Rivista e Edizione

AHEAD OF PRINT

Volume 15 (2022): Edizione 1 (May 2022)

Volume 14 (2021): Edizione 3 (December 2021)

Volume 14 (2021): Edizione 2 (September 2021)

Volume 14 (2021): Edizione 1 (May 2021)

Volume 13 (2020): Edizione 3 (December 2020)

Volume 13 (2020): Edizione 2 (September 2020)

Volume 13 (2020): Edizione 1 (May 2020)

Volume 12 (2019): Edizione 3 (December 2019)

Volume 12 (2019): Edizione 2 (September 2019)

Volume 12 (2019): Edizione 1 (May 2019)

Volume 11 (2018): Edizione 3 (December 2018)

Volume 11 (2018): Edizione 2 (November 2018)

Volume 11 (2018): Edizione 1 (January 2018)

Volume 10 (2017): Edizione 3 (December 2017)

Volume 10 (2017): Edizione 2 (November 2017)

Volume 10 (2017): Edizione 1 (January 2017)

Volume 9 (2016): Edizione 3 (December 2016)

Volume 9 (2016): Edizione 2 (November 2016)

Volume 9 (2016): Edizione 1 (January 2016)

Volume 8 (2015): Edizione 3 (December 2015)

Volume 8 (2015): Edizione 2 (November 2015)

Volume 8 (2015): Edizione 1 (January 2015)

Volume 7 (2014): Edizione 3 (December 2014)

Volume 7 (2014): Edizione 2 (November 2014)

Volume 7 (2014): Edizione 1 (January 2014)
MEDITERRANEAN LANDSCAPES, Guest Editors: Stefan Schindler and Linda Olsvig-Whittaker

Volume 6 (2013): Edizione 3 (December 2013)

Volume 6 (2013): Edizione 2 (December 2013)

Volume 6 (2013): Edizione 1 (January 2013)

Volume 5 (2012): Edizione 3 (December 2012)

Volume 5 (2012): Edizione 2 (November 2012)

Volume 5 (2012): Edizione 1 (January 2012)

Volume 4 (2011): Edizione 3 (August 2011)

Volume 4 (2011): Edizione 2 (April 2011)

Volume 4 (2011): Edizione 1 (January 2011)

Volume 3 (2010): Edizione 2 (December 2010)

Volume 3 (2010): Edizione 1 (June 2010)

Volume 2 (2009): Edizione 2 (December 2009)

Volume 2 (2009): Edizione 1 (June 2009)

Volume 1 (2008): Edizione 2 (December 2008)

Volume 1 (2008): Edizione 1 (June 2008)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1805-4196
Pubblicato per la prima volta
20 Jun 2008
Periodo di pubblicazione
3 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 10 (2017): Edizione 3 (December 2017)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1805-4196
Pubblicato per la prima volta
20 Jun 2008
Periodo di pubblicazione
3 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

17 Articoli
Accesso libero

The Roman Road System in the Golan: Highways, Paths and Tracks in Quotidian Life

Pubblicato online: 06 Feb 2018
Pagine: 11 - 24

Astratto

Abstract

Roman Imperial Roads (highways) built, maintained and organized by the Roman army and provincial authorities were studied in the Golan Heights since Schumacher’s surveys in the 1880s. However, most of these were obliterated by building and agricultural activity since the beginning of the 20th century. Local ancient road system, linking individual communities and their agricultural land was never studied, since it barely leaves a trace in archaeological record. This paper presents reconstruction of inter-provincial highways passing through the southern Golan Heights, and local road system in GIS using cumulative focal mobility network (CFMN) analysis. The CFMN provides outline of natural corridors of movement in the region. From CFMN it is possible to extract path with higher mobility potential which will be tested against present evidence for Roman Imperial Highways, since it is assumed that corridors with high mobility potential would be suitable place for construction of (inter-)provincial road. Path with lower mobility potential might indicate local road system, so it would be possible to connect agricultural communities with the land they exploited; which in turn may have implications for site prediction and site-catchment analysis exploring quotidian movement of people and goods in the landscape. Two case studies in this respect are presented: the city of Hippos and settlement of es-Safuriyye.

Parole chiave

  • Golan Heights
  • city of Hippos
  • Archaeological GIS
  • Roman Roads
  • Focal mobility network
Accesso libero

Living Among the Dead – Settlement Structures in the North-Western Pontic Region in the 4th Millennium BC

Pubblicato online: 06 Feb 2018
Pagine: 25 - 36

Astratto

Abstract

The function of the plan-schematic settlements of the so called Cucuteni-Tripolye-Complex in the north-western pontic region remains enigmatic and yet, these structures haven´t been approached holistically. The article aims to address basic aspects as the construction plan and the chronology at one of these sites, the settlement Petreni in the Republic of Moldova. Beyond that, it shall be outlined, in how far the settlements served as mnemonic places.

Deliberately burnt houses in these settlements represent a characteristic feature, which do not only resemble the end of a settling stage - they rather mark performative acts and may be associated with the death of a household or a community member. As the burnt house debris has not been removed or levelled, it reflects a visible marker for preceding generations among the living - such structures constitute distinctive mechanisms of commemoration and mirror communities which share a common set of experiences and knowledge.

