Rivista e Edizione

Volume 9 (2022): Edizione 1 (January 2022)

Volume 8 (2021): Edizione 1 (January 2021)

Volume 7 (2020): Edizione 1 (January 2020)

Volume 6 (2019): Edizione 2 (January 2019)

Volume 6 (2019): Edizione 1 (January 2019)

Volume 5 (2018): Edizione 1 (April 2018)

Volume 4 (2017): Edizione 1 (January 2017)

Volume 3 (2016): Edizione 2 (July 2016)

Volume 3 (2016): Edizione 1 (January 2016)

Volume 2 (2015): Edizione 2 (July 2015)

Volume 2 (2015): Edizione 1 (March 2015)

Volume 1 (2014): Edizione 3 (October 2014)

Volume 1 (2013): Edizione 2 (May 2013)

Volume 1 (2013): Edizione 1 (January 2013)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2055-3390
Pubblicato per la prima volta
22 Dec 2017
Periodo di pubblicazione
1 volta all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 8 (2021): Edizione 1 (January 2021)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2055-3390
Pubblicato per la prima volta
22 Dec 2017
Periodo di pubblicazione
1 volta all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

20 Articoli

Community Focus

Accesso libero

A descriptive study of United States bleeding disorders camps

Pubblicato online: 03 Mar 2021
Pagine: 1 - 10

Astratto

Abstract Background

Disease-specific camps present one means of helping children overcome the challenges associated with chronic conditions and improving clinical and psychosocial outcomes. For more than 50 years, bleeding disorders camps (BDCs) in the United States (US) have been promoting independence, self-care, and leadership skills in children with bleeding disorders, all while fostering camaraderie in a secure and safe environment. However, little is known about how BDCs are organised, administered, funded, staffed, or how staff are compensated.

Aim

This article aims to describe the attributes of BDCs that service the US bleeding disorders community, and to compare and contrast these attributes to identify gaps in the BDC system and areas for improvement.

Methods

The National Hemophilia Foundation (NHF), in collaboration with several members of its Nursing Working Group and Physical Therapy Working Group, developed a survey that was distributed to BDC administrators (CAs) and health care providers (HCPs).

Results

A total of 101 HCPs and 20 CAs completed the survey. Findings indicated that BDCs are an informal extension of both the HTCs and NHF chapters, reaffirming that camps play a crucial role in the overall care of bleeding disorders. In general, diminishing financial resources threaten the existence of BDCs. Although there are BDC guidelines for formal staff training and specific interventions delivered to camp participants, adherence is variable. Other gaps included minimal self-infusion education follow-up with no documentation on effect or benefit of infusion education provided at camp.

Conclusion

Addressing the gaps identified by this survey and documenting resultant data supporting the value of BDCs will facilitate their continued sustainability in light of increasingly limited funding.

Parole chiave

  • camping
  • blood coagulation disorders
  • haemophilia
  • staffing
  • children
  • adolescents
Accesso libero

The impact of heavy periods on women with a bleeding disorder

Pubblicato online: 02 May 2021
Pagine: 15 - 31

Astratto

Abstract Background

Women with a bleeding disorder (WBD), including those diagnosed as a carrier, often have heavy periods associated with prolonged bleeding and pain. This survey sought to describe the impact of this substantial burden on daily living and the personal cost of managing heavy periods.

Methods

An online survey was promoted to women who identify as having a bleeding disorder via the social media of The Haemophilia Society in January and February 2020. The survey included 20 questions about personal data, symptoms and the practicalities of living with a bleeding disorder.

Results

A total of 181 responses were received, of which 151 were complete questionnaires. Of these, 58% of respondents were aged 18–45 and 136 identified as having a bleeding disorder, mostly haemophilia or von Willebrand disease. Thirteen (10%) had been diagnosed as a haemophilia carrier and a further four women were probable carriers. Prolonged or painful periods were reported by the majority of respondents; the median duration of bleeding was 7 days (range 2–42). Thirty-six per cent took time off work or study as a result and 42% reported a negative impact on social life. Eighteen women (13%) reported having to use a combination of sanitary protection products to manage their bleeding. Women diagnosed as a carrier reported morbidity comparable with that of women with a diagnosed bleeding disorder and reported greater use of combinations of sanitary protection.

Conclusion

WBD experience a high prevalence of heavy bleeding and prolonged, painful periods despite using appropriate symptomatic treatment. The impact of heavy periods on women diagnosed as a being a carrier is comparable with that experienced by women with a diagnosed bleeding disorder, but as they are not always clinically recognised they may lack access to care and support.

Parole chiave

  • women with bleeding disorders
  • menstrual bleeding
  • menorrhagia
  • haemophilia
  • von Willebrand disease
Accesso libero

“You’re only a carrier” – women and the language of haemophilia

Pubblicato online: 07 Nov 2021
Pagine: 128 - 132

Astratto

Abstract

Women who have the gene variant for haemophilia are labelled solely as ‘carriers’ unless they have a factor VIII activity of ≤40%. This term, which describes an individual who can pass on a disorder but are themselves unaffected, reflects a legacy that extends from the 18th century to the present day. There is strong evidence that women labelled as carriers experience heavy periods, joint damage, pain and impaired quality of life. The label ‘carrier’ does not recognise this burden and is associated with guilt, stigma and difficulty accessing care. People living with a long-term disorder should now be described using person-first terminology and it is common to see the term ‘people with haemophilia’. The term ‘carrier’ should be limited to its application in genetics and not used as a catch-all label for women with haemophilia.

Parole chiave

  • Haemophilia
  • women
  • carriers
  • genetics
  • terminology as topic
Accesso libero

“It's a way of life”: Results from the Perceptions of Pain in Haemophilia study

Pubblicato online: 02 Mar 2022
Pagine: 145 - 154

Astratto

Abstract Introduction

Pain is recognised as a subjective phenomenon, often defined as ‘whatever the experiencing person says it is, existing whenever the experiencing person says it does’. Pain is a critical aspect of life for many people with haemophilia (PWH) but is under-recognised and inconsistently managed by clinicians. As haemophilia management moves towards non-factor-based treatments which may normalise life experience, it is unclear how this will impact on the experience and management of pain.

Aims

The Perceptions of Pain in Haemophilia study aimed to identify the impact of pain on men with haemophilia in the UK.

Methods

The study used mixed qualitative research methods (paper-based questionnaires and focus group interviews). Eligible PWH aged >18 years were invited to participate in a focus group to discuss pain, assessment and management. Each focus group discussion was recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically.

Results

Eighteen participants (13 haemophilia A (12 severe) and 5 severe haemophilia B) age range 18–58 years (median 32.5 years) joined focus groups conducted using an online video platform. The majority (95%) were treated with prophylaxis and reported few recent bleeds. Three main themes emerged: the impact of pain, managing pain, and factors influencing the experience of pain. Participants connected their earliest experiences of pain with childhood; it impacted their mental health and wellbeing, daily habits, routines, sports, hobbies, social life, work and education. Participants recognised the difference between the pain of acute bleeds and arthritic pain. Many did not like taking strong analgesics due to side-effects and concerns around addiction. Participants doubted the value of pain scales and noted a lack of empathy and understanding among health care professionals (HCPs), but valued physiotherapists. Participants recognised the value of talking about the negative impact of their pain experiences; however, they reported that family members, who often provided the most support, could not always truly understand their pain.

Conclusion

Pain is ‘normal’ for PWH, who adopt it into part of their everyday life experience. HCPs are ideally placed to impact this experience but seem to lack insight as to the extent of pain and how to manage it beyond prescribing stronger analgesia. The social and psychological implications of chronic pain should be better addressed by HCPs. This includes being cognisant that new therapeutic options will not resolve old pain.

Parole chiave

  • pain
  • chronic pain
  • analgesia
  • haemophilia
  • patients’ views

Case Study

Accesso libero

Case report of nasal pseudotumor – a rare presentation in severe haemophilia A with high titre inhibitors

Pubblicato online: 03 Mar 2021
Pagine: 11 - 14

Astratto

Abstract

Haemophilia patients with inhibitors suffer from increased morbidity and mortality due to the ineffectiveness of factor VIII replacement. Pseudotumors are rare but dangerous complications in these patients, and nasal pseudotumors are even rarer. Here, we present the case of a young child with severe haemophilia A with high titre inhibitors who developed a nasal pseudotumor. When immune tolerance therapy was not possible due to financial constraints, he was treated with FEIBA prophylaxis and rituximab. The pseudotumor was managed with surgical excision. We conclude that epistaxis in haemophiliacs can be due to an underlying nasal pseudotumor, and highlight the use of rituximab for the eradication of inhibitors.

Parole chiave

  • haemophilia with inhibitors
  • rituximab
  • nasal pseudotumor
  • surgical removal
  • case report
Accesso libero

Dental extraction in congenital factor Vll deficiency with inhibitor – a case report

Pubblicato online: 30 May 2021
Pagine: 52 - 55

Astratto

Abstract Background

Hereditary factor VII (FVII) deficiency is a rare bleeding disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance, and FVII deficiency with an inhibitor is extremely rare. There is sparse information in the literature on the management of tooth extraction in patients with FVII deficiency and an inhibitor.

Case description

We report the case of a five-year-old child with FVII deficiency and an inhibitor who underwent dental extraction. The child had had multiple bleeding episodes including intracranial haemorrhage and had a history of severe allergic reaction to the infusion of recombinant FVII. The tooth was extracted using lignocaine gel and the antifibrinolytic agent oral tranexamic acid.

Conclusion

The extraction of a deciduous tooth in a patient with FVII deficiency and an inhibitor was undertaken without bleeding complications. There are currently no guidelines regarding management of this type of case. Further studies and evidence are required so that management can be standardised.

Parole chiave

  • Congenital factor VII deficiency with inhibitor
  • dental extraction
  • tranexamic acid
Accesso libero

Management of multiple myeloma in a patient with haemophilia with concurrent emicizumab – case report

Pubblicato online: 22 Dec 2021
Pagine: 136 - 140

Astratto

Abstract

With the increased life expectancies of people with severe haemophilia A, diagnoses of disorders associated with increased age are likely to become more common. Multiple myeloma is a commonly diagnosed plasma cell dyscrasia, with incidence strongly related to age. Both the disease itself and specific myeloma therapies are associated with a significant increase in rates of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Management of VTE prophylaxis can be challenging, especially in patients with a bleeding disorder. In this case report, we describe the management of a patient with concurrent diagnosis of multiple myeloma and severe haemophilia A, undergoing first line myeloma chemotherapy. The patient was successfully managed on standard of care myeloma treatment, with use of emicizumab and venous thromboprophylaxis. This case demonstrates the successful management of a haematological malignancy and a bleeding disorder using integrated and multidisciplinary patient-focused care.

Parole chiave

  • emicizumab
  • myeloma
  • thromboprophylaxis
  • thalidomide
  • lenalidomide

Clinical Research

Accesso libero

The patient gene therapy journey: Findings from qualitative interviews with trial participants at one UK haemophilia centre

Pubblicato online: 02 May 2021
Pagine: 32 - 44

Astratto

Abstract Introduction

Gene therapy for haemophilia is in late-stage clinical development and has the potential to become a therapeutic option in clinical practice.

Aims

To enhance the understanding of the perspectives of people with haemophilia around gene therapy, and to highlight their concerns about and motivations for having gene therapy.

Method

Structured, qualitative interviews were conducted and recorded with six people who had received an investigational gene therapy product. The recordings were transcribed and thematically analysed.

Results

Most of those interviewed were under the age of 40, and the mean time out from their gene therapy infusion was 10 months. Adverse events were the main concerns pre-infusion, and impact on quality of life was the main motivating factor for choosing to go ahead. Pre-infusion, the treating centre and the health care professionals working there were the main source of information regarding gene therapy; only two participants looked elsewhere for information to support their decision. None of the respondents expressed concerns about the infusion day itself, and all found the infusion to be simple or uneventful. Post-infusion, four found the frequency of follow-up appointments difficult, with time and travel the main issues.

Conclusion

Although participants' perspectives on gene therapy were generally positive, there remains a need for education and support. Nurses will play an important role in the delivery of gene therapy for haemophilia, but all staff within the haemophilia treatment centre should be armed with the knowledge and confidence to answer questions about gene therapy.

Parole chiave

  • gene therapy
  • haemophilia
  • experience
  • views of people with haemophilia
  • nurse
Accesso libero

Red Flag Study: An observational cross-sectional survey looking at bleeding in patients with a bleeding disorder who are lost to follow-up

Pubblicato online: 30 May 2021
Pagine: 45 - 51

Astratto

Abstract Background

Regular follow-up visits and routine care is important for people with a mild bleeding disorder in terms of lowering their risk of complications from untreated bleeds and helping them maintain a healthy lifestyle. However, follow-up visits among this population can sometimes be missed for unclear reasons.

Aim

The present study aimed to question if lost-to-follow-up patients with a bleeding disorder experience unreported but important bleeding events that are not communicated to their haemophilia treatment centre (HTC) and if they could benefit from more frequent clinic visits.

Methods

A multicentre paper-based cross-sectional survey was sent to people diagnosed with an inherited blood disorder and lost to follow-up for two years or more. Those who met the eligibility criteria received the survey by mail and completed and returned it to their HTC between October 2015 and July 2016.

Results

Invitation packages were sent to 71 individuals; 14 questionnaires returned, with a survey response rate of 19.7%. Of the 14 returned surveys, only 11 participants were eligible who either responded completely or partially to the survey. Quality of life was reported as almost never or never a problem by all but one participant, who limited activities due to bleeding problems. Spontaneous nosebleeds were sometimes, often or always a problem for three participants; one female participant reported issues associated with heavy menstrual bleeding as often or almost always a problem.

Conclusion

We concluded that although the mean annual bleeding self-reported events were relatively low, they cannot be underestimated when keeping in mind the limitations and challenges of accessing data among this population. Our study highlighted the importance of educating this group of patients on their bleeding disorder and engaging them in their own care and health status, which may result in improving their health-related quality of life and overall health outcomes.

Parole chiave

  • mild bleeding disorders
  • haemophilia
  • education
  • follow-up
Accesso libero

The potential impact of gene therapy on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) domains in haemophilia

Pubblicato online: 30 May 2021
Pagine: 56 - 68

Astratto

Abstract Introduction

Haemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder characterised by spontaneous bleeding, often leading to impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Commonly used treatments include episodic and prophylactic treatment regimens. Gene therapies could soon become available, potentially creating a paradigm shift in patient management.

Aim

This paper proposes hypotheses about the potential impact of gene therapy on HRQoL domains in haemophilia, and how these impacts might differ compared with existing treatments.

Methods

An expert working group with 10 individuals experienced in haemophilia and HRQoL research was established to discuss potential impacts of gene therapy on HRQoL in general and for specific domains in haemophilia. As part of a one-day workshop, domains of three widely used patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments were explored: the Haemo-QoL-A, the Patient Reported Outcomes, Burden and Experiences (PROBE), and the Haemophilia Activities List (HAL).

Results

The group expected a greater improvement in HRQoL from gene therapy compared with existing treatments for the following domains: physical/role functioning, worry, and consequences of bleeding (Haemo-QoL-A); haemophilia-related health and EQ-5D-5L (part of the PROBE); leg and arm function, and leisure activities (HAL). In contrast, the experts suggested that no change or potential deterioration might be observed for the emotional impact (HAL) and treatment concerns (Haemo-QoL-A) domains.

Conclusions

Current PRO instruments in haemophilia have limitations when applied in the context of gene therapy, and no single instrument fully captures the relevant HRQoL domains. However, the PROBE and Haemo-QoL-A were considered as the most suitable existing instruments. As haemophilia treatments evolve, further research should examine the potential effectiveness of existing PRO instruments as compared to the development of novel PRO measures.

Parole chiave

  • Haemophilia
  • gene therapy
  • patient-reported outcomes
  • health-related quality of life
Accesso libero

Web-based Application for the Population Pharmacokinetic Service (WAPPS)'s impact on dosage selection: a single paediatric centre experience

Pubblicato online: 13 Jul 2021
Pagine: 80 - 85

Astratto

Abstract Background

Current treatment for severe haemophilia includes prophylactic factor replacement to prevent bleeding. Coagulation factor products have significant inter-patient variability in pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters. Optimal management requires tailoring prophylaxis to individual PK parameters. Web-based Application for the Population Pharmacokinetic Service (WAPPS) is a tool that estimates individual PK values using a population approach. Despite its growing use to help guide dosing selection, few studies have investigated its clinical impact.

Aim

To investigate any change in prophylaxis regimen and hours per week where factor level is under 1%, pre- and post-PK testing using WAPPS, for paediatric patients with severe haemophilia.

Methods

A retrospective chart review was conducted for all paediatric patients with severe haemophilia receiving care between April 2013 and July 2018 at McMaster Children's Hospital who have used WAPPS. Data extracted included: patient demographics, PK data generated by WAPPS, prophylaxis regimen pre- and post-PK testing, and reason for regimen change. The number of hours per week where factor level was under 1% pre- and post-PK testing was calculated using WAPPS.

Results

Thirty-one patients were included; 42% (n=13) changed their prophylaxis regimen after PK testing. After using PK data to personalise prophylaxis recommendations, there was a decrease in the number of hours per week where factor level is under 1% (from an average of 13.1 hours/week to 11.8 hours/week), though not statistically significant (p=0.16).

Conclusion

PK data generated by WAPPS has direct impact by informing changes to prophylaxis recommendations. This individualised approach promotes patient-centred care and patient engagement without increasing the time spent with factor levels below 1%. It also confirms and validates clinical practice.

Parole chiave

  • haemophilia A
  • haemophilia B
  • factor VIII
  • factor IX
  • children
  • pharmacokinetics
Accesso libero

Bone mineral density in Canadian children with severe haemophilia A or B: a cross-sectional study

Pubblicato online: 14 Oct 2021
Pagine: 111 - 118

Astratto

Abstract Background

Previous research has shown that bone mineral density (BMD), a measure of bone strength, may be lower among people with haemophilia. However, the majority of this research has been done in adults and in countries where the treatment for haemophilia differs from the standard of care in Canada, and there is a lack of paediatric data.

Aims

The primary objective of this study was to determine whether Canadian children and youth with severe haemophilia A and B have BMD similar to healthy controls matched for height, age and weight (HAW-score). Secondary objectives included the exploration of any association between BMD and the following variables: factor replacement regimen, Hemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS), bleeding history, physical activity level, and dietary intake of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K and protein.

Methods

A cross-sectional observational study was designed to determine the BMD of children with severe haemophilia A and B in Canada. Ethical approvals were obtained from participating institutions. Thirty-eight participants aged 3–18 with severe haemophilia A and B were recruited from two treatment centres in Canada. Subjects underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan, and data was collected from regular clinic visit to identify factor replacement regimen, HJHS, and number of joint bleeds over the lifespan. Physical activity level and dietary intake of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K and protein were identified using self-report questionnaires.

Results

Participants showed a mean spine BMD Z-score and HAW-score higher than controls, with no participants showing a spine Z-score or HAW-score of <0. Hip BMD score was within normal range, and 2 participants had a Z-score and HAW-score of <−2. Total body BMD score was lower than controls, with 6 participants having a Z-score of <−2.0, and 3 participants having a HAW-score of <−2.0. Factor replacement regimen, HJHS, calcium intake, and physical activity level had no relationship to BMD Z-score or HAW-score. Low intake of vitamin D was associated with a low hip and spine BMD Z-score and HAW-score. Participants with a HJHS joint score greater than 0 had a higher total body HAW-score than those who had a joint score of 0.

Conclusion

Canadian children with severe haemophilia A and B demonstrate differences in spine and total body BMD from height-, age-, and weight-matched controls, where spine BMD is higher than controls and total body BMD is lower than controls. Studies with a larger sample size are needed to clarify the status of BMD in children with haemophilia treated with primary prophylaxis.

Parole chiave

  