1. bookAHEAD OF PRINT
Informacje o czasopiśmie
License
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2300-0929
Pierwsze wydanie
19 Oct 2012
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski
access type Otwarty dostęp

Polyaniline Electrospun Composite Nanofibers Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes

Data publikacji: 12 Jun 2022
Tom & Zeszyt: AHEAD OF PRINT
Zakres stron: -
Informacje o czasopiśmie
License
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2300-0929
Pierwsze wydanie
19 Oct 2012
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski
Abstract

Reinforcement of fibers was carried out by adding carbon black (CB), and hydroxylated and carboxylated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into electrospinning solution containing doped polyaniline (CSA-PANI) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN). CB/CSA-PANI/PAN and CNT/CSA-PANI/PAN electrospun nanofiber composite membrane was formed in high-voltage electric field. The CSA-PANI/CB/PAN fiber membrane was found to be more brittle than the MWCNTs/CSA-PANI/PAN fiber membrane. The average diameter of the CSA-PANI/CB/PAN nanofibers increased with CB addition, while the average diameter of CNT-added MWCNTs/CSA-PANI/PAN nanofibers decreased with increasing CNT concentrations. Upon greater CB and CNT addition, agglomeration occurred, and the surface of the fibers was raised slightly. The fracture strength of the nanofiber membrane was greatly improved with 1% added CB but then decreased upon further CB addition. Upon addition of CNTs, the fracture strength of the nanofiber membrane first increased and then decreased, and the addition of carboxylated CNTs was more advantageous for improving the fracture strength of the fiber membrane. The electromagnetic shielding performance of the fiber membranes was essentially the same for different radiation frequencies. Upon addition of CB and CNTs, the electromagnetic shielding performance of the fiber first increased and then decreased, with a more pronounced decrease obtained by the addition of CB.

Keywords

Introduction

Electrospinning technology is currently one of the most economical and practical methods for the preparation of nanofibers [1]. In a pioneering work, Reenker dissolved polyaniline (PANI) in sulfuric acid and obtained PANI microfibers for the first time by electrospinning [2]. Fillers, such as metals, metal oxides, carbons, conducting polymers, and transition metal carbides/nitrides (MXenes), are added into the electrospun nanofibrous mat. Metals and metal oxides present some drawbacks, such as heaviness, easy corrosion, difficult treatment, and high cost.

Due to their flexibility and conductive behavior, conducting polymers such as polypyrrole (PPy), PANI, and polythiophene (PEDOT) are also potential candidates for integration with a flexible matrix for electromagnetic shielding. To avoid conglomeration, the ionic doping agents are usually added into the spinning solution to stabilize conducting polymers, which greatly improves charge density and viscosity [3]. Subsequently, researchers have systematically studied different aspects of electrospinning of PANI [4]. While a single-component PANI conductive fiber with high conductivity and small diameter can be prepared by electrospinning, this method requires special equipment and the prepared fiber is also quite brittle, limiting the application of this method [5,6].

To prepare PANI nanofibers with good properties, it is generally necessary to mix other polymers with PANI for the preparation of a composite nanofiber material using an electrospinning process [7,8]. PANI electrospun composite nanofibers are usually prepared by adding polyethylene oxide (PEO), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polylactic acid (PLA) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) [9,10,11,12,13,14]. An intense research effort has focused on the development of the process for the fabrication of PANI electrospinning composite fibers and the improvement of fiber morphology and properties through the changes in the PANI content or the addition of different polymers [15].

The carbonaceous fillers are another type of promising candidate as electromagnetic additives due to their high electrical conductivity, light weight, and stability. In addition to high electrical conductivity, they have certain characteristics, including unique aspect ratio and light weight; thus the carbonaceous filler is one of the proper additives to construct electromagnetic shielding material. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are mostly studied for electromagnetic shielding material among various carbon allotropes due to their superior mechanical, electrical, thermal, and low-loading content characteristics. CNTs are graphite-based hollow tubes that show heat resistance, corrosion resistance, high strength, self-lubricity, and other advantageous characteristics of graphite, such as very high mechanical strength and low thermal expansion coefficient [16,17,18]. Due to their nanoscale dimensions and good mechanical, electromagnetic, heat transfer, and optical performance characteristics, CNTs are an ideal reinforcement phase [19,20,21]. Electrospinning has been used for the preparation of CNT composite nanofibers in which CNTs are generally dispersed in a polymer spinning solution [22,23]. Typically, common synthetic or natural polymers, including polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polycarbonate (PC), and PVA, polyurethane (PU), poly (ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), nylon 6 (PA6), PEO, PLA, sericin, silk fibroin, and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) are used in these composite nanofibers [24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32]. Research conducted to date has shown that the addition of a certain amount of CNTs can improve the mechanical properties of the electrospun composite nanofibers because the CNTs are distributed along the fiber axis and promote the transformation of the crystal structure of the polymer [33,34]. However, excessive addition of CNTs will lead to the deterioration of the fiber's mechanical properties [35]. Addition of CNTs can improve electrical properties of fibers, enabling the use of sensors based on electrospun composite nanofibers in various devices [36].

Another filler additive is carbon black (CB), which is an amorphous carbon with a hexagonal lamellar structure and low resistivity [37,38]. As an additive material of electromagnetic shielding material, CB is often used in plastic, construction, ink, and textile finishing. It is a semiconductor that can enhance the conductivity, antistatic and electromagnetic shielding, and other properties of the product [39,40]. Most studies focus on the effects of a single CNT or CB on electrospun fiber membrane; few focus on comparing the effects of CNT and CB on electrospun fiber membrane [41,42,43,44,45,46]. The electrical conductivity values increase by combining CB-PPy and CNT, resulting in hybrid composites of TPU/CB-PPy/CNT with higher electromagnetic SE values when compared to TPU/CB-PPy composites, indicating the potential use of these materials for electromagnetic shielding application in the X-band frequency region [47]. A study has used different thickness of concrete walls by incorporating 1 and 5 wt% of CB; the results reveal the maximum value by the 5-300-N specimen [48]. CB conductive ink was applied to various woven fabric types by the knife-coating technique and pretreatment using a corona-discharged plasma generator, which is beneficial for the fabrication of various simple and low-cost electromagnetic shielding fabric based on coating by CB conductive ink and pretreatment by corona-discharged plasma [49]. To satisfy the lightweight and flexible features of electromagnetic shielding materials, electrospun nanofibrous materials have emerged as efficient matrices to load the electromagnetic fillers to meet the real application. Unlike other electromagnetic shielding materials, the electrospun nanofibrous mat possesses the advantages of abundant porous structure, light weight, ultra-thinness, flexibility, cost-effectiveness, and easy processability, which can produce a comprehensively good performance for electromagnetic shielding [50].

