed. The growth of suckers was very dominant compared to the NMA plant when the mother plant was excised. Meanwhile, if all the suckers were removed, the growth of the mother plant was relatively comparable to that of the NMA plants.

Słowa kluczowe

  • cormel
  • double yield organ
  • leafy vegetable
  • physical manipulation
  • sucker
  • tropical crop
Open Access

Comparative study of the effects of selenium nanoparticles and selenite on selenium content and nutrient quality in soybean sprouts

Data publikacji: 04 Jan 2023
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Soybean (Glycine max L.) sprouts are a common vegetable with rich nutrients, such as protein, vitamin C and isoflavones. Soybean is also capable of accumulating selenium (Se). To study the effects of Se biofortification on the nutrient of this crop, soybean sprouts were treated with different concentrations of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) or selenite (i.e., 10 μM, 20 μM, 40 μM, 80 μM and 100 μM) in a hydroponic experiment. Results showed that SeNPs and selenite remarkably increased the total Se concentration in soybean sprouts. Five Se speciations, namely, selenocystine, selenomethionine, methyl selenocysteine, selenite and selenate were detected in soybean sprouts, but selenomethionine was found to be the dominant Se speciation. SeNPs and selenite increased the contents of chlorophyll, carotenoid, soluble sugar, soluble protein, vitamin C and isoflavones in soybean sprouts. SeNPs treatments led to less malondialdehyde content compared with selenite. SeNPs and selenite both enhanced the glutathione content. The modest dosage of exogenous Se stimulated the catalase activity, whereas the large amount reduced it. The peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase activities were stimulated by SeNPs and selenite. SeNPs posed no significant influence on the superoxide dismutase activity. This study suggests that SeNPs are a good exogenous Se source for the production of Se-rich soybean sprouts.

Słowa kluczowe

  • nutrient
  • selenite
  • selenium forms
  • selenium nanoparticles
  • soybean sprouts
Open Access

Green extraction of bioactive compounds from Azadirachta indica in aqueous glycerol and modelling and optimisation by response surface methodology

Data publikacji: 11 Jan 2023
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Development of efficient and green methods for extracting bioactive phytochemicals has great industrial value. Increasing environmental sensitivity at the global level has tremendously enhanced the demand for such methods. Azadirachta indica is a well-known medicinal tree. As glycerol has emerged as a green and safe extraction solvent for bioactive phytochemicals, this study aimed to investigate the efficacy of a glycerol–water solvent system to extract bioactive compounds from A. indica leaves. Modelling and optimisation were carried out by using response surface methodology (RSM) as per the Box–Behnken design with three variables, namely, solvent concentration, time and temperature. The responses were total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and metal chelating activity (MCA). The optimum conditions found by numerical optimisation were a solvent concentration of 69.713%, a time period of 38.328 min and a temperature of 32.114 °C with the predicted values of TPC, TFC, %DPPH and %MCA as 5.27 mg gallic acid equivalents · g−1 DW (dry weight), 9.869 mg rutin equivalents · g−1 DW, 73.8% and 54.366%, respectively. The validation experiments showed almost the same results for each response with very low% errors (5.431–7.661). Increasing glycerol concentration in the extracting medium favoured the extraction of TPC, TFC and antioxidant phytochemicals, but for MCA, the trend was the opposite. In conclusion, 70% aqueous glycerol is an effective medium for the extraction of polyphenolic and antioxidant phytochemicals from A. indica leaves. Extraction models suggested by RSM have high prospects to be used on a large industrial scale.

