1. bookTom 20 (2002): Zeszyt 1 (February 2002)
Informacje o czasopiśmie
License
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2719-9509
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 1992
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski
Otwarty dostęp

The Development and Significance of Standards for Smoking-Machine Methodology

Data publikacji: 30 Dec 2014
Tom & Zeszyt: Tom 20 (2002) - Zeszyt 1 (February 2002)
Zakres stron: 23 - 41
Otrzymano: 22 Sep 2001
Przyjęty: 03 Dec 2001
Informacje o czasopiśmie
License
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2719-9509
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 1992
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

1. Bialous, S.A. and D. Yach: Whose standard is it, anyway? How the tobacco industry determines the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards for tobacco and tobacco products; Tob. Control 10 (2001) 96–104.Search in Google Scholar

1a. Baker, R.R.: Letter to the Editor; Tob. Control 10 (2001) 394.10.1002/1097-4598(200103)24:3<394::AID-MUS1011>3.0.CO;2-JSearch in Google Scholar

1b. Jacob, F.: Letter to the Editor; Tob. Control 10 (2001) 394–395.Search in Google Scholar

1c. Bialous, S.A. and D. Yach: Authors’ Reply; Tob. Control 10 (2001) 395–396.Search in Google Scholar

2. Wynder, E.L. and D. Hoffmann: Tobacco and tobacco smoke; Studies in experimental carcinogenesis; Academic Press, New York and London, 1967, pp 94–105.Search in Google Scholar

3. DeBardeleben, M.Z., J.E. Wickham and W.F. Kuhn: The determination of tar and nicotine in cigarette smoke from an historical perspective; Rec. Adv. Tob. Sci. 17 (1991) 115–148.Search in Google Scholar

4. Pfyl, B.: The determination of nicotine in tobacco smoke, II; Z. Unters. Lebensmittel 66 (1933) 501–509.Search in Google Scholar

5. Bradford, J.A., W.R. Harlan and H.R. Hanmer: Nature of cigaret smoke: technic of experimental smoking (sic); Indust. Eng. Chem. 28 (1936) 836–839.Search in Google Scholar

6. Keith, C.H. and J.R. Newsome: Quantitative studies on cigarette smoke. I. An automatic smoking machine; Tob. Sci. 1 (1957) 51–57.Search in Google Scholar

7. Mumpower II, R.C., J.E. Kiefer and G.P. Touey: Effect of the duration of a constant-volume puff on the efficiency of cigarette filters; Tob. Sci. 5 (1961) 31–35.Search in Google Scholar

8. Dube, M.F. and C.R. Green: Methods of collection of smoke for analytical purposes; Rec. Adv. Tob. Sci. 8 (1982) 42–102.Search in Google Scholar

9. Wartman, Jr., W.B., E.C. Cogbill and E.S. Harlow: Determination of particulate matter in concentrated aerosols. Application to analysis of cigarette smoke; Anal. Chem. 31 (1959) 1705–1709.Search in Google Scholar

10. Grob. K.: Gas chromatography of cigarette smoke. Part III. Separation of the overlap region of gas and particulate phase by capillary columns; J. Gas Chrom. 3 (1965) 52–56.Search in Google Scholar

11. Holmes, J.C. and W.B. Cridlin: Moisture in the total particulate matter and gas phase of cigarette smoke; J. Assoc. Off. Agric. Chem. 43 (1960) 515–518.Search in Google Scholar

12. Crowell, E.P., W.F. Kuhn, F.E. Resnik and C.J. Varsel: The determination of moisture in total particu-late matter of cigarette smoke by near-infrared spectrophotometry; Tob. Sci. 5 (1961) 54–57.Search in Google Scholar

13. Jarrell, J.E. and J.E. Wickham: The determination of moisture in the total particulate matter of cigarette smoke; Tob. Sci. 6 (1962) 154–157.Search in Google Scholar