Parole chiave

  • Pontic region
  • 4 millennium BC
  • Tripolye
  • Cucuteni
  • settlement plan
  • mnemonic place
  • house burning
Accesso libero

Beyond the Walls: Locating the Common Denominator in Herod’s Landscape Palaces

Pubblicato online: 06 Feb 2018
Pagine: 37 - 48

Astratto

Abstract

The Question of King Herod's personal involvement in the Building Projects attributed to him was always one of the more dominant topics in the study of Herodian archaeology. The purpose of this short paper is to try and answer this question by researching and discussing the location of a ‘common denominator’ in the structure of Herod's “Landscape” palaces, through the study of the relationship each palace has with its surroundings. These palaces-the Promontory Palace in Caesarea, the Third Palace in Jericho, the Northern Palace in Masada and the Palace of Great Herodium-were chosen as case studies for their scale, architectural complexity and the unique connection they share with the landscape. While a close study of the interior of the palaces and their structural units show that each palace plan is unique and shares almost nothing in common with the other plans, a research of the landscape in which the palaces are located indicates that a common denominator to all four palaces can be found in the forms of the elements of water and the dramatic landscape. These two elements, combined with the uniqueness of the structures themselves, point to Herod's own involvement in the planning of the four “Landscape” palaces.

Parole chiave

  • Herod
  • Landscape
  • Palaces
  • Water
Accesso libero

Archeology, Zionism and Photography in Palestine: Analysis of the Use of Dimensions of People in Photographs

Pubblicato online: 06 Feb 2018
Pagine: 49 - 57

Astratto

Abstract

The physical dimensions of people in archeological photographs in Palestine from before 1948 and in Western tourist landscape photography have played a role in forms of local documentation. The study discusses how this component affects readings and perceptions of photographs. It addresses Jewish propaganda photographs in which pioneers were intentionally enlarged and centered in photographs. It discusses forms of visual empowerment in relation to constructed dimensions of people as a form of Zionist defiance of British colonialism in Palestine.

Parole chiave

  • photography
  • archeology
  • Zionism
  • colonialism
  • Palestine
Accesso libero

Revisiting the Isolated Canaanite Temple of Tel Mevorakh

Pubblicato online: 06 Feb 2018
Pagine: 58 - 80

Astratto

Abstract

The isolated Late Bronze temple at Tel Mevorakh was interpreted by its excavator, E. Stern, as a “road sanctuary” which sits on an important trading route, and as a daughter site of Tel Dor. This article, wish to reexamine this interpretation by drawing the attention to the ancient natural landscape which surrounds the temple, especially the Taninim River and the Kabara Marsh. Those major water sources where significant natural barriers which prevented the passage of main roads in this area. Probably, they also formed a political border which divides between Tel Mevorakh and the Carmel Coast. Therefore, this paper offers that the Tel Mevorakh temple was part of the settlement system of the northern Sharon, and was isolated from roads. The main reason that led to the establishment of a cult-site at Tel Mevorakh was its unique natural surroundings, which was related in the minds of its worshipers to the mythical world of the gods.

Parole chiave

  • Tel Mevorakh
  • Landscape Archaeology
  • Sacred Landscape
  • Canaanite Cult. Temple
Accesso libero

Into the Darkness: Deep Caves in the Ancient Near East

Pubblicato online: 06 Feb 2018
Pagine: 81 - 99

Astratto

Abstract

In this paper I will present the assemblage of pottery vessels and objects of luxury dated to the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods discovered in the Zarda Cave in Western Samaria, Israel. The context in which this assemblage was found is strongly reminiscent of other proto-historic depositions found in Israel. As determent of objects of value found in the deep and dark caves cannot be explained by means of burial offerings or regular hoards one most provide this remarkable phenomenon by a different theory. In this paper, I claim that these depositions were ritual in nature. They bear physical evidence for rituals performed by specially chosen members of the society, which we call today shamans. These caves were chosen due to their physical properties to become scenes for rituals of rites of passage in the course of which they experienced altered states of consciousness. In the course of time these caves have accumulated considerable social power becoming liminal monuments on the fringes of social landscapes in the local cultures. We may understand deep and dark caves as an element of pre-urban cosmology embedded into the local landscape, traces of which can be detected in much later traditions.

Parole chiave

  • Neolithic
  • Chalcolithic
  • Deep caves
  • Alternative states of consciousness
  • Israel
Accesso libero

Landscape Archaeology in the Wādī al-ʿArab Region

Pubblicato online: 06 Feb 2018
Pagine: 100 - 108

Astratto

Abstract

As an integral part of the Gadara-Region-Project, a survey of the Wādī al-‘Arab region was conducted during the years 2009-2012, by the Biblical-Archaeological Institute Wuppertal and the German Protestant Institute for Archaeology in order to achieve a better understanding of the hinterland of the main study site Tall Zirāʿa and to provide answers concerning settlement pattern, trade relationships and the importance of sites throughout time.

On the basis of this survey we used ecological approaches to see what correlation might exist between archaeological sites and habitat. Since more than half the sites in this survey had Roman occupation, we asked what difference, if any, was there in the distribution of Roman sites compared to previous occupations. A comparison was made of “new” Roman sites (those not previously occupied in the Hellenistic period) with those that had both Roman and Hellenistic occupation.

Open water, riverine habitats, and large archaeological sites all seemed connected. In addition, analysis indicated a correlation of older (more successful or established?) sites with open water and new Roman sites were less related to water. We knew that Roman engineering both of cistern systems and aqueducts opened new areas (such as plateaus) for settlement and exploitation. Hence the weaker correlation of new Roman sites with natural water was reasonable.