Słowa kluczowe

  • antioxidant
  • Box–Behnken design
  • model fitting
  • neem
  • phytochemicals
  • polyphenols
Open Access

Effects of a weak supply of light at night on the growth and quality components of tea plants

Data publikacji: 18 Jan 2023
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Supplying artificial light is widely used in crop cultivation to improve yield and quality. In this study, we investigated the effects of a weak supply of light (WSL) on the growth and quality components of tea plants. Starting from mid-winter (20 January 2021), the purple tea (Camellia sinensis) cultivar ‘Ziyan’ was exposed to four different spectra at an intensity of 2 μmol · m−2 · s−1 or 5 μmol · m−2 · s−1 for 3 h or 5 h after sunset. The field observations showed that the sprouting index, which represents the time and speed of bud flush, was significantly higher in most of the WSL treatments than in the control (CK, p < 0.01). The total content of catechin in the harvested leaves of 3 WSL treatments was 11.51%–18.94% higher than that of the CK, but the content of anthocyanin of 4 WSL treatments unexpectedly decreased by 6.77%–11.69% (p < 0.05). The differences in yield, free amino acids and caffeine contents between the WSL treatments and CK were not significant. We concluded that the WSL treatments during the early spring night had positive impacts on the growth and some quality components of tea plants.

Słowa kluczowe

  • anthocyanin
  • catechin
  • weak supply of light
13 Artykułów
Open Access

Bibliometric analysis of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) research from Plant Sciences category based on Web of Science

Data publikacji: 13 Oct 2021
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) is one of the most significant horticultural cash crops in the world. The study aimed to identify and analyse the 2,930 articles and review type papers of strawberry research from the Plant Sciences category based on the Web of Science. Papers mainly written in English (2,894, 98.771%), were from a total of 8,838 authors, 96 countries/territories, 1,845 organisations and published in 197 journals and book series. The top seven core journals are ranked as Plant Disease (252, 8.601%), Phytopathology (229, 7.816%), Plant Pathology (93, 3.174%), Frontiers in Plant Science (89, 3.308%), Canadian Journal of Plant Science (86, 2.935%), European Journal of Plant Pathology (86, 2.935%) and Journal of Experimental Botany (86, 2.935%), and these journals each published >86 papers. The top five countries and regions were the USA, People's Republic of China, Spain, Canada and England. The top five organisations were the University of Florida, USDA ARS, University of Malaga, University of California Davis, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. The top five authors are Peres, Natalia A. (Peres, Natalia; Peres, N.A.); Madden, LV; Munoz-Blanco, Juan (Munoz-Blanco, J); Schwab, Wilfried (Schwab, W) and Ellis, MA, each published >25 papers. All keywords of the strawberry research from the Plant Sciences category were separated into 11 clusters for different research topics. Visualisations offer exploratory information on the current state in a scientific field or discipline as well as indicate possible developments in the future. The review could provide a valuable guide for designing future studies.

Słowa kluczowe

  • bibliometric analysis
  • Plant Sciences category
  • strawberry ( × Duch.)
  • VOSviewer
  • Web of Science
Open Access

Retraction

Data publikacji: 17 Nov 2021
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Open Access

Foliar application of potassium silicate, potassium fulvate and betaine improve summer-time tomato yield by promoting plant nitrogen and potassium uptake

Data publikacji: 16 Aug 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

During the summer months, greenhouse tomato production is challenged by the heat, causing yield reduction; therefore, we conducted a study to test the effectiveness of different foliar spray compositions for the improvement of Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme ‘Qianxi’ nutrition uptake and fruit yield. Two forms of silicon, two kinds of organic nitrogenous compounds and water as the control factor were two-two paired to become nine different recipes, which were as follows: CK (H2O), ISi (K2SiO3), organic silicon (OSi), potassium fulvate (BSFA), BSFA + ISi, BSFA + OSi, betaine (GB), GB + ISi and GB + OSi. The plants were sprayed three times during the period of the first, second and third truss fruit expansions with a 2-week interval. As a result, BSFA or K2SiO3 generated higher yield in plants compared with the other compositions. Also, K2SiO3 significantly enhanced the total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium accumulation in fruit and the whole plant. Comparing across the nine recipes, BSFA + ISi, ISi and GB had improved the fruit yield by 17%, 12.7% and 9.5%, performing the best. BSFA + ISi, ISi and GB also improved the plant nitrogen uptake by 8.2%, 18.8% and 9.8%, as well as the potassium uptake by 16.2%, 12.3% and 15.2%, compared with CK, respectively. Thus, K2SiO3, BSFA and GB stimulated the plant nitrogen and potassium uptake, which improved the marketable yield.