14. Avens, A.W. and G.W. Pearce: Silicotungstic acid determination of nicotine: errors involved and a new technique for steam-distillation of nicotine; Indust. Eng. Chem. -Anal. Ed. 11 (1939) 505–508.Search in Google Scholar

15. Willits, C.O., M.L. Swain, J.A. Connelly and B. Brice: Spectrophotometric determination of nicotine; Anal. Chem. 22 (1950) 430–433.Search in Google Scholar

16. Griffith, R.B. and R.N. Jeffrey: Improved steam-distillation apparatus: application to determination of nicotine in green and dry tobacco; Anal. Chem. 20 (1948) 307–311.Search in Google Scholar

17. Cundiff, R.H. and P.C. Markunas: Determination of nicotine, nornicotine and total alkaloids in tobacco; Anal. Chem. 27 (1955) 1650–1653.Search in Google Scholar

18. Griffith, R.B.: The rapid determination of total alka-loids by steam distillation; Tob. Sci. 1 (1957) 130–137.Search in Google Scholar

19. Quin, L.D.: Alkaloids of tobacco smoke. I. Fraction-ation of some tobacco alkaloids and of the alkaloid extract of burley cigarette smoke by gas chromatogra-phy; J. Org. Chem. 24 (1959) 911–914.Search in Google Scholar

20. Harvey, W.R., C.E. Badgett and F.E. Resnik: Nicotine alkaloids in tobacco leaf, cigarette filler and particu-late matter of smoke by acid-methanol extraction; Tob. Sci. 11 (1967) 84-86.Search in Google Scholar

21. Charles, J.L., H.M. Stahr and R.M. Ikeda: Automated determination of total particulate matter of cigarette smoke; Tob. Sci. 13 (1969) 54-58.Search in Google Scholar

22. Peeler, C.L.: Cigarette testing and the Federal Trade Commission: a historical overview; in: Smoking and Tobacco Control. National Cancer Institute Mono-graph 7. The FTC cigarette test method for determining tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide of U.S. ciga-rettes. Report of the NCI expert committee. National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD, U.S.A., 1996, Chapter 1.Search in Google Scholar

23. Rodgman, A.: FTC “tar” and nicotine in mainstream smoke: a retrospective; Rec. Adv. Tob. Sci. 23 (1997) 5-74.Search in Google Scholar

24. Borgerding, M.F.: The FTC method in 1997 - what alternative smoking condition(s) does the future hold? Rec. Adv. Tob. Sci. 23 (1997) 75-151.Search in Google Scholar

25. Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service: Smoking and Health; U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, DHEW Publ. No. (PHS) 1103, 1964.Search in Google Scholar

26. Federal Trade Commission: News Release, 25 March 1966.Search in Google Scholar

27. Ogg, CL.: Determination of particulate matter and alkaloids (as nicotine) in cigarette smoke; J. Assoc. Off. Agric. Chem. 47 (1964) 356-362.Search in Google Scholar

28a. Federal Trade Commission: Cigarettes and related matters: methods to be employed in determining tar and nicotine content; Fed. Register 31 (1966) 14, 278.Search in Google Scholar

28b. Federal Trade Commission: Cigarettes: testing for tar and nicotine content; Fed. Register 32 (1967) 11,178.Search in Google Scholar

29. Federal Trade Commission: New Release, 1 August 1967.Search in Google Scholar

30. Pillsbury, H.C., CC. Bright, K.J. O'Connor and F.W. Irish: Tar and nicotine in cigarette smoke; J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 52 (1969) 458-462.Search in Google Scholar

31. Federal Trade Commission: “Tar” and nicotine content of 59 varieties of cigarette; November 1967.Search in Google Scholar

32. Ogg, CL. and E.F. Schultz: Collaborative study of the determination of tar and nicotine in cigarette smoke; J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 53 (1970) 659-672.Search in Google Scholar

33. Federal Trade Commission: “Tar”, nicotine and carbon monoxide of the smoke of 187 varieties of cigarettes; March 1981.Search in Google Scholar