Parole chiave

  • landscape archaeology
  • Jordan
  • Roman era
  • habitat
  • survey
  • multivariate analysis
Accesso libero

The Paleo-Anthropocene and the Genesis of the Current Landscape of Israel

Pubblicato online: 06 Feb 2018
Pagine: 109 - 140

Astratto

Abstract

Worldwide, human impact on natural landscapes has intensified since prehistoric times, and this is well documented in the global archaeological record. The period between the earliest hominids and the Industrial Revolution of the late 18-19th centuries is known as the Paleo-Anthropocene. The current study reviews key geoarchaeological, floral and faunal factors of the Paleo-Anthropocene in Israel, an area that has undergone human activities in various intensities since prehistoric times. It discusses significant human imprints on these three features in the Israeli landscape, demonstrating that its current form is almost entirely anthropogenic. Moreover, some of the past physical changes still dynamically shape Israel’s zoological, archaeological and geomorphic landscape today. It is hoped that insights from this article might aid in guiding present-day management strategies of undeveloped areas through renewal of human activity guided by traditional knowledge.

Parole chiave

  • Anthropocene
  • Management of Anthropogenic Landscape
  • Landscape History
  • Human and Environmental Interaction
  • Eco-geomorphology
  • Traditional Knowledge
Accesso libero

Economic Conditions in the Area Around the Sea of Galilee in Pre-Hellenistic Times

Pubblicato online: 06 Feb 2018
Pagine: 141 - 153

Astratto

Abstract

In a landscape archaeology project all the fertile fields around the Sea of Galilee (an area of 50 × 30 km) were mapped. The whole territory was subdivided in 5 regions: Jordan valley, Lower Galilee, Upper Galilee, Golan and Transjordanian Hill Country. Additionally all ancient sites from the Neolithic to the Persian period, which are mentioned in archaeological literature, were collected – all together more than 300 sites. These data allow a reconstruction of the economic conditions in antiquity in the area around the Sea of Galilee. Landscape archaeology clearly demonstrates that the economic basis may have been completely diverse in the five sub-regions, and also during different times. Agriculture played a major role in the economy of ancient people. During some periods and in some regions people lived in the midst of the fields, while in other periods they settled at the edges in order not to waste valuable farmland. On the other hand the position of some sites in some periods clearly demonstrates that trade played a major role for the income of the settlers, or basalt mining and working. Streets can be reconstructed, and our methodological approach allows new insights in the economy of this area

Parole chiave

  • Landscape archaeology
  • Israel
  • Sea of Galilee
  • economic conditions
  • settlements
Accesso libero

New Directions with Digital Archaeology and Spatial Analysis in the Jezreel Valley

Pubblicato online: 06 Feb 2018
Pagine: 154 - 164

Astratto

Abstract

The Jezreel Valley Regional Project (JVRP) is a long-term multidisciplinary project investigating human activity in the Jezreel Valley through all periods through the modern era. This research incorporates extensive and intensive archaeological survey and excavation at several spatial scales, and utilizes a number of methodological approaches to documentation and spatial analysis. One of the major challenges of this project has been coping with a high volume of data, and integrating cutting-edge technology into our workflow to solve the problems that many archaeologists face. This paper will present an overview of our field-based methods of data acquisition, particularly by means of 3D photogrammetry, remote sensing, and high-precision ground control. When integrated through our data management system and used in GIS applications, these data not only produce plans and imagery far more precise than conventional approaches, but the methods used are incredibly time-efficient, cost-effective, and produce archival digital data. Furthermore, we will report on results of spatial analysis of archaeological activity in the Jezreel Valley in conjunction with digital terrain and hydrological modelling of the landscape. These digital techniques allow us to study human and environmental changes in the landscape like never before.

Parole chiave

  • Jezreel Valley
  • Archaeology
  • Landscape Survey
  • GIS
  • Structure from Motion
Accesso libero

The Agricultural Landscape of Tel Burna: Ecology and Economy of a Bronze Age/Iron Age Settlement in the Southern Levant

Pubblicato online: 06 Feb 2018
Pagine: 165 - 188

Astratto

Abstract

The Shephelah, known as the breadbasket of the southern Levant, is one of the more extensively investigated regions of the southern Levant in terms of archaeobotanical research. However, studies dealing with agriculture are scarce in comparison to the archaeobotanical data available. The analysis of the archaeobotanical assemblage in combination with the archaeological remains from Tel Burna will contribute to the investigation of the agriculture of the Shephelah. Several seasons of excavation revealed a cultic complex dating to the Late Bronze Age and an Iron Age II settlement with various agricultural installations such as silos and wine or olive presses. In this paper, we present the agricultural features in conjunction with the systematical archaeobotanical sampling, which enables us to reconstruct the types of crop plants cultivated at the site. Grass pea seeds dominate the assemblage collected from the Late Bronze Age complex, which may point to a connection to the Aegean. The Iron Age assemblage is distinguished by a significantly broad range of crop plants which were cultivated in vicinity of the tell. The archaeological Iron Age remains indicate that the processing of secondary products such as olive oil, wine, or textiles took place within the Iron Age settlement of Tel Burna. This first comprehensive overview describes the character of agricultural production in the Late Bronze Age to Iron Age environmental and geopolitical transformations.