Słowa kluczowe

  • biostimulant
  • leaf spray
  • macronutrients translocation
  • tomato fruit quality
Open Access

Mathematical modelling of Hass avocado firmness by using destructive and non-destructive devices at different maturity stages and under two storage conditions

Data publikacji: 05 Aug 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Devices which are used to determine firmness of non-destructive nature do not penetrate the skin or damage the underlying flesh of the fruit and do provide real-time results, avoid raw biomass loss and allow the testing of every individual fruit and repeated testing of the same fruit, thus providing many advantages for researchers and the industry alike. Contrarily, destructive methods puncture the fruit and thus only a subsample, selected to represent all fruit, can be tested. In addition, different operators can generate quite different values for the same fruit using a hand-held penetrometer. Hass avocado from two commercial orchards was collected, and fruit firmness was measured at harvest, during two storage conditions controlled atmosphere (CA) and regular air (RA), during shelf-life and at the ready-to-eat stage using both destructive (Fruit Pressure Tester, mod. FT327, Wagner Instruments, Greenwich, USA) and non-destructive devices (Model TA.XT plusC, Stable Micro Systems Ltd, England). Then, the mathematical relationship between these two devices was assessed using Spearman Correlation coefficient (rho) and p-values adjusted by Benjamini-Hochberg and Bonferroni procedures. Thus, 3,200 fruits were evaluated during two harvests and two subsequent seasons. A moderate and positive association between destructive and non-destructive devices was found (rho coefficient ranging from 0.41 to 0.51). The variance explained by the regression models ranged from 0.53 to 0.63; all of them were significant with good accuracies (i.e., 0.79; 0.78; 0.73; 0.76). The results prompt us to conclude that a non-destructive texture analyser device can be used to accurately predict firmness measured by a penetrometer in Hass avocado fruit and contribute to avoiding fruit discards.

Słowa kluczowe

  • destructive fruit firmness
  • mathematical modelling
  • non-destructive device
  • relationships
Open Access

First characterisation of chrysanthemum virus B infecting chrysanthemum in Thailand and development of colourimetric RT-LAMP for rapid and sensitive detection

Data publikacji: 19 Aug 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Chrysanthemum is among the world's most important ornamental plants because of its high economic and cultural value. Our report is the first to describe the detection of chrysanthemum virus B (CVB) in chrysanthemum leaf samples collected from Thailand, which showed yellowing and mild mottling symptoms. The coat protein sequences of CVB isolated in this study share 95.15% identity with previously characterised CVB isolates. Biological indexing found that CVB induced both local and systemic symptoms in tobacco plants, while petunia displayed systemic symptoms. To improve the rapidity and sensitivity of CVB detection, the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique was developed. LAMP detection was found to be optimal when incubation was conducted at 65 °C for 45 min, wherein the LAMP reaction demonstrated 106 times higher sensitivity than polymerase chain reaction. To simplify the interpretation of results, we designed the method such that a positive result is clearly indicated based on a change of colour (colourimetry), from pink to yellow, as observed visually and via gel electrophoresis. To our best knowledge, this is the first report on the characterisation of molecular, biological and morphological characteristics of CVB infecting chrysanthemum in Thailand, along with the development of colourimetric RT-LAMP for improving detection efficiency.