34. Adams, P.I.: Measurements on puffs taken by human smokers; Paper presented at 20th Tobacco Chemists’ Research Conference, Winston-Salem, NC, U.S.A., Programme Booklet and Abstracts, no. 31, 1966.Search in Google Scholar

36. Bates, W.B., R.B. Griffith, E.S. Harlow, M. Senkus, and H. Wakeham: Determination and reporting of total particulate matter, water in total particulate matter, and nicotine in cigarette smoke; Tob. Sci. 12 (1968) 192-196. (Reprinted from Virginia J. Sci. 18 (1967) 130-135.)Search in Google Scholar

36. Bentley, H.R. and J.G. Burgan: Cigarette smoke condensate: preparation and routine laboratory estimation, 2nd Ed.; Tobacco Manufacturers Standing Committee, London, UK, Research Paper 4, 1961.Search in Google Scholar

37. Johnson, J.C.: Development of machine smoking parameters for measurement of cigarette tar yield in the United Kingdom; J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 69 (1986) 598–600.Search in Google Scholar

38. Rothwell, K. and C.A. Grant (Eds): Standard methods for the analysis of tobacco smoke; Tobacco Research Council, London, UK, Research Paper 11, 1972, 2nd edition was published in 1974 and 3rd edition was published in 1986.Search in Google Scholar

39. British Standards Institute: Routine analytical ciga-rette smoking machine. Part 1. Specification and standard conditions; BS5668, 1987.Search in Google Scholar

40a. Deutsches Institut für Normung: Analysis of tobacco and tobacco products – Machine smoking of cigarettes and determination of smoke condensate: requirements for an analytical smoking machine; DIN 10, 240, 1978.Search in Google Scholar

40b. Deutsches Institut für Normung: Analysis of tobacco and tobacco products – Determination of alkaloids in cigarette smoke condensates – spectrophotometric method; DIN 10, 242, 1982.Search in Google Scholar

41a. International Organisation for Standardisation: Rou-tine analytical cigarette-smoking machine. Definitions and standard conditions; ISO 3308, 1991; replaced by revised edition in 2000.Search in Google Scholar

41b. International Organisation for Standardisation: Tobacco and tobacco products. Atmosphere for conditioning and testing; ISO 3402, 1991; replaced by revised edition in 1999.Search in Google Scholar

41c. International Organisation for Standardisation: Ciga-rettes. Determination of total and nicotine-free dry particulate matter using a routine analytical smoking machine; ISO 4387, 1991; replaced by revised edition in 2000.Search in Google Scholar

41d. International Organisation for Standardisation: Sam-pling tobacco and tobacco products. Methods of sampling cigarettes; ISO 8243, 1991, current standard.Search in Google Scholar

41e. International Organisation for Standardisation: Ciga-rettes. Determination of nicotine in smoke conden-sates – gas chromatographic method; ISO 10315, 1991; replaced by revised edition in 2000.Search in Google Scholar

41f. International Organisation for Standardisation: Ciga-rettes. Determination of water in smoke condensates – gas chromatographic method; ISO 10362-1, 1991; replaced by revised edition in 1999.Search in Google Scholar

41g. International Organisation for Standardisation: Ciga-rettes. Determination of water in smoke condensates – Karl Fischer method; ISO 10362-4, 1994; current standard. (The equivalent CORESTA methods are CORESTA Recommended Method Numbers 7, 8, 21 to 25, CORESTA Inf. Bull. No. 3 (1991) 112–179.Search in Google Scholar

42. CORESTA Recommended Method No. 10: Machine smoking of cigarettes, determination of crude and dry smoke condensate; CORESTA Inf. Bull. No. 1 (1969) 24-33.Search in Google Scholar

43. International Organisation for Standardisation: Rou-tine analytical cigarette smoking machine. Specification for the machine and auxiliary equipment; ISO 3308, First edition, 1977. Now withdrawn and re-placed by the standard in reference 41a.Search in Google Scholar