Parole chiave

  • Agriculture
  • Shephelah
  • Southern Levant
  • Iron Age
  • Late Bronze Age
  • Landscape
Accesso libero

Variations in Hillslope Runoff as Detected Using Geological Strata Coupled with Vegetation Patterns- Implications on Spatially Distributed Desert Runoff Agriculture

Pubblicato online: 06 Feb 2018
Pagine: 189 - 212

Astratto

Abstract

Sparsely vegetated bedrock slopes in deserts coincide with slope parameters, thus they have important implications on biological, chemical, hydrological and geomorphological processes. Spatial variations in these vegetation patterns, density and communities indicates on relatively humid habitats, which correspond with sinks for high runoff. Relations between the bedrock runoff generation and vegetation patterns may imply on the spatial locations of Byzantine – Early Muslim (400-1000 C.E.; 1600-1000 y BP) agriculture installations. These installations are widespread in the Negev Desert, Israel, utilized sophisticated runoff harvesting techniques by the ancient farmers. Applying a multi-disciplinary approach, we tested vegetation patterns as a precursor for runoff generation along bedrock slopes in the Negev Desert Highlands, and correlated them to the spatial distribution of the Byzantine – Early Muslim runoff agriculture installations. Integrating vegetation patterns, geological substrate data and bedrock-runoff generation data on a GIS model on a large scale (160 km2) of the Negev Highlands yields a synthetic potential runoff map. This map is a unique new product conducted for the first time during this study. Basing on it, runoff yield can be predicted for different scales, ranging from that of a single lithology slope to that of a basin of varying lithologies. Utilizing this methodology, we show that high correlation (80 %) exists between vegetation patterns and spatially located Byzantine – Early Muslim runoff-farming installations. This correlation turns the vegetation coverage as a reliable marker for predicting runoff yield in arid bedrock slopes and imply for stable arid climate in the past 1600 years in the Negev Desert.

Parole chiave

  • Desert
  • Ancient runoff agriculture
  • Rain-bedrock-runoff relations
  • Vegetation patterns
  • Southern Levant
  • Climate variability
  • GIS
Accesso libero

Publishing Landscape Archaeology in the Digital World

Pubblicato online: 06 Feb 2018
Pagine: 213 - 229

Astratto

Abstract

The challenge of presenting micro- and macro-scale scale data in landscape archaeology studies is facilitated by a diversity of GIS technologies. Specific to scholarly research is the need to selectively share certain types of data with collaborators and academic researchers while also publishing general information in the public domain. This article presents a general model for scholarly online collaboration and teaching while providing examples of the kinds of landscape archaeology that can be published online. Specifically illustrated is WorldMap, an interactive mapping platform based upon open-source software which uses browsers built to open source standards. The various features of this platform allow tight user viewing control, views with URL referencing, commenting and certification of layers, as well as user annotation. Illustration of WorldMap features and its value for scholarly research and teaching is provided in the context of landscape archaeology studies.

Parole chiave

  • Mediterranian archaeology
  • navigation
  • Phoenician
  • GIS
  • landscape archaeology
Accesso libero

Reconstructing Socio-Political Urban-Rural Interactions Using Viewshed Analysis: The Late Bronze Age at Ramat Bet Shemesh, Israel.

Pubblicato online: 06 Feb 2018
Pagine: 230 - 244

Astratto

Abstract

The archaeological research conducted during the last two decades at the Judean Shephelah testifies for one of the most turbulent regions in the land of Israel during the Late Bronze Age. This stands in contrast to the scarce historical record that relates to it. The geographic region of Ramat Bet Shemesh encompasses important information about socio-political relations between the small rural settlements and hamlets and the city-states that dominated the area from the west. Advanced GIS modelling is one of the main research tools that enables us to reconstruct various aspects of these interactions. In this paper, the results of viewshed analyses are presented, suggesting that these interactions are defined, among other things, by a solidarity between small rural occupations that resist territorial rigid inner division of the landscape.

Parole chiave

  • Ramat Bet Shemesh
  • Late Bronze Age
  • city states
  • rural villages
  • GIS
  • Viewshed Analysis
Accesso libero

“To Sartaba, From Sartaba” A New Proposal to Identify the Location of the Second Station on the Beacon Line from Jerusalem to Babylon

Pubblicato online: 06 Feb 2018
Pagine: 245 - 255

Astratto

Abstract

The Hebrew calendar is a lunisolar calendar. Its months are based on the revolution of the moon about the Earth, as it is said: This is the burnt offering of every new moon throughout the months of the year1 (Num. 28:14)

At the present time the moment of the true new moon is approximated mathematically. However during the Second Temple period, the beginning of the new lunar month had to be observed and certified by witnesses. Then the Sanhedrin Court was to make a public proclamation on the first day of the lunar month (ראש חודש).

In Mishnah, Tractate Rosh Hashana, Chapter 2 describes the process of communicating the information about the beginning of new month through the chain of beacon fires:

“From the Mount of Olives to Sartaba, and from Sartaba to Grofina, and from Grofina to Hauran, and from Hauran to Bet Biltin. From Bet Biltin they did not move, but rather waved back and forth and up and down until he saw the whole of the diaspora before him lit up like one bonfire.”2

Questioning of reliability of the quoted above description, its completeness and exclusiveness of the delineated in the Mishnah route is beyond the scope of the presented research. In this article we’ll apply methods of the geographic information systems (GIS) analysis in order to examine the existed theories regarding localization of Sartaba - the second mentioned station in the chain of beacon fires, reveal their discrepancies and propose an innovative, albeit rather technical, solution for long-known problem.