Słowa kluczowe

  • ornamental plant
  • rapid detection
  • virus detection
  • virus disease
  • virus particle
Open Access

Optimization of solvent-free microwave-assisted extraction of antioxidant compounds from Lagenaria siceraria fruit by response surface methodology

Data publikacji: 19 Aug 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd) fruit is highly celebrated for its nutritional as well as therapeutic properties. The present study was undertaken with the aim of exploring an efficient green solvent-free microwave-assisted extraction method for bioactives from this fruit. Optimization was done according to response surface methodology (RSM), where microwave power (W) and time (s) were independent factors, and percent extraction yield, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and iron chelating activity (ICA) were the responses. TPC, TFC, DPPH radical scavenging activity, FRAP and ICA were highest at 480 W and 60 s. The TPC was 288.9 mg GAE · g−1 DW (milligram gallic acid equivalent per gram dry weight), TFC was 214.1 mg RE · g−1 (rutin equivalent per gram DW), anti-radical activity was 32.96%, FRAP was 289.7 mg AAE · g−1 (mg ascorbic acid equivalents per gram) and ICA was 19.52%. The results of the study thus demonstrate that the solvent-free microwave-assisted extraction method, which utilised an optimum power of 480 W and a time of 60 s, is an effective and green method for extraction of antioxidant compounds from bottle gourd fruit.

Słowa kluczowe

  • antioxidant
  • bottle gourd
  • green extraction
  • iron chelation
  • phenolics
Open Access

Waste apple wood: A safe and economical alternative substrate for the cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinula edodes

Data publikacji: 01 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

The use of waste apple-wood as a source of sawdust to cultivate the mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinula edodes is a common practice, but it is imperative to ensure that the wood does not contain unsafe amounts of heavy-metals or pesticide residues. In this study, we sampled and investigated the pollution of heavy metals and pesticide residues in apple-wood from Yantai, Shandong, China and cultivated P. ostreatus and L. edodes using apple-wood as substrate. Heavy metals, pesticide residues, mineral elements, and biological efficiency were measured. Heavy metals were more commonly detected in the 73 apple-wood samples, but serious pollution was only an isolated phenomenon. No Pb was detected in P. ostreatus and L. edodes. The contents of Hg, As, Cd, and Cr were at safe levels. The contents of Ni were equivalent to those of wild mushrooms. Most notably, chlorpyrifos was detected in all the apple-wood tested. However, chlorpyrifos was only detected in L. edodes cultivated with apple sawdust. No other pesticide residues were detected in the other mushroom samples. The biological efficiency of P. ostreatus cultivated by apple sawdust was 89%, which was 80% of the control. The biological efficiency of L. edodes cultivated with apple sawdust was 81%, which did not differ significantly from the control. Apple-wood can replace wild oak as the material for L. edodes cultivation, but producers should ensure that the raw materials are safe. The main materials chosen to cultivate P. ostreatus should balance the two factors of raw material price and biological efficiency.

Słowa kluczowe

  • apple wood
  • biological efficiency
  • heavy metals
  • mineral elements
  • pesticide residues
Open Access

Development of dandelion (Taraxacum spp.) quality evaluation technology based on phenolic acids

Data publikacji: 18 Nov 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

One of the main purposes for which dandelions are cultivated is to derive phenolic acids from their processing. Phenolic acids, which are one of the main useful compounds in dandelion, constitute one of the important groups of therapeutically significant bioactive compounds in traditional Chinese medicine. To carry out a relatively full evaluation of dandelion quality, it was found advisable to use multiple indices to avoid conflict with the single evaluation index stipulated by China Pharmacopoeia. Thus, a quality evaluation method was created based on traditional Chinese medicinal theory and relevant statistics on phenolic acids. Firstly, four main kinds of phenolic acids – caftaric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and cichoric acid – were chosen as the main indices for quality evaluation through the optimisation of high performance liquid chromatography detection conditions and fingerprint comparison analysis; then, the content of each component was divided into five levels based on the descriptive statistics of 578 dandelion samples and references; finally, the equal weight average method was used to convert content levels of the four components into a comprehensive quality index, which served as the means for dandelion quality to be identified and segregated into grades, as follows: Grade 1 (super high, probability of 0.8%), Grade 2 (high, 18.72%), Grade 3 (medium, 37.28%), Grade 4 (qualified, 32%) and Grade 5 (low, 11.2%). This method is the first to comprehensively evaluate dandelion quality for setting an industry standard in China, and has practical and scientific characteristics.