In this paper, CB and hydroxylated and carboxylated CNTs at different concentrations were added to prepare CB/CSA-PANI/PAN and CNT/CSA-PANI/PAN electrospun nanofiber composite membranes. The comparative effects of adding CNTs and CB on the electrospinning process, surface morphology, strength, and electromagnetic shielding performance of nanofiber composite membranes were studied.

Experimental Materials and Methods
Main Experimental Materials and Instruments

PANI powder was purchased from TCI Chemical Industry Development Co., Ltd. (Shanghai, China); camphor sulfonic acid powder (CSA) was purchased from Tokyo Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. (Japan); CNT powder was purchased from Beijing Boyu High-tech Co., Ltd. (China); nanometer (10~20 nm diameter) CB powder was purchased from Tianjin Damao Chemical Reagent Factory (China), and PAN powder with a molecular weight of 150,000 was purchased from Tangshan Xiangsheng Plastic Products Co., Ltd. (China). The above reagents were of analytically pure grade and were used directly without any treatment. An ultrasonic cleaner (CD-4800, Changzhou Ruipin Precision Instrument Co., Ltd., China), a high-voltage DC power supply (DW-P503-1ACDF, Dongwen High Voltage Power Supply Tianjin Co., Ltd., China), and a multi-channel microinjection pump (LSP10-18, Baoding Lange Constant Flow Pump Co., Ltd., China) were used in the experiments.

Experimental Scheme

PAN powders with mass fractions of 8%, 10%, and 12% were added to the appropriate amount of DMF solution, and then were magnetically stirred at 50 °C until the PAN powder was dissolved. After ultrasonic dispersion for 30 minutes, magnetic stirring was carried out overnight to prepare a spinning solution. The electrospinning process was used to prepare a PAN electrospun nanofiber membrane. PANI and CSA powder were mixed in equimolar mass for reserve. CSA-doped PANI with 1% and 2% mass fractions, respectively, was added into PAN solutions of three concentrations. After ultrasonic dispersion for 30 min, magnetic stirring was carried out overnight to prepare a spinning solution. The electrospinning process was carried out to prepare a CSA-PANI/PAN electrospun nanofiber membrane. The mass fractions of PAN and CSA-PANI were determined according to the electrospinning process and the quality of film formation. After determining that the mass fractions of PAN and CSA-PANI were 10% and 2%, respectively, nanometer CB powders with the mass fractions of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, and 7% were added to a DMF solution of PAN and CSA-PANI. After ultrasonic dispersion for 30 min, magnetic stirring was carried out overnight to prepare a spinning solution. The electrospinning process was carried out to prepare a CSA-PANI/CB/PAN electrospun nanofiber membrane. After determining that the mass fractions of PAN and CSA-PANI were 10% and 2%, respectively, hydroxylated multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs-OH) and carboxylated multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs-COOH) with the mass fractions of 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, and 2.5% were added to the DMF solutions of PAN and CSA-PANI. After ultrasonic dispersion for 30 min, magnetic stirring was carried out overnight to prepare a spinning solution, and the electrospinning process was carried out to prepare a MWCNTs/CSA-PANI/PAN electrospun nanofiber membrane. The distance between the needle nozzle and the drum receiving device of the in-house electrospinning device was 15 cm, three needles were used, the flow rate of the injection pump was 1 mL/h, the voltage was 30 kV, the drum rotation speed was 60 r/min, and the spinning time was 12 h.

Experimental Results and Analysis
Scanning Electron Micrograph Analysis

Figures 1(a)–(c) show the scanning electron micrographs (SEMs) of the electrospun nanofibers membranes with mass fractions of 8%, 10%, and 12% PAN. The average fiber diameters were 120.99, 173.47, and 299.24 nm, respectively. A higher PAN content in the electrospun solution corresponded to larger average fiber diameter, and for all three mass fractions, the PAN fiber surface was very smooth and uniform, and no obvious spindle fibers appeared. Although the average diameter of the PAN nanofibers with a mass fraction of 8% was smaller, its fiber irregularity was the highest.

Figure 1

SEM image of the pure PAN electrospun nanofibers membrane. (a) 8% PAN; (b) 10% PAN; (c) 12% PAN).

Figures 2(a)–(h) show the SEMs of the electrospun nanofibers membrane prepared by adding 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, and 6% CB (CB) with the mass fractions of 10% PAN and 2% CSA-PANI, respectively. The average diameter of the fibers is shown as a function of concentration in Fig. 3. Under the same mass fraction of PAN and CSA-PANI, the average diameter of the fibers increases with the amount of the added CB. Because the CB is insoluble in the DMF solution of PAN and PANI, it is directly attached to the fibers in the form of nanoparticles with diameters in the 10–20 nm range. This will directly increase the diameter of the fibers, and when the mass fraction of CB increases to 5%, the average fiber diameter shows an abrupt increase. Compared to the diameter of pure PAN electrospinning fiber (173.47 nm) with a PANI mass fraction of 10%, the average fiber diameter decreased after adding 2% CAS-PANI. This is because the small molecule CAS-PANI mixed in the large-molecular-weight PAN reduces the binding force of the PAN molecular chain, making it easier for the fiber to be elongated and stretched in the electric field. No obvious spindle-type fibers were found in all of the images presented in Fig. 2, but it was clear that upon addition of CB, the surface of the fibers started to exhibit pronounced burr-like bulges. The burrs on the surface of the prominent fibers were formed by the aggregation of CB on the surface of the fibers. When the CB mass fraction reached 5% and 6%, the convex burrs were increasingly distributed on the surface of the fiber. In the SEM images, the surface of the fibers appeared to be covered with dense scales with many tiny holes between the scales. Upon CB addition, the diameter irregularity of a single fiber was greatly increased, but the surface of the fiber showed a large number of scaly protrusions and micropores. This structure may be valuable for applications in the fields of high adsorptive materials and superhydrophobic (lotus leaf effect) materials. Despite the fact that the mean fiber diameters of both papers were significantly different, the fibers all showed a rougher surface compared to the obtained fibers with low CB concentrations [51]. The difference in mean fiber diameter depended on the concentration of polymer and added material.

Figure 2

SEM images of CSA-PANI/CB/PAN electrospun nanofibers membranes. (a) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI; (b) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+1%CB; (c) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+2%CB; (d) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+3%CB; (e) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+4%CB; (f) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+5%CB; (g) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+6%CB).

Figure 3

Average diameter of CSA-PANI/CB/PAN nanofibers at varying CB concentrations

Figures 4(a)–(e) show the SEM micrographs of electrospun nanofibers membrane prepared by adding 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, and 2.5% MWCNTs-COOH with mass fractions of 10% PAN and 2% CSA-PANI, respectively. The average diameter of the fibers as a function of MWCNTs-COOH concentration is shown in Fig. 5. Under the same mass fraction of PAN and CSA-PANI, the average diameter of the fibers decreases with increasing CNT concentration. Carboxylated CNTs can be more uniformly dispersed in the polymer matrix. Under the tensile action of a high-voltage electric field, electrospinning increases the interaction between the CNTs and polymer molecular chains, leading to the observed reduction of the fiber diameter. When the mass fraction of CNTs is 2.5%, some obvious bumps appear on the fibers. This is because CNTs tend to gather on the fiber surface in order to reduce the surface energy of MWCNTs. A high CNT content is likely to give rise to agglomeration in the fibers, leading to fiber protrusion. The SEM images of MWCNTs-COOH/PAN fiber membrane were cylindrical and uniform with a diameter between ~1 and 1.5 μm [52]. Compared with MWCNTs-COOH/PAN fiber membrane, the diameter of MWCNTs-COOH/CSA-PANI/PAN fiber membrane decreased after the addition of CSA-PANI, which was mainly because the conductivity of the spinning dope was higher after the addition of the CSA-PANI, so that the electrostatic field tensile force to which the fiber was subjected was reduced to increase the diameter of the fiber.

Figure 4

SEM image of MWCNTs-COOH/CSA-PANI/PAN electrospun nanofibers membrane. (a) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+0.5%MWCNTs-COOH; (b) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+1% MWCNTs-COOH; (c) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+1.5% MWCNTs-COOH; (d) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+2% MWCNTs-COOH; (e) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+2.5% MWCNTs-COOH).

Figure 5

Average diameter of MWCNTs-COOH/CSA-PANI/PAN nanofibers at varying MWCNTs-COOH concentrations.

Figures 6 (a)–(e) show the SEM micrographs of the electrospun nanofibers membranes prepared by adding 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, and 2.5% MWCNTs-OH with mass fractions of 10% PAN and 2% CSA-PANI, respectively. The average diameter of the fibers as a function of the MWCNTs-OH concentration is shown in Fig. 7. Under the same mass fraction of PAN and CSA-PANI, the average diameter of the fibers decreases strongly with increasing MWCNTs-OH concentration. For a given CNT concentration, the average diameter of the MWCNTs-OH nanofibers is smaller than that of the MWCNTs-COOH nanofibers. The SEM figure shows the rough and irregular surface morphology of PAN hard yarn waste/MWCNT-OH nanofibrous composite mats, which is due to the increased addition of MWCNT-OH in the nanofibrous composites, and the maximum fiber diameter distribution was observed in the range of 51 to 60 [53]. The maximum diameter is small because the concentration of polymer material is very low.

Figure 6

SEM images of MWCNTs-OH/CSA-PANI/PAN electrospun nanofibers membranes. (a) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+0.5%MWCNTs-OH; (b)10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+1% MWCNTs-OH; (c) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+1.5% MWCNTs-OH; (d) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+2% MWCNTs-OH; (e) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+2.5% MWCNTs-OH).

Figure 7

Average diameter of MWCNTs-OH/CSA-PANI/PAN nanofibers at varying MWCNTs-OH concentrations.

Strength Test and Analysis

Strength tests were performed using a 3365-INSTRON Strength Tester and rectangular samples with the dimensions of 1 cm×10 cm. The fabric thickness was tested using a fabric thickness tester 10 times and the average strength of the fibers was calculated according to σ=P÷A \sigma = {\rm{P}} \div {\rm{A}} where σ is the fracture strength (Pa), P is the breaking strength (N), and A is the section area (m2).

Figure 8 shows the fracture strength curve of the electrospun nanofiber membranes with CB and CNTs. Figure 8(a) shows that the fracture strength of the electrospun nanofiber membrane reaches the highest values for the CB fraction of 1% compared to 2% CSA-PANI in 10% PAN. The fracture strength of the fiber membrane decreases with the further addition of CB. The fracture strength with 4% CB is lower than that without CB. This is because CB is a nanospherical structure with a small aspect ratio. Thus, when added in a small amount, CB enhances the strength, while when a large amount of CB is added, the continuity of the polymer macromolecule is broken, leading to increasing brittleness and decreased fracture strength. Figure 8(b) shows that the fracture strength of the fiber membrane is enhanced by the addition of CNTs. Even for the CNTs’ mass fraction of 2.5%, both hydroxylated and carboxylated CNTs improve the fracture strength of the fibrous membrane compared to the membranes with no CNT additive. However, it is observed from the figure that with increasing addition of CNTs, the fracture strength of the fiber membrane first increases and then decreases. It can be speculated that with the continuous addition of CNTs, the fracture strength of the fiber membrane will decrease to a value lower than that of the membrane without CNTs. It is also observed that the rates of increase and decrease in the fracture strength of the fiber membrane obtained by the addition of hydroxylated CNTs are different from those obtained by the addition of carboxylated CNTs. The variation in the fracture strength of the fiber membrane is greater for the carboxylated CNTs than for the hydroxylated CNTs, and the maximum fracture strength is nearly three times higher. The optimal CNTs concentrations are also different for the carboxylated and hydroxylated CNTs, which is related to the structure of the CNTs after the surface treatment. Overall, the addition of CNTs leads to a greater improvement in the fracture strength of the electrospun nanofiber membrane than the addition of CB. Tensile testing of the prepared electrospun neat polyurea films demonstrated an average tensile strength of 14.1 MPa, and the analysis further confirmed the significant increase in tensile strength after adding 0.2% and 0.4% of MWCNTs with P values of less than 0.001. The tensile strength significantly decreased with a 1% MWCNT addition [54], which could be attributed to the nonuniform distribution, agglomeration of MWCNTs, and disruption in the hard domains due to the infiltration of MWCNTs in between the polymer chains.

Figure 8

Fracture strength curves of electrospun nanofibers membranes at different concentrations. (a) CSA-PANI/CB/PAN; (b) MWCNTs/CSA-PANI/PAN).

Electromagnetic Shielding Test and Analysis

The electromagnetic shielding performance of the electrospun nanofiber membranes was tested using a DR-913G fabric anti-electromagnetic radiation performance tester and a sample with the dimensions of 18 cm×18 cm. The electromagnetic shielding values were calculated according to Se=101g(SB÷SA) Se = - 10\,\,1{\rm{g}}\,\left( {{S_B} \div {S_A}} \right) where Se is the shielding amplitude (dB), SB is the transmission, and SA is reflection.

A lower negative value of the shielding amplitude, that is, a larger absolute value of the amplitude, corresponds to a smaller amount of transmission and better electromagnetic shielding performance. Figures 9(a)–(c) show the electromagnetic shielding amplitudes of CSA-PANI/CB/PANI, MWCNTs-COOH/CSA-PANI/PAN, and MWCNTs-OH/CSA-PANI/PAN electrospun nanofiber membranes, respectively, at 1, 30, and 300 MHz as a function of the additive concentration. It is observed that the electromagnetic shielding performance of fibrous membranes shows the same trend with change in the additive concentration under different radiation frequencies. Compared to the CSA-PANI/PAN fiber membranes, the electromagnetic shielding performance of the CB and CNTs fiber membranes showed the trend of first increasing and then decreasing, while the electric field shielding performance decreased to a lower level than that of CSA-PANI/PAN, and the decrease for the CSA-PANI/CB/PANI fiber membranes was more pronounced after the addition of CB. After adding 5% CB, no shielding was obtained under irradiation at 300 MHz, and no shielding was obtained under irradiation at 1 and 30 MHz after the addition of 6% CB. It is observed from Fig. 9(a) that the best electromagnetic shielding performance of CSA-PANI/CB/PANI fiber membrane was obtained for the addition of 4% CB. Figure 9(b) shows that the best electromagnetic shielding performance of the MWCNTs-COOH/CSA-PANI/PAN fiber membrane was obtained after the addition of 1% carboxyl CNTs. Figure 9(c) shows for the MWCNTs-OH/CSA-PANI/PAN electrospun nanofiber membrane, the best electric field shielding performance was obtained for the hydroxylated CNTs content of 2%. Electrospun electrically conductive nanocomposite fibers were prepared with PANI, PAN, and MWCNTs, and the reflection loss value of PANI/PAN/MWCNTs nanocomposite fibers was increased from 4.6 to 5.9 dB by increasing the thickness of composites films [54]. Combining MWCNTs with PANI is an effective strategy to improve the conductivity property for potential broadened applications.

Figure 9

Absolute amplitude value of electrospun nanofibers membrane at different additive concentrations. (a) CSA-PANI/CB/PANI; (b) MWCNTs-COOH/CSA-PANI/PAN; (c) MWCNTs-OH/CSA-PANI/PAN).

Conclusion

Compared to the CSA-PANI/PAN nanofiber membrane, the average diameter of the CSA-PANI/CB/PAN electrospun nanofibers was increased by the addition of CB, while the average diameter of the MWCNTs/CSA-PANI/PAN electrospun nanofibers mostly decreased upon the addition of CNTs. The average diameter of CSA-PANI/CB/PAN nanofibers with added CB increased suddenly after the added CB fraction reached 5% by mass, and a large number of small scaly bumps were formed on the surface of the fibers. When the CNT mass fraction reached 2.5%, the surface of the MWCNTs/CSA-PANI/PAN fibers also showed slight bumps due to the agglomeration of CB and CNTs on the fiber surface. This is also proved by the literature because CNTs tend to gather on the fiber surface in order to reduce the surface energy of MWCNTs. A high CNT content is likely to give rise to agglomeration in the fibers, leading to fiber protrusion. Under the tensile action of a high-voltage electric field, electrospinning increases the interaction between the CNTs and polymer molecular chains, leading to the observed reduction of the fiber diameter. These trends can be confirmed by other studies, but there are slight differences due to the different composition of materials. Interestingly, the diameter irregularity of a single fiber was greatly increased with CB addition, but the surface of the fiber showed a large number of scaly protrusions and micropores. This structure may be valuable for applications in the fields of high adsorptive materials and superhydrophobic (lotus-leaf effect) materials.

Compared to the CSA-PANI/PAN nanofiber membrane, the fracture strength of the CSA-PANI/CB/PAN electrospun nanofiber membranes with trace CB (1%) increased significantly, but then decreased continuously with the further addition of CB. This is because CB is a nanospherical structure with a small aspect ratio. Thus, when added in a small amount, CB enhances the strength, while when a large amount of CB is added, the continuity of the polymer macromolecule is broken, leading to increasing brittleness and decreased fracture strength. After the addition of CNTs, the fracture strength of the MWCNTs/CSA-PANI/PAN electrospun nanofiber membrane first increased and then decreased, eventually reaching values lower than that of the fracture strength of the CSA-PANI/PAN fiber membrane. Upon adding carboxylated CNTs, the fracture strength of MWCNTs/CSA-PANI/PAN fiber membrane increased and decreased more significantly. Thus, the addition of carboxylated CNTs is more advantageous for improving the fracture strength of the fiber membrane. The fracture strength of the fiber membrane with carboxylated CNTs was up to three times higher than that obtained using hydroxylated CNTs. These trends can be also confirmed by other studies. The optimal CNTs concentrations are also different for the carboxylated and hydroxylated CNTs, which is related to the structure of the CNTs after the surface treatment. Overall, the addition of CNTs leads to a greater improvement in the fracture strength of the electrospun nanofiber membrane than the addition of CB.

Similar electromagnetic shielding performance of the fiber membranes obtained with different additive concentrations was obtained at different radiation frequencies. Compared to the CSA-PANI/PAN fiber membrane, the electromagnetic shielding performance of the fibers after the addition of CB and CNTs first increased and then decreased, with a more pronounced decrease observed after the addition of CB. After the addition of 5% and 6% CB, CSA-PANI/CB/PAN electrospun nanofiber membranes showed no shielding performance, and the optimal electromagnetic shielding performance was obtained for different concentrations of different additives. The possible reasons are that excessive addition of CB and CNTs leads to agglomeration and more uneven distribution of conductive materials, which finally results in sudden electromagnetic shielding performance changes.

To summarize, research has shown that the addition of a certain amount of CNTs can improve the mechanical properties of the electrospun composite nanofibers because the CNTs are distributed along the fiber axis and promote the transformation of the crystal structure of the polymer. However, excessive addition of CNTs will lead to the deterioration of the fiber mechanical properties. Addition of CNTs can improve electromagnetic shielding performance of fibers, enabling the use of electromagnetic fields based on electrospun composite nanofibers in various devices. This paper comprehensively compares and analyzes the effects of the addition of CB, MWCNTs-COOH, and MWCNTs-OH on the morphological structure, mechanical properties, and electromagnetic shielding performance of CSA-PANI/PAN electrospun nanofiber membranes, which has guiding significance for optimizing the addition of carbon materials to enhance mechanical properties and electromagnetic shielding properties.

Figure 1

SEM image of the pure PAN electrospun nanofibers membrane. (a) 8% PAN; (b) 10% PAN; (c) 12% PAN).
SEM image of the pure PAN electrospun nanofibers membrane. (a) 8% PAN; (b) 10% PAN; (c) 12% PAN).

Figure 2

SEM images of CSA-PANI/CB/PAN electrospun nanofibers membranes. (a) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI; (b) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+1%CB; (c) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+2%CB; (d) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+3%CB; (e) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+4%CB; (f) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+5%CB; (g) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+6%CB).
SEM images of CSA-PANI/CB/PAN electrospun nanofibers membranes. (a) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI; (b) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+1%CB; (c) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+2%CB; (d) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+3%CB; (e) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+4%CB; (f) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+5%CB; (g) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+6%CB).

Figure 3

Average diameter of CSA-PANI/CB/PAN nanofibers at varying CB concentrations
Average diameter of CSA-PANI/CB/PAN nanofibers at varying CB concentrations

Figure 4

SEM image of MWCNTs-COOH/CSA-PANI/PAN electrospun nanofibers membrane. (a) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+0.5%MWCNTs-COOH; (b) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+1% MWCNTs-COOH; (c) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+1.5% MWCNTs-COOH; (d) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+2% MWCNTs-COOH; (e) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+2.5% MWCNTs-COOH).
SEM image of MWCNTs-COOH/CSA-PANI/PAN electrospun nanofibers membrane. (a) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+0.5%MWCNTs-COOH; (b) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+1% MWCNTs-COOH; (c) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+1.5% MWCNTs-COOH; (d) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+2% MWCNTs-COOH; (e) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+2.5% MWCNTs-COOH).

Figure 5

Average diameter of MWCNTs-COOH/CSA-PANI/PAN nanofibers at varying MWCNTs-COOH concentrations.
Average diameter of MWCNTs-COOH/CSA-PANI/PAN nanofibers at varying MWCNTs-COOH concentrations.

Figure 6

SEM images of MWCNTs-OH/CSA-PANI/PAN electrospun nanofibers membranes. (a) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+0.5%MWCNTs-OH; (b)10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+1% MWCNTs-OH; (c) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+1.5% MWCNTs-OH; (d) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+2% MWCNTs-OH; (e) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+2.5% MWCNTs-OH).
SEM images of MWCNTs-OH/CSA-PANI/PAN electrospun nanofibers membranes. (a) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+0.5%MWCNTs-OH; (b)10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+1% MWCNTs-OH; (c) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+1.5% MWCNTs-OH; (d) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+2% MWCNTs-OH; (e) 10%PAN+2%CSA-PANI+2.5% MWCNTs-OH).

Figure 7

Average diameter of MWCNTs-OH/CSA-PANI/PAN nanofibers at varying MWCNTs-OH concentrations.
Average diameter of MWCNTs-OH/CSA-PANI/PAN nanofibers at varying MWCNTs-OH concentrations.

Figure 8

Fracture strength curves of electrospun nanofibers membranes at different concentrations. (a) CSA-PANI/CB/PAN; (b) MWCNTs/CSA-PANI/PAN).
Fracture strength curves of electrospun nanofibers membranes at different concentrations. (a) CSA-PANI/CB/PAN; (b) MWCNTs/CSA-PANI/PAN).

Figure 9

Absolute amplitude value of electrospun nanofibers membrane at different additive concentrations. (a) CSA-PANI/CB/PANI; (b) MWCNTs-COOH/CSA-PANI/PAN; (c) MWCNTs-OH/CSA-PANI/PAN).
Absolute amplitude value of electrospun nanofibers membrane at different additive concentrations. (a) CSA-PANI/CB/PANI; (b) MWCNTs-COOH/CSA-PANI/PAN; (c) MWCNTs-OH/CSA-PANI/PAN).

Yan, T, et al. (2021). Nanofiber-wrapped yarn and the related wrapping mechanisms. The Journal of The Textile Institute, 1–8. YanT 2021 Nanofiber-wrapped yarn and the related wrapping mechanisms The Journal of The Textile Institute 1 8 Search in Google Scholar

Reneker, D H, Chun, I. (1999). Nanometre diameter fibres of polymer, produced by electrospinning. Nanotechnology, 7(3), 216–223. RenekerD H ChunI. 1999 Nanometre diameter fibres of polymer, produced by electrospinning Nanotechnology 7 3 216 223 Search in Google Scholar

Yan, T., et al. (2019). Synthesis of DBSA-doped polyaniline by emulsion polymerization and PANI/PLA electrospun fiber membrane conductivity. The Journal of the Textile Institute, 110(2), 274–281. YanT. 2019 Synthesis of DBSA-doped polyaniline by emulsion polymerization and PANI/PLA electrospun fiber membrane conductivity The Journal of the Textile Institute 110 2 274 281 Search in Google Scholar

Srinivasan, S. S., et al. (2010). Reversible hydrogen storage in electrospun polyaniline fibers. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 35(1), 225–230. SrinivasanS. S. 2010 Reversible hydrogen storage in electrospun polyaniline fibers International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 35 1 225 230 Search in Google Scholar

Sharifisamani, E. et al. (2020). PEG-PLA-PCL based electrospun yarns with curcumin control release property as suture. Polymer Engineering & Science, 60(7), 1520–1529. SharifisamaniE. 2020 PEG-PLA-PCL based electrospun yarns with curcumin control release property as suture Polymer Engineering & Science 60 7 1520 1529 Search in Google Scholar

Guan, X. (2021). Shape memory polyurethane-based electrospun yarns for thermo-responsive actuation. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 138(24), 50565. GuanX. 2021 Shape memory polyurethane-based electrospun yarns for thermo-responsive actuation Journal of Applied Polymer Science 138 24 50565 Search in Google Scholar

Yu, Q. Z., et al. (2008). Morphology and conductivity of polyaniline sub-micron fibers prepared by electrospinning. Materials Science & Engineering B, 150(1), 70–76. YuQ. Z. 2008 Morphology and conductivity of polyaniline sub-micron fibers prepared by electrospinning Materials Science & Engineering B 150 1 70 76 Search in Google Scholar

Amariei, N., et al. (2017). Electrospinning polyaniline for sensors. In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 209(1), 012091. AmarieiN. 2017 Electrospinning polyaniline for sensors In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 209 1 012091 Search in Google Scholar

Zhou, Y., et al. (2003). Fabrication and electrical characterization of polyaniline-based nanofibers with diameter below 30 nm. Applied Physics Letters, 83(18), 3800–3802. ZhouY. 2003 Fabrication and electrical characterization of polyaniline-based nanofibers with diameter below 30 nm Applied Physics Letters 83 18 3800 3802 Search in Google Scholar

Burris, A. J., et al. (2017). Tunable enhancement of a graphene/polyaniline/poly (ethylene oxide) composite electrospun nanofiber gas sensor. Journal of Analysis and Testing, 1(2), 12. BurrisA. J. 2017 Tunable enhancement of a graphene/polyaniline/poly (ethylene oxide) composite electrospun nanofiber gas sensor Journal of Analysis and Testing 1 2 12 Search in Google Scholar

Ghorbani, F., et al. (2020). Decoration of electrical conductive polyurethane-polyaniline/polyvinyl alcohol matrixes with mussel-inspired polydopamine for bone tissue engineering. Biotechnology Progress, 36(6), e3043. GhorbaniF. 2020 Decoration of electrical conductive polyurethane-polyaniline/polyvinyl alcohol matrixes with mussel-inspired polydopamine for bone tissue engineering Biotechnology Progress 36 6 e3043 Search in Google Scholar

Mohammad, N., Atassi, Y. (2020). Adsorption of methylene blue onto electrospun nanofibrous membranes of polylactic acid and polyacrylonitrile coated with chloride doped polyaniline. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 1–19. MohammadN. AtassiY. 2020 Adsorption of methylene blue onto electrospun nanofibrous membranes of polylactic acid and polyacrylonitrile coated with chloride doped polyaniline Scientific Reports 10 1 1 19 Search in Google Scholar

Bertuoli, P. T., et al. (2019). Electrospun conducting and biocompatible uniaxial and Core–Shell fibers having poly (lactic acid), poly (ethylene glycol), and polyaniline for cardiac tissue engineering. ACS Omega, 4(2), 3660–3672. BertuoliP. T. 2019 Electrospun conducting and biocompatible uniaxial and Core–Shell fibers having poly (lactic acid), poly (ethylene glycol), and polyaniline for cardiac tissue engineering ACS Omega 4 2 3660 3672 Search in Google Scholar

Abdali, H., Ajji A. (2017). Preparation of electrospun nanocomposite nanofibers of polyaniline/poly (methyl methacrylate) with amino-functionalized graphene. Polymers, 9(9), 453. AbdaliH. AjjiA 2017 Preparation of electrospun nanocomposite nanofibers of polyaniline/poly (methyl methacrylate) with amino-functionalized graphene Polymers 9 9 453 Search in Google Scholar

Fotia, A., et al. (2021). Self standing mats of blended polyaniline produced by electrospinning. Nanomaterials, 11(5), 1269. FotiaA. 2021 Self standing mats of blended polyaniline produced by electrospinning Nanomaterials 11 5 1269 Search in Google Scholar

Mohanta, D., et al. (2019). Carbon nanotubes: evaluation of toxicity at biointerfaces. Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis, 9(5), 293–300. MohantaD. 2019 Carbon nanotubes: evaluation of toxicity at biointerfaces Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis 9 5 293 300 Search in Google Scholar

Ren, W., et al. (2019). Activation of peroxydisulfate on carbon nanotubes: electron-transfer mechanism. Environmental Science & Technology, 53(24), 14595–14603. RenW. 2019 Activation of peroxydisulfate on carbon nanotubes: electron-transfer mechanism Environmental Science & Technology 53 24 14595 14603 Search in Google Scholar

Camilli, L., Passacantando, M. (2018). Advances on sensors based on carbon nanotubes. Chemosensors, 6(4), 62. CamilliL. PassacantandoM. 2018 Advances on sensors based on carbon nanotubes Chemosensors 6 4 62 Search in Google Scholar

Papageorgiou, D. G., et al. (2020). Mechanisms of mechanical reinforcement by graphene and carbon nanotubes in polymer nanocomposites. Nanoscale, 12(4), 2228–2267. PapageorgiouD. G. 2020 Mechanisms of mechanical reinforcement by graphene and carbon nanotubes in polymer nanocomposites Nanoscale 12 4 2228 2267 Search in Google Scholar

Kinloch, I. A., et al. (2018). Composites with carbon nanotubes and graphene: an outlook. Science, 362(6414), 547–553. KinlochI. A. 2018 Composites with carbon nanotubes and graphene: an outlook Science 362 6414 547 553 Search in Google Scholar

Kumar, A, et al. (2021). A review on the mechanical properties of polymer composites reinforced by carbon nanotubes and graphene. Carbon Letters, 31(2), 149–165. KumarA 2021 A review on the mechanical properties of polymer composites reinforced by carbon nanotubes and graphene Carbon Letters 31 2 149 165 Search in Google Scholar

Cai, T., et al. (2019). Enhanced performance of microbial fuel cells by electrospinning carbon nanofibers hybrid carbon nanotubes composite anode. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 44(5), 3088–3098. CaiT. 2019 Enhanced performance of microbial fuel cells by electrospinning carbon nanofibers hybrid carbon nanotubes composite anode International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 44 5 3088 3098 Search in Google Scholar

Wang, Q., et al. (2019). Porous polylactic acid/carbon nanotubes/polyaniline composite film as flexible free-standing electrode for supercapacitors. Electrochimica Acta, 294, 312–324. WangQ. 2019 Porous polylactic acid/carbon nanotubes/polyaniline composite film as flexible free-standing electrode for supercapacitors Electrochimica Acta 294 312 324 Search in Google Scholar

Wu, C. M., et al. (2018). Piezoelectric response of aligned electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride/carbon nanotube nanofibrous membranes. Nanomaterials, 8(6), 420. WuC. M. 2018 Piezoelectric response of aligned electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride/carbon nanotube nanofibrous membranes Nanomaterials 8 6 420 Search in Google Scholar

Gore, P. M., et al. (2020). Polycarbonate and activated charcoal-engineered electrospun nanofibers for selective recovery of oil/solvent from oily wastewater. SN Applied Sciences, 2(11), 1–13. GoreP. M. 2020 Polycarbonate and activated charcoal-engineered electrospun nanofibers for selective recovery of oil/solvent from oily wastewater SN Applied Sciences 2 11 1 13 Search in Google Scholar

Ekrem, M. (2019). The effects of carbon nanotubes added polyvinyl alcohol nanofibers on mechanical properties of carbon reinforced composite laminates. Sādhanā, 44(8), 1–8. EkremM. 2019 The effects of carbon nanotubes added polyvinyl alcohol nanofibers on mechanical properties of carbon reinforced composite laminates Sādhanā 44 8 1 8 Search in Google Scholar

Zadeh, Z. E., et al. (2021). Electrospun polyurethane/carbon nanotube composites with different amounts of carbon nanotubes and almost the same fiber diameter for biomedical applications. Materials Science and Engineering: C, 118, 111403. ZadehZ. E. 2021 Electrospun polyurethane/carbon nanotube composites with different amounts of carbon nanotubes and almost the same fiber diameter for biomedical applications Materials Science and Engineering: C 118 111403 Search in Google Scholar

Zadehnajar, P., et al. (2020). Preparation and characterization of poly ɛ-caprolactone-gelatin/multi-walled carbon nanotubes electrospun scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering applications. International Journal of Polymeric Materials and Polymeric Biomaterials, 69(5), 326–337. ZadehnajarP. 2020 Preparation and characterization of poly ɛ-caprolactone-gelatin/multi-walled carbon nanotubes electrospun scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering applications International Journal of Polymeric Materials and Polymeric Biomaterials 69 5 326 337 Search in Google Scholar

Durmuş, F., Ekrem, M. Morphology Analysis and Mechanical Properties of MWCNT Reinforced Nylon-6, 6 Nanofiber Mats by Electrospun Method. (2017). Solid State Phenomena,267, 23–27. Retrieved May 21, 2022. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/ssp.267.23. DurmuşF. EkremM. Morphology Analysis and Mechanical Properties of MWCNT Reinforced Nylon-6, 6 Nanofiber Mats by Electrospun Method 2017 Solid State Phenomena 267 23 27 Retrieved May 21, 2022. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/ssp.267.23. Search in Google Scholar

Ahmad, W., et al. (2021). Highly sensitive humidity sensors based on polyethylene oxide/CuO/multi walled carbon nanotubes composite nanofibers. Materials, 14(4), 1037. AhmadW. 2021 Highly sensitive humidity sensors based on polyethylene oxide/CuO/multi walled carbon nanotubes composite nanofibers Materials 14 4 1037 Search in Google Scholar

Liu, Y., et al. (2019). Fabrication of polylactic acid/carbon nanotubes/chitosan composite fibers by electrospinning for strawberry preservation. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 121, 1329–1336. LiuY. 2019 Fabrication of polylactic acid/carbon nanotubes/chitosan composite fibers by electrospinning for strawberry preservation International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 121 1329 1336 Search in Google Scholar

Wei, K., et al. (2011). Multiwalled carbon nanotubes incorporated bombyx mori silk nanofibers by electrospinning. Journal of Polymer Research, 18(4), 579–585. WeiK. 2011 Multiwalled carbon nanotubes incorporated bombyx mori silk nanofibers by electrospinning Journal of Polymer Research 18 4 579 585 Search in Google Scholar

Gao, X., et al. (2019). Progress in electrospun composite nanofibers: composition, performance and applications for tissue engineering. Journal of Materials Chemistry B, 7(45), 7075–7089. GaoX. 2019 Progress in electrospun composite nanofibers: composition, performance and applications for tissue engineering Journal of Materials Chemistry B 7 45 7075 7089 Search in Google Scholar

Zhijiang, C., et al. (2018). Electrospun carboxyl multi-walled carbon nanotubes grafted polyhydroxybutyrate composite nanofibers membrane scaffolds: preparation, characterization and cytocompatibility. Materials Science and Engineering: C, 82, 29–40. ZhijiangC. 2018 Electrospun carboxyl multi-walled carbon nanotubes grafted polyhydroxybutyrate composite nanofibers membrane scaffolds: preparation, characterization and cytocompatibility Materials Science and Engineering: C 82 29 40 Search in Google Scholar

Samie, H. A., Arvand, M. (2019). RuO2 nanowires on electrospun CeO2-Au nanofibers/functionalized carbon nanotubes/graphite oxide nanocomposite modified screen-printed carbon electrode for simultaneous determination of serotonin, dopamine and ascorbic acid. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 782, 824–836. SamieH. A. ArvandM. 2019 RuO2 nanowires on electrospun CeO2-Au nanofibers/functionalized carbon nanotubes/graphite oxide nanocomposite modified screen-printed carbon electrode for simultaneous determination of serotonin, dopamine and ascorbic acid Journal of Alloys and Compounds 782 824 836 Search in Google Scholar

Ren, M., et al. (2019). Highly stretchable and durable strain sensor based on carbon nanotubes decorated thermoplastic polyurethane fibrous network with aligned wave-like structure. Chemical Engineering Journal, 360, 762–777. RenM. 2019 Highly stretchable and durable strain sensor based on carbon nanotubes decorated thermoplastic polyurethane fibrous network with aligned wave-like structure Chemical Engineering Journal 360 762 777 Search in Google Scholar

Zhang, L., et al. (2020). Electrospun submicron NiO fibers combined with nanosized carbon black as reinforcement for multi-functional poly (lactic acid) composites. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 129, 105662. ZhangL. 2020 Electrospun submicron NiO fibers combined with nanosized carbon black as reinforcement for multi-functional poly (lactic acid) composites Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 129 105662 Search in Google Scholar

Kim, T. G., Zhang, J. J., Tan, X. Y. (2021). Plasmatreated carbon black nanofiller for improved dispersion and mechanical properties in electrospun complex nanofibers. In: Kim, Y.-H., Murakami, R.-I., Park, S.-J. Advanced composites engineering and its nano-bridging technology: applied research for polymer composites and nanocomposites. World Scientific (Singapore), 91–124. KimT. G. ZhangJ. J. TanX. Y. 2021 Plasmatreated carbon black nanofiller for improved dispersion and mechanical properties in electrospun complex nanofibers In: KimY.-H. MurakamiR.-I. ParkS.-J. Advanced composites engineering and its nano-bridging technology: applied research for polymer composites and nanocomposites World Scientific Singapore 91 124 Search in Google Scholar

Zhan, P., et al. (2019). Electrically conductive carbon black/electrospun polyamide 6/poly (vinyl alcohol) composite based strain sensor with ultrahigh sensitivity and favorable repeatability. Materials Letters, 236, 60–63. ZhanP. 2019 Electrically conductive carbon black/electrospun polyamide 6/poly (vinyl alcohol) composite based strain sensor with ultrahigh sensitivity and favorable repeatability Materials Letters 236 60 63 Search in Google Scholar

Qu, Y., et al. (2019). Tunable temperature-resistivity behaviors of carbon black/polyamide 6/high-density polyethylene composites with conductive electrospun PA6 fibrous network. Journal of Composite Materials, 53(14), 1897–1906. QuY. 2019 Tunable temperature-resistivity behaviors of carbon black/polyamide 6/high-density polyethylene composites with conductive electrospun PA6 fibrous network Journal of Composite Materials 53 14 1897 1906 Search in Google Scholar

Tohidlou, H., et al. (2019). Amine-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube/polycaprolactone electrospun scaffold for bone tissue engineering: in vitro study. Fibers and Polymers, 20(9), 1869–1882. TohidlouH. 2019 Amine-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube/polycaprolactone electrospun scaffold for bone tissue engineering: in vitro study Fibers and Polymers 20 9 1869 1882 Search in Google Scholar

Tondnevis, F., Keshvari, H., Mohandesi, J. A. (2020). Fabrication, characterization, and in vitro evaluation of electrospun polyurethane-gelatin-carbon nanotube scaffolds for cardiovascular tissue engineering applications. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, 108(5), 2276–2293. TondnevisF. KeshvariH. MohandesiJ. A. 2020 Fabrication, characterization, and in vitro evaluation of electrospun polyurethane-gelatin-carbon nanotube scaffolds for cardiovascular tissue engineering applications Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials 108 5 2276 2293 Search in Google Scholar

Xie, L., et al. (2020). SWNTs-PAN/TPU/PANI composite electrospun nanofiber membrane for point-of-use efficient electrochemical disinfection: new strategy of CNT disinfection. Chemosphere, 251, 126286. XieL. 2020 SWNTs-PAN/TPU/PANI composite electrospun nanofiber membrane for point-of-use efficient electrochemical disinfection: new strategy of CNT disinfection Chemosphere 251 126286 Search in Google Scholar

Li, Y., et al. (2018). Continuously prepared highly conductive and stretchable SWNT/MWNT synergistically composited electrospun thermoplastic polyurethane yarns for wearable sensing. Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 6(9), 2258–2269. LiY. 2018 Continuously prepared highly conductive and stretchable SWNT/MWNT synergistically composited electrospun thermoplastic polyurethane yarns for wearable sensing Journal of Materials Chemistry C 6 9 2258 2269 Search in Google Scholar

Zhan, P., et al. (2019). Electrically conductive carbon black/electrospun polyamide 6/poly (vinyl alcohol) composite based strain sensor with ultrahigh sensitivity and favorable repeatability. Materials Letters, 236, 60–63. ZhanP. 2019 Electrically conductive carbon black/electrospun polyamide 6/poly (vinyl alcohol) composite based strain sensor with ultrahigh sensitivity and favorable repeatability Materials Letters 236 60 63 Search in Google Scholar

Zhang, L., et al. (2020). Electrospun submicron NiO fibers combined with nanosized carbon black as reinforcement for multi-functional poly (lactic acid) composites. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 129, 105662. ZhangL. 2020 Electrospun submicron NiO fibers combined with nanosized carbon black as reinforcement for multi-functional poly (lactic acid) composites Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 129 105662 Search in Google Scholar

Bertolini, M. C., et al. (2020). Hybrid composites based on thermoplastic polyurethane with a mixture of carbon nanotubes and carbon black modified with polypyrrole for electromagnetic shielding. Frontiers in Materials, 7, 174. BertoliniM. C. 2020 Hybrid composites based on thermoplastic polyurethane with a mixture of carbon nanotubes and carbon black modified with polypyrrole for electromagnetic shielding Frontiers in Materials 7 174 Search in Google Scholar

Lee, H. S., et al. (2020). Electromagnetic shielding performance of carbon black mixed concrete with Zn–Al metal thermal spray coating. Materials, 13(4), 895. LeeH. S. 2020 Electromagnetic shielding performance of carbon black mixed concrete with Zn–Al metal thermal spray coating Materials 13 4 895 Search in Google Scholar

Putra, V. G. V., et al. (2021). Surface modification of polyester-cotton (TC 70%) fabric by corona discharged plasma with tip-cylinder electrode configuration-assisted coating carbon black conductive ink for electromagnetic shielding fabric. Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 28(1), 272–282. PutraV. G. V. 2021 Surface modification of polyester-cotton (TC 70%) fabric by corona discharged plasma with tip-cylinder electrode configuration-assisted coating carbon black conductive ink for electromagnetic shielding fabric Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 28 1 272 282 Search in Google Scholar

Cheng, Y., et al. (2021). Recent progress of electrospun nanofibrous materials for electromagnetic interference shielding. Composites Communications, 27, 100823. ChengY. 2021 Recent progress of electrospun nanofibrous materials for electromagnetic interference shielding Composites Communications 27 100823 Search in Google Scholar

Savest, N., et al. (2018). Electrospun conductive mats from PANi-ionic liquid blends. Journal of Electrostatics, 96, 40–44. SavestN. 2018 Electrospun conductive mats from PANi-ionic liquid blends Journal of Electrostatics 96 40 44 Search in Google Scholar

Qi, Q., et al. (2020). Robust light-driven interfacial water evaporator by electrospinning SiO2/MWCNTs-COOH/PAN photothermal fiber membrane. Separation and Purification Technology, 239, 116595. QiQ. 2020 Robust light-driven interfacial water evaporator by electrospinning SiO2/MWCNTs-COOH/PAN photothermal fiber membrane Separation and Purification Technology 239 116595 Search in Google Scholar

Kausar, A. (2014). Polyamide-grafted-multi-walled carbon nanotube electrospun nanofibers/epoxy composites. Fibers and Polymers, 15, 2564–2571. KausarA. 2014 Polyamide-grafted-multi-walled carbon nanotube electrospun nanofibers/epoxy composites Fibers and Polymers 15 2564 2571 Search in Google Scholar

Auckloo, S. A. B., et al. (2021). Nonporous, strong, stretchable, and transparent electrospun aromatic polyurea nanocomposites as potential anticorrosion coating films. Nanomaterials, 11(11), 2998. AucklooS. A. B. 2021 Nonporous, strong, stretchable, and transparent electrospun aromatic polyurea nanocomposites as potential anticorrosion coating films Nanomaterials 11 11 2998 Search in Google Scholar

Zhang, Z., et al. (2014). Electrospinning and microwave absorption of polyaniline/polyacrylonitrile/multiwalled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite fibers. Fibers and Polymers, 15(11), 2290–2296. ZhangZ. 2014 Electrospinning and microwave absorption of polyaniline/polyacrylonitrile/multiwalled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite fibers Fibers and Polymers 15 11 2290 2296 Search in Google Scholar

Polecane artykuły z Trend MD

Zaplanuj zdalną konferencję ze Sciendo