Parole chiave

  • Sartaba
  • Mishnah
  • visibility analysis
  • GIS
Accesso libero

The Origins of Terracing in the Southern Levant and Patch Cultivation/Box Fields

Pubblicato online: 06 Feb 2018
Pagine: 256 - 265

Astratto

Abstract

This paper looks at various suggestions relating to what incipient and early forms of terracing might have looked like, and goes on to suggest that some of the earliest terraces in the southern Levant may have emerged from horticultural practices, and more specifically the cultivation of olive trees within sunken patches of soil on rocky hillslopes (referred to as “patch cultivation” or “box fields”). This phenomenon may be traced back to the Chalcolithic period (4th millennium B.C.E), if not to earlier times.

Parole chiave

  • terraces
  • patch cultivation
  • box fields
  • cup-marks
  • Chalcolithic period
  • landscape archaeology
  • southern Levant
Accesso libero

Waste Management and Attitudes Towards Cleanliness in Medieval Central Europe

Pubblicato online: 06 Feb 2018
Pagine: 266 - 287

Astratto

Abstract

The paper deals with the relationships between people and waste in the Middle Ages, primarily in urban environments in Central Europe. At the center of interest are the attitudes of the inhabitants of medieval cities towards cleanliness and a description of different waste management practices. This paper also describes an experiment using ashes to launder clothing as one possible use of a particular waste material.

Parole chiave

  • Middle Ages
  • waste
  • waste management
  • recycling
  • environment
  • hygiene
  • cleanliness
  • ashes
  • clothes laundering
17 Articoli
Accesso libero

The Roman Road System in the Golan: Highways, Paths and Tracks in Quotidian Life

Pubblicato online: 06 Feb 2018
Pagine: 11 - 24

Astratto

Abstract

Roman Imperial Roads (highways) built, maintained and organized by the Roman army and provincial authorities were studied in the Golan Heights since Schumacher’s surveys in the 1880s. However, most of these were obliterated by building and agricultural activity since the beginning of the 20th century. Local ancient road system, linking individual communities and their agricultural land was never studied, since it barely leaves a trace in archaeological record. This paper presents reconstruction of inter-provincial highways passing through the southern Golan Heights, and local road system in GIS using cumulative focal mobility network (CFMN) analysis. The CFMN provides outline of natural corridors of movement in the region. From CFMN it is possible to extract path with higher mobility potential which will be tested against present evidence for Roman Imperial Highways, since it is assumed that corridors with high mobility potential would be suitable place for construction of (inter-)provincial road. Path with lower mobility potential might indicate local road system, so it would be possible to connect agricultural communities with the land they exploited; which in turn may have implications for site prediction and site-catchment analysis exploring quotidian movement of people and goods in the landscape. Two case studies in this respect are presented: the city of Hippos and settlement of es-Safuriyye.

Parole chiave

  • Golan Heights
  • city of Hippos
  • Archaeological GIS
  • Roman Roads
  • Focal mobility network
Accesso libero

Living Among the Dead – Settlement Structures in the North-Western Pontic Region in the 4th Millennium BC

Pubblicato online: 06 Feb 2018
Pagine: 25 - 36

Astratto

Abstract

The function of the plan-schematic settlements of the so called Cucuteni-Tripolye-Complex in the north-western pontic region remains enigmatic and yet, these structures haven´t been approached holistically. The article aims to address basic aspects as the construction plan and the chronology at one of these sites, the settlement Petreni in the Republic of Moldova. Beyond that, it shall be outlined, in how far the settlements served as mnemonic places.

Deliberately burnt houses in these settlements represent a characteristic feature, which do not only resemble the end of a settling stage - they rather mark performative acts and may be associated with the death of a household or a community member. As the burnt house debris has not been removed or levelled, it reflects a visible marker for preceding generations among the living - such structures constitute distinctive mechanisms of commemoration and mirror communities which share a common set of experiences and knowledge.

Parole chiave

  • Pontic region
  • 4 millennium BC
  • Tripolye
  • Cucuteni
  • settlement plan
  • mnemonic place
  • house burning
Accesso libero

Beyond the Walls: Locating the Common Denominator in Herod’s Landscape Palaces

Pubblicato online: 06 Feb 2018
Pagine: 37 - 48

Astratto

Abstract

The Question of King Herod's personal involvement in the Building Projects attributed to him was always one of the more dominant topics in the study of Herodian archaeology. The purpose of this short paper is to try and answer this question by researching and discussing the location of a ‘common denominator’ in the structure of Herod's “Landscape” palaces, through the study of the relationship each palace has with its surroundings. These palaces-the Promontory Palace in Caesarea, the Third Palace in Jericho, the Northern Palace in Masada and the Palace of Great Herodium-were chosen as case studies for their scale, architectural complexity and the unique connection they share with the landscape. While a close study of the interior of the palaces and their structural units show that each palace plan is unique and shares almost nothing in common with the other plans, a research of the landscape in which the palaces are located indicates that a common denominator to all four palaces can be found in the forms of the elements of water and the dramatic landscape. These two elements, combined with the uniqueness of the structures themselves, point to Herod's own involvement in the planning of the four “Landscape” palaces.

Parole chiave

  • Herod
  • Landscape
  • Palaces
  • Water
Accesso libero

Archeology, Zionism and Photography in Palestine: Analysis of the Use of Dimensions of People in Photographs

Pubblicato online: 06 Feb 2018
Pagine: 49 - 57

Astratto

Abstract

The physical dimensions of people in archeological photographs in Palestine from before 1948 and in Western tourist landscape photography have played a role in forms of local documentation. The study discusses how this component affects readings and perceptions of photographs. It addresses Jewish propaganda photographs in which pioneers were intentionally enlarged and centered in photographs. It discusses forms of visual empowerment in relation to constructed dimensions of people as a form of Zionist defiance of British colonialism in Palestine.