Słowa kluczowe

  • functional compounds
  • gradation
  • quality assessment
Open Access

Does the sunblock alleviate abiotic stress in mango trees grown in the tropical semiarid?

Data publikacji: 08 Dec 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Mango is the most exported fruit of Brazil, especially grown in São Francisco Valley (tropical semiarid) where there is high temperatures and low air humidity, a condition that can cause stress to plants. Thus, the current study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of different sunblocks to alleviate the abiotic stress of “Palmer” mango trees grown in a semiarid environment. The experimental design consisted of randomised blocks with six treatments, four repetitions and three plants per plot. The treatments consisted of different strategies of sunblocks as follows: (T1) control (no sunblock); (T2) calcium carbonate (50 g · L−1); (T3) sunblock (5 mL · L−1); (T4) sunblock (5 mL · L−1) + calcium carbonate (50 g · L−1); (T5) sunblock (5 mL · L−1) + sunblock silicon concentrated (20 mL · L−1) and (T6) sunblock (20 mL · L−1). The results indicate a clear action of sunblock in attenuating the abiotic stress of mango, with a persistent effect with time elapsing, considering the evaluated interval. The sunblock clearly promotes a differentiated leaf coverage pattern, protecting the photosynthetic apparatus and increasing its performance and consequently improving the production of plant reserves. The use of calcium carbonate individually promotes a very short protective effect, without positive reflexes after a few days of application. Mango fruit yield is affected by the sunblock with an increase of 4.2 t · ha−1 from the treatment with sunblock (20 mL · L−1) in relation to the control treatment.

Słowa kluczowe

  • enzyme activity
  • L
  • photosynthesis
  • soluble carbohydrates
Open Access

Growth and yield in taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) grown using different planting materials and exposed to different morphological alteration treatments

Data publikacji: 23 Dec 2022
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study aimed to compare cormels and suckers to determine the better planting material (PM) and to evaluate the effects of morphology-altering treatments on both shoot growth and corm yield in taro plants. The PMs used included cormel (PMC), suckers with two leaves (PMS2) and suckers with four leaves (PMS4). Morphological alteration (MA) treatment included removal of all suckers (MAS), excising the mother plant (MAM), and non-treated control (NMA). Data were collected weekly for non-destructive and at 12, 20, and 28 weeks after planting (WAP) for destructive measurements. Results of this study indicated that the SPAD values were higher in taro plants grown using cormel and morphologically non-altered plants. Removal of all suckers caused the mother plant to increase the number of leaves. The dry weight of the leaf blades, petioles and fibrous roots of the mother plant and the number of suckers decreased after the corm enlargement process took place. Fresh and dry weights of the corm increased at 20 WAP and then slowed down at 28 WAP. The moisture content of corm was relatively constant at 75%. Cormel could form on the fibrous roots and on suckers, but the total wet and dry weights of the cormels were decreased if the suckers were periodically removed. The growth of suckers was very dominant compared to the NMA plant when the mother plant was excised. Meanwhile, if all the suckers were removed, the growth of the mother plant was relatively comparable to that of the NMA plants.

Słowa kluczowe

  • cormel
  • double yield organ
  • leafy vegetable
  • physical manipulation
  • sucker
  • tropical crop
Open Access

Comparative study of the effects of selenium nanoparticles and selenite on selenium content and nutrient quality in soybean sprouts