44. International Organisation for Standardisation: Ciga-rettes - determination of total and dry particulate matter using a routine analytical cigarette smoking achine - glass fibre filter smoke trap method; ISO 4387, First edition, 1987. Now withdrawn and re-placed by the standard in reference 41c.Search in Google Scholar

45. International Organisation for Standardisation: Ciga-rettes - determination of total and dry particulate matter using a routine analytical smoking machine. An electrostatic smoke trap method; ISO 8453, First edition 1987. Now withdrawn and not replaced.Search in Google Scholar

46. CORESTA Recommended Method No. 22: Routine analytical cigarette-smoking machine specifications, definitions and standard conditions; CORESTA Inf. Bull. No. 4 (1989) 28-53.Search in Google Scholar

47. Baker, R.R. and L.S. Lewis: A review of the inci-dence and consequences of cigarette filter vent blocking among smokers; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 19 (2001) 209-228.Search in Google Scholar

48. Thomsen, H.V.: International reference method for the smoking of cigarettes; Rec. Adv. Tob. Sci. 18 (1992) 69-94.Search in Google Scholar

49. European Economic Community: Council Directive 90/239/EEC 17 May 1990 on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States concerning the maximum tar yields of cigarettes; Official Journal L 137 (1990) 36-37.Search in Google Scholar

50. International Organisation for Standardisation: Precision of test methods - Determination of repeatability and reproducibility for a standard test method by interlaboratory tests; ISO 5725, 1986.Search in Google Scholar

51. CORESTA: Smoking methods. The determination of repeatability (r) and reproducibility (R) for the mea-surement of: nicotine-free dry particulate matter, nicotine and water using CORESTA Recommended Methods 7, 8, 21, 22, 23, 25; CORESTA Inf. Bull. No. 3 (1991) 4-111.Search in Google Scholar

52a. Federal Trade Commission: Up in smoke: the truth about tar and nicotine ratings, May 2000; Internet website: www.ftc.gov/bcp/conline/pubs/alerts/ smokealrt.htmSearch in Google Scholar

52b. Federal Trade Commission: “tar”, nicotine, and carbon monoxide of the smoke of 1294 varieties of domestic cigarettes for the year 1998; 2000.Search in Google Scholar

53. Creighton, D.E. and P.H. Lewis: The effect of smoking pattern on smoke deliveries, in: Smoking behav-iour: physiological and psychological influences, edited by R.E. Thornton, Churchill Livingstone, London, 1978, pp 301-314.Search in Google Scholar

54. Darrall, K.G.: Smoking machine parameters and cigarette smoke yields; Sci. Total Environ. 74 (1988) 263-278.Search in Google Scholar

55. Schulz, W. and F. Seehofer: Smoking behaviour in Germany - the analysis of cigarette butts (KIPA); in: Smoking behaviour: physiological and psychological influences, edited by R.E. Thornton, Churchill Livingstone, London, 1978, pp 259-276.Search in Google Scholar

56. Scherer, G.: Smoking behaviour and compensation: a review of the literature; Psychopharm. 145 (1999) 1-20.Search in Google Scholar

57. Fourth Report of the Independent Scientific Committee on Smoking and Health (Chairman, Froggatt, Sir P.); Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1988, Appendix 3.Search in Google Scholar

58. CORESTA: Standard smoking methods: a CORESTA perspective; a) CORESTA Inf. Bull. No. 2 (1994) 54–57. b) Internet website: www.coresta.org.Search in Google Scholar

59. Green, S.J.: Ranking cigarette brands on smoke deliveries; in: Smoking behaviour: physiological and psychological influences, edited by R.E. Thornton, Churchill Livingstone, London, 1978, pp 380–388. The references included in Green's quotation in Section 6.4 of this review are:Search in Google Scholar

59a. Hammond, E.C., L. Garfinkel, H. Seidman and E. Lew: Some recent findings concerning cigarette smoking: Presented at a meeting on “The Origins of Human Cancer” at Cold Springs Harbor Laboratory on September 14, 1976.Search in Google Scholar

59b. Dean, G., P.N. Lee, G.F. Todd and A.J. Wicken: Report on a Second Retrospective Mortality Study in North-East England. Part 1. Factors related to mortal-ity from lung cancer, bronchitis, heart disease and stroke in Cleveland County, with particular emphasis on the relative risks associated with smoking filter and plain cigarettes; Tobacco Research Council, Research Paper 14, Part 1, London, 1977.Search in Google Scholar

59c. Bross, I.D.J. and R. Gibson, Risks of lung cancer in smokers who switch to filter cigarettes; Amer. J. Pub-Health 58 (1968) 1396–1403.Search in Google Scholar

59d. Wynder, E.L., K. Mabuchi and E.J. Beattie: The epidemiology of lung cancer. Recent trends; J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 213 (1970) 2221–2228.Search in Google Scholar

60. National Cancer Institute Monograph 7: Smoking and Tobacco Control. The FTC cigarette test method for determining tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide of U.S. cigarettes. Report of the NCI expert committee. National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD, U.S.A., 1996, pp. iii-xx.Search in Google Scholar

61. Rickert, W.S., J.C. Robinson, J.C. Young, N.E. Collinshaw and D.F. Bray: A comparison of the yields of tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide of 36 brands of Canadian cigarettes tested under three conditions; Prev. Med. 12 (1983) 682–694.Search in Google Scholar

62. Rickert, W.S. and M.J. Kaiserman: A comparison of yields of “tar”, nicotine and CO of 115 brands of Canadian cigarettes tested under six conditions; Paper presented at 51st Tobacco Chemists’ Research Confer-ence, Winston-Salem, NC, U.S.A., Programme Booklet and Abstract, no. 7, 1997.Search in Google Scholar

63. Borgerding, M.F. and L.S. Winkler: Effect of alternative puffing regimens on relative cigarette performance; Paper presented at 49th Tobacco Chemists’ Research Conference, Lexington, KY, U.S.A., Programme Booklet and Abstract, no. 47, 1995.Search in Google Scholar

64. Taylor, C.R., Jr., J.R. Reid, M.A. Sudholt, K.F. Po-draza, F.S. Hsu, M.F. Borgerding, J.A. Bodnar and J.F. Whidby: The 1999 Massachusetts benchmark study. Final report. (A Research Study Conducted after Consultation with the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH)). Presented to the MDPH on 24 July 2000. Compiled by M.F. Borgerding, J.A. Bodnar and D.E. Wingate.Search in Google Scholar

65. Borgerding, M.F., J.A. Bodnar, F.S. Hsu, W.T. Morgan, K.F. Podraza, J.R. Reid, M. A. Sudholt, CR. Taylor Jr., and J.F. Whidby: 1999 Massachusetts benchmark study to evaluate mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke constituent yields. Part 1. General summary and overview of results; Part 2. Overview of mainstream results; Part 3. Overview of sidestream results; Part 4. Application of functional relationships to estimate mainstream and sidestream smoke yields; Papers presented at the 54th Tobacco Science Research Conference, Nashville, TN, U.S.A., Programme Booklet and Abstracts, nos. 15, 16, 17 and 18, pp. 25-28, 2000.Search in Google Scholar

66. Borgerding, M.F., J.A. Bodnar, K.F. Podraza, J.R. Reid, F.S. Hsu, M.A. Sudholt, CR. Taylor, Jr., and J.F. Whidby: 1999 Massachusetts benchmark study to evaluate mainstream and sidestream smoke constitu-ent yields - a summary of results; Paper presented at CO RESTA Congress, Lisbon, Portugal, CO RESTA Congress Inf. Bull., Abstract ST18, p. 162, 2000.Search in Google Scholar

67. Kozlowski, L.T. and R.J. O'Connor: Official cigarette tar tests are misleading: use a two-stage compensating test; Lancet 355 (2000) 2159-2161.Search in Google Scholar

68. Adams, P.I.: The influence of cigarette smoke yields on smoking habits; in: Smoking behaviour: physio-logical and psychological influences, edited by R.E. Thornton, Churchill Livingstone, London, 1978, pp. 349-360.Search in Google Scholar

69. Adams, P.I.: Cigar smoking: measurement of the human smoking regime and its relationship to smoking machines; Paper presented at joint CORESTA/To-bacco Chemists’ Research Conference, Williamsburg, VA, U.S.A., CORESTA Inf. Bull., Abstract 78, pp. 116-117, 1972.Search in Google Scholar

70. Adams, P.I.: Changes in personal smoking habits brought about by changes in cigarette smoke yield; Paper presented at 6th International Tobacco Scientific Congress, Tokyo, Japan, CORESTA Inf. Bull., Abstract G005, pp. 132-133, 1976.Search in Google Scholar

71. Thornton, R.E. (Ed.): Smoking behaviour: physiolog-ical and psychological influences; Churchill Livingstone, London, 1978.Search in Google Scholar

72. Rodgman, A. (Symposium Chairman): Design of low-“tar” cigarettes; Rec. Adv. Tob. Sci., Volume 10, 1984.Search in Google Scholar

73. Norman, A.: Cigarette design and materials; in: Tobacco - production, chemistry and technology, edited by D.L. Davis and M.T. Nielsen, Blackwell Science, Oxford, U.K., 1999, pp. 353-387.Search in Google Scholar

74. Wynder, E.L., P. Kopf and H. Ziegler: A study of tobacco carcinogenesis. II. Dose-response studies; Cancer 10 (1957) 1193-1200.Search in Google Scholar

75. ibid. reference 2, pp. 503-516.Search in Google Scholar

76 Wynder, E.L.: Towards a solution of the tobacco-cancer problem; Brit. Med. J. (1957) 1-3.Search in Google Scholar

77. A report of the Royal College of Physicians of London on smoking in relation to cancer of the lung and other diseases: Smoking and Health; Pitman Medical Publishing Co. Ltd., London, U.K., 1962.Search in Google Scholar

78. Gori, G.B.: Low-risk cigarettes: a prescription; Science 194 (1976) 1243-1246.Search in Google Scholar

80. World Health Organisation: Smoking and its effects on health. Report of a WHO expert committee; WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, 1975, Technical Report Series No. 568, pp 29–34.Search in Google Scholar

81. World Health Organisation: Controlling the smoking epidemic, Report of the WHO expert committee on smoking control, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, 1979, Technical Report Series No. 636, p. 72.Search in Google Scholar

82. Peto, R. and R. Doll: The control of lung cancer; New Scientist (1985) 26–30.Search in Google Scholar

83. Froggatt, Sir P.: Smoking and health: yesterday's lessons and tomorrow's agenda; lecture given to the Royal College of Physicians, London, October 1989.Search in Google Scholar

84. Report of the Scientific Committee on Tobacco and Health (Chairman, Poswillo, D.); U.K. Department of Health, The Stationery Office, London, U.K., 1998, p. 14.Search in Google Scholar

85. An example of such a poster is reproduced in refer-ence 57, Appendix 7.Search in Google Scholar

85. Source: Tobacco Manufacturers’ Association, London.Search in Google Scholar

86. Swann, C. and Sir P. Froggatt: The Tobacco Products Research Trust 1982–1996; The Royal Society of Medicine Press, London, U.K., 1996, pp. 26–32.Search in Google Scholar

87. Waller, R.E. and P. Frogatt: Product modification; Brit. Med. Bull. 52 (1996) 193–205.10.1093/oxfordjournals.bmb.a011526Search in Google Scholar

88. ibid. reference 57, paragraph 58, p. 18.Search in Google Scholar

89. ibid. reference 57, p. 11.Search in Google Scholar

90. ibid. reference 86, pp 45–46.Search in Google Scholar

Polecane artykuły z Trend MD

Zaplanuj zdalną konferencję ze Sciendo