Parole chiave

  • photography
  • archeology
  • Zionism
  • colonialism
  • Palestine
Accesso libero

Revisiting the Isolated Canaanite Temple of Tel Mevorakh

Pubblicato online: 06 Feb 2018
Pagine: 58 - 80

Astratto

Abstract

The isolated Late Bronze temple at Tel Mevorakh was interpreted by its excavator, E. Stern, as a “road sanctuary” which sits on an important trading route, and as a daughter site of Tel Dor. This article, wish to reexamine this interpretation by drawing the attention to the ancient natural landscape which surrounds the temple, especially the Taninim River and the Kabara Marsh. Those major water sources where significant natural barriers which prevented the passage of main roads in this area. Probably, they also formed a political border which divides between Tel Mevorakh and the Carmel Coast. Therefore, this paper offers that the Tel Mevorakh temple was part of the settlement system of the northern Sharon, and was isolated from roads. The main reason that led to the establishment of a cult-site at Tel Mevorakh was its unique natural surroundings, which was related in the minds of its worshipers to the mythical world of the gods.

Parole chiave

  • Tel Mevorakh
  • Landscape Archaeology
  • Sacred Landscape
  • Canaanite Cult. Temple
Accesso libero

Into the Darkness: Deep Caves in the Ancient Near East

Pubblicato online: 06 Feb 2018
Pagine: 81 - 99

Astratto

Abstract

In this paper I will present the assemblage of pottery vessels and objects of luxury dated to the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods discovered in the Zarda Cave in Western Samaria, Israel. The context in which this assemblage was found is strongly reminiscent of other proto-historic depositions found in Israel. As determent of objects of value found in the deep and dark caves cannot be explained by means of burial offerings or regular hoards one most provide this remarkable phenomenon by a different theory. In this paper, I claim that these depositions were ritual in nature. They bear physical evidence for rituals performed by specially chosen members of the society, which we call today shamans. These caves were chosen due to their physical properties to become scenes for rituals of rites of passage in the course of which they experienced altered states of consciousness. In the course of time these caves have accumulated considerable social power becoming liminal monuments on the fringes of social landscapes in the local cultures. We may understand deep and dark caves as an element of pre-urban cosmology embedded into the local landscape, traces of which can be detected in much later traditions.

Parole chiave

  • Neolithic
  • Chalcolithic
  • Deep caves
  • Alternative states of consciousness
  • Israel
Accesso libero

Landscape Archaeology in the Wādī al-ʿArab Region

Pubblicato online: 06 Feb 2018
Pagine: 100 - 108

Astratto

Abstract

As an integral part of the Gadara-Region-Project, a survey of the Wādī al-‘Arab region was conducted during the years 2009-2012, by the Biblical-Archaeological Institute Wuppertal and the German Protestant Institute for Archaeology in order to achieve a better understanding of the hinterland of the main study site Tall Zirāʿa and to provide answers concerning settlement pattern, trade relationships and the importance of sites throughout time.

On the basis of this survey we used ecological approaches to see what correlation might exist between archaeological sites and habitat. Since more than half the sites in this survey had Roman occupation, we asked what difference, if any, was there in the distribution of Roman sites compared to previous occupations. A comparison was made of “new” Roman sites (those not previously occupied in the Hellenistic period) with those that had both Roman and Hellenistic occupation.

Open water, riverine habitats, and large archaeological sites all seemed connected. In addition, analysis indicated a correlation of older (more successful or established?) sites with open water and new Roman sites were less related to water. We knew that Roman engineering both of cistern systems and aqueducts opened new areas (such as plateaus) for settlement and exploitation. Hence the weaker correlation of new Roman sites with natural water was reasonable.

Parole chiave

  • landscape archaeology
  • Jordan
  • Roman era
  • habitat
  • survey
  • multivariate analysis
Accesso libero

The Paleo-Anthropocene and the Genesis of the Current Landscape of Israel

Pubblicato online: 06 Feb 2018
Pagine: 109 - 140

Astratto

Abstract

Worldwide, human impact on natural landscapes has intensified since prehistoric times, and this is well documented in the global archaeological record. The period between the earliest hominids and the Industrial Revolution of the late 18-19th centuries is known as the Paleo-Anthropocene. The current study reviews key geoarchaeological, floral and faunal factors of the Paleo-Anthropocene in Israel, an area that has undergone human activities in various intensities since prehistoric times. It discusses significant human imprints on these three features in the Israeli landscape, demonstrating that its current form is almost entirely anthropogenic. Moreover, some of the past physical changes still dynamically shape Israel’s zoological, archaeological and geomorphic landscape today. It is hoped that insights from this article might aid in guiding present-day management strategies of undeveloped areas through renewal of human activity guided by traditional knowledge.

Parole chiave

  • Anthropocene
  • Management of Anthropogenic Landscape
  • Landscape History
  • Human and Environmental Interaction
  • Eco-geomorphology
  • Traditional Knowledge
Accesso libero

Economic Conditions in the Area Around the Sea of Galilee in Pre-Hellenistic Times

Pubblicato online: 06 Feb 2018
Pagine: 141 - 153

Astratto

Abstract

In a landscape archaeology project all the fertile fields around the Sea of Galilee (an area of 50 × 30 km) were mapped. The whole territory was subdivided in 5 regions: Jordan valley, Lower Galilee, Upper Galilee, Golan and Transjordanian Hill Country. Additionally all ancient sites from the Neolithic to the Persian period, which are mentioned in archaeological literature, were collected – all together more than 300 sites. These data allow a reconstruction of the economic conditions in antiquity in the area around the Sea of Galilee. Landscape archaeology clearly demonstrates that the economic basis may have been completely diverse in the five sub-regions, and also during different times. Agriculture played a major role in the economy of ancient people. During some periods and in some regions people lived in the midst of the fields, while in other periods they settled at the edges in order not to waste valuable farmland. On the other hand the position of some sites in some periods clearly demonstrates that trade played a major role for the income of the settlers, or basalt mining and working. Streets can be reconstructed, and our methodological approach allows new insights in the economy of this area

Parole chiave

  • Landscape archaeology
  • Israel
  • Sea of Galilee
  • economic conditions
  • settlements
Accesso libero

New Directions with Digital Archaeology and Spatial Analysis in the Jezreel Valley

Pubblicato online: 06 Feb 2018
Pagine: 154 - 164

Astratto

Abstract

The Jezreel Valley Regional Project (JVRP) is a long-term multidisciplinary project investigating human activity in the Jezreel Valley through all periods through the modern era. This research incorporates extensive and intensive archaeological survey and excavation at several spatial scales, and utilizes a number of methodological approaches to documentation and spatial analysis. One of the major challenges of this project has been coping with a high volume of data, and integrating cutting-edge technology into our workflow to solve the problems that many archaeologists face. This paper will present an overview of our field-based methods of data acquisition, particularly by means of 3D photogrammetry, remote sensing, and high-precision ground control. When integrated through our data management system and used in GIS applications, these data not only produce plans and imagery far more precise than conventional approaches, but the methods used are incredibly time-efficient, cost-effective, and produce archival digital data. Furthermore, we will report on results of spatial analysis of archaeological activity in the Jezreel Valley in conjunction with digital terrain and hydrological modelling of the landscape. These digital techniques allow us to study human and environmental changes in the landscape like never before.

Parole chiave

  • Jezreel Valley
  • Archaeology
  • Landscape Survey
  • GIS
  • Structure from Motion
Accesso libero

The Agricultural Landscape of Tel Burna: Ecology and Economy of a Bronze Age/Iron Age Settlement in the Southern Levant

Pubblicato online: 06 Feb 2018
Pagine: 165 - 188

Astratto

Abstract

The Shephelah, known as the breadbasket of the southern Levant, is one of the more extensively investigated regions of the southern Levant in terms of archaeobotanical research. However, studies dealing with agriculture are scarce in comparison to the archaeobotanical data available. The analysis of the archaeobotanical assemblage in combination with the archaeological remains from Tel Burna will contribute to the investigation of the agriculture of the Shephelah. Several seasons of excavation revealed a cultic complex dating to the Late Bronze Age and an Iron Age II settlement with various agricultural installations such as silos and wine or olive presses. In this paper, we present the agricultural features in conjunction with the systematical archaeobotanical sampling, which enables us to reconstruct the types of crop plants cultivated at the site. Grass pea seeds dominate the assemblage collected from the Late Bronze Age complex, which may point to a connection to the Aegean. The Iron Age assemblage is distinguished by a significantly broad range of crop plants which were cultivated in vicinity of the tell. The archaeological Iron Age remains indicate that the processing of secondary products such as olive oil, wine, or textiles took place within the Iron Age settlement of Tel Burna. This first comprehensive overview describes the character of agricultural production in the Late Bronze Age to Iron Age environmental and geopolitical transformations.

Parole chiave

  • Agriculture
  • Shephelah
  • Southern Levant
  • Iron Age
  • Late Bronze Age
  • Landscape
Accesso libero

Variations in Hillslope Runoff as Detected Using Geological Strata Coupled with Vegetation Patterns- Implications on Spatially Distributed Desert Runoff Agriculture

Pubblicato online: 06 Feb 2018
Pagine: 189 - 212

Astratto

Abstract

Sparsely vegetated bedrock slopes in deserts coincide with slope parameters, thus they have important implications on biological, chemical, hydrological and geomorphological processes. Spatial variations in these vegetation patterns, density and communities indicates on relatively humid habitats, which correspond with sinks for high runoff. Relations between the bedrock runoff generation and vegetation patterns may imply on the spatial locations of Byzantine – Early Muslim (400-1000 C.E.; 1600-1000 y BP) agriculture installations. These installations are widespread in the Negev Desert, Israel, utilized sophisticated runoff harvesting techniques by the ancient farmers. Applying a multi-disciplinary approach, we tested vegetation patterns as a precursor for runoff generation along bedrock slopes in the Negev Desert Highlands, and correlated them to the spatial distribution of the Byzantine – Early Muslim runoff agriculture installations. Integrating vegetation patterns, geological substrate data and bedrock-runoff generation data on a GIS model on a large scale (160 km2) of the Negev Highlands yields a synthetic potential runoff map. This map is a unique new product conducted for the first time during this study. Basing on it, runoff yield can be predicted for different scales, ranging from that of a single lithology slope to that of a basin of varying lithologies. Utilizing this methodology, we show that high correlation (80 %) exists between vegetation patterns and spatially located Byzantine – Early Muslim runoff-farming installations. This correlation turns the vegetation coverage as a reliable marker for predicting runoff yield in arid bedrock slopes and imply for stable arid climate in the past 1600 years in the Negev Desert.

Parole chiave

  • Desert
  • Ancient runoff agriculture
  • Rain-bedrock-runoff relations
  • Vegetation patterns
  • Southern Levant
  • Climate variability
  • GIS
Accesso libero

Publishing Landscape Archaeology in the Digital World

Pubblicato online: 06 Feb 2018
Pagine: 213 - 229

Astratto

Abstract

The challenge of presenting micro- and macro-scale scale data in landscape archaeology studies is facilitated by a diversity of GIS technologies. Specific to scholarly research is the need to selectively share certain types of data with collaborators and academic researchers while also publishing general information in the public domain. This article presents a general model for scholarly online collaboration and teaching while providing examples of the kinds of landscape archaeology that can be published online. Specifically illustrated is WorldMap, an interactive mapping platform based upon open-source software which uses browsers built to open source standards. The various features of this platform allow tight user viewing control, views with URL referencing, commenting and certification of layers, as well as user annotation. Illustration of WorldMap features and its value for scholarly research and teaching is provided in the context of landscape archaeology studies.

Parole chiave

  • Mediterranian archaeology
  • navigation
  • Phoenician
  • GIS
  • landscape archaeology
Accesso libero

Reconstructing Socio-Political Urban-Rural Interactions Using Viewshed Analysis: The Late Bronze Age at Ramat Bet Shemesh, Israel.

Pubblicato online: 06 Feb 2018
Pagine: 230 - 244

Astratto

Abstract

The archaeological research conducted during the last two decades at the Judean Shephelah testifies for one of the most turbulent regions in the land of Israel during the Late Bronze Age. This stands in contrast to the scarce historical record that relates to it. The geographic region of Ramat Bet Shemesh encompasses important information about socio-political relations between the small rural settlements and hamlets and the city-states that dominated the area from the west. Advanced GIS modelling is one of the main research tools that enables us to reconstruct various aspects of these interactions. In this paper, the results of viewshed analyses are presented, suggesting that these interactions are defined, among other things, by a solidarity between small rural occupations that resist territorial rigid inner division of the landscape.

Parole chiave

  • Ramat Bet Shemesh
  • Late Bronze Age
  • city states
  • rural villages
  • GIS
  • Viewshed Analysis
Accesso libero

“To Sartaba, From Sartaba” A New Proposal to Identify the Location of the Second Station on the Beacon Line from Jerusalem to Babylon

Pubblicato online: 06 Feb 2018
Pagine: 245 - 255

Astratto

Abstract

The Hebrew calendar is a lunisolar calendar. Its months are based on the revolution of the moon about the Earth, as it is said: This is the burnt offering of every new moon throughout the months of the year1 (Num. 28:14)

At the present time the moment of the true new moon is approximated mathematically. However during the Second Temple period, the beginning of the new lunar month had to be observed and certified by witnesses. Then the Sanhedrin Court was to make a public proclamation on the first day of the lunar month (ראש חודש).

In Mishnah, Tractate Rosh Hashana, Chapter 2 describes the process of communicating the information about the beginning of new month through the chain of beacon fires:

“From the Mount of Olives to Sartaba, and from Sartaba to Grofina, and from Grofina to Hauran, and from Hauran to Bet Biltin. From Bet Biltin they did not move, but rather waved back and forth and up and down until he saw the whole of the diaspora before him lit up like one bonfire.”2

Questioning of reliability of the quoted above description, its completeness and exclusiveness of the delineated in the Mishnah route is beyond the scope of the presented research. In this article we’ll apply methods of the geographic information systems (GIS) analysis in order to examine the existed theories regarding localization of Sartaba - the second mentioned station in the chain of beacon fires, reveal their discrepancies and propose an innovative, albeit rather technical, solution for long-known problem.

Parole chiave

  • Sartaba
  • Mishnah
  • visibility analysis
  • GIS
Accesso libero

The Origins of Terracing in the Southern Levant and Patch Cultivation/Box Fields

Pubblicato online: 06 Feb 2018
Pagine: 256 - 265

Astratto

Abstract

This paper looks at various suggestions relating to what incipient and early forms of terracing might have looked like, and goes on to suggest that some of the earliest terraces in the southern Levant may have emerged from horticultural practices, and more specifically the cultivation of olive trees within sunken patches of soil on rocky hillslopes (referred to as “patch cultivation” or “box fields”). This phenomenon may be traced back to the Chalcolithic period (4th millennium B.C.E), if not to earlier times.

Parole chiave

  • terraces
  • patch cultivation
  • box fields
  • cup-marks
  • Chalcolithic period
  • landscape archaeology
  • southern Levant
Accesso libero

Waste Management and Attitudes Towards Cleanliness in Medieval Central Europe

Pubblicato online: 06 Feb 2018
Pagine: 266 - 287

Astratto

Abstract

The paper deals with the relationships between people and waste in the Middle Ages, primarily in urban environments in Central Europe. At the center of interest are the attitudes of the inhabitants of medieval cities towards cleanliness and a description of different waste management practices. This paper also describes an experiment using ashes to launder clothing as one possible use of a particular waste material.

Parole chiave

  • Middle Ages
  • waste
  • waste management
  • recycling
  • environment
  • hygiene
  • cleanliness
  • ashes
  • clothes laundering

Pianifica la tua conferenza remota con Sciendo