Data publikacji: 04 Jan 2023
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Soybean (Glycine max L.) sprouts are a common vegetable with rich nutrients, such as protein, vitamin C and isoflavones. Soybean is also capable of accumulating selenium (Se). To study the effects of Se biofortification on the nutrient of this crop, soybean sprouts were treated with different concentrations of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) or selenite (i.e., 10 μM, 20 μM, 40 μM, 80 μM and 100 μM) in a hydroponic experiment. Results showed that SeNPs and selenite remarkably increased the total Se concentration in soybean sprouts. Five Se speciations, namely, selenocystine, selenomethionine, methyl selenocysteine, selenite and selenate were detected in soybean sprouts, but selenomethionine was found to be the dominant Se speciation. SeNPs and selenite increased the contents of chlorophyll, carotenoid, soluble sugar, soluble protein, vitamin C and isoflavones in soybean sprouts. SeNPs treatments led to less malondialdehyde content compared with selenite. SeNPs and selenite both enhanced the glutathione content. The modest dosage of exogenous Se stimulated the catalase activity, whereas the large amount reduced it. The peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase activities were stimulated by SeNPs and selenite. SeNPs posed no significant influence on the superoxide dismutase activity. This study suggests that SeNPs are a good exogenous Se source for the production of Se-rich soybean sprouts.

Słowa kluczowe

  • nutrient
  • selenite
  • selenium forms
  • selenium nanoparticles
  • soybean sprouts
Open Access

Green extraction of bioactive compounds from Azadirachta indica in aqueous glycerol and modelling and optimisation by response surface methodology

Data publikacji: 11 Jan 2023
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Development of efficient and green methods for extracting bioactive phytochemicals has great industrial value. Increasing environmental sensitivity at the global level has tremendously enhanced the demand for such methods. Azadirachta indica is a well-known medicinal tree. As glycerol has emerged as a green and safe extraction solvent for bioactive phytochemicals, this study aimed to investigate the efficacy of a glycerol–water solvent system to extract bioactive compounds from A. indica leaves. Modelling and optimisation were carried out by using response surface methodology (RSM) as per the Box–Behnken design with three variables, namely, solvent concentration, time and temperature. The responses were total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and metal chelating activity (MCA). The optimum conditions found by numerical optimisation were a solvent concentration of 69.713%, a time period of 38.328 min and a temperature of 32.114 °C with the predicted values of TPC, TFC, %DPPH and %MCA as 5.27 mg gallic acid equivalents · g−1 DW (dry weight), 9.869 mg rutin equivalents · g−1 DW, 73.8% and 54.366%, respectively. The validation experiments showed almost the same results for each response with very low% errors (5.431–7.661). Increasing glycerol concentration in the extracting medium favoured the extraction of TPC, TFC and antioxidant phytochemicals, but for MCA, the trend was the opposite. In conclusion, 70% aqueous glycerol is an effective medium for the extraction of polyphenolic and antioxidant phytochemicals from A. indica leaves. Extraction models suggested by RSM have high prospects to be used on a large industrial scale.

Słowa kluczowe

  • antioxidant
  • Box–Behnken design
  • model fitting
  • neem
  • phytochemicals
  • polyphenols
Open Access

Effects of a weak supply of light at night on the growth and quality components of tea plants

Data publikacji: 18 Jan 2023
Zakres stron: -

Abstrakt

Abstract

Supplying artificial light is widely used in crop cultivation to improve yield and quality. In this study, we investigated the effects of a weak supply of light (WSL) on the growth and quality components of tea plants. Starting from mid-winter (20 January 2021), the purple tea (Camellia sinensis) cultivar ‘Ziyan’ was exposed to four different spectra at an intensity of 2 μmol · m−2 · s−1 or 5 μmol · m−2 · s−1 for 3 h or 5 h after sunset. The field observations showed that the sprouting index, which represents the time and speed of bud flush, was significantly higher in most of the WSL treatments than in the control (CK, p < 0.01). The total content of catechin in the harvested leaves of 3 WSL treatments was 11.51%–18.94% higher than that of the CK, but the content of anthocyanin of 4 WSL treatments unexpectedly decreased by 6.77%–11.69% (p < 0.05). The differences in yield, free amino acids and caffeine contents between the WSL treatments and CK were not significant. We concluded that the WSL treatments during the early spring night had positive impacts on the growth and some quality components of tea plants.

Słowa kluczowe

  • anthocyanin
  • catechin
  • weak supply of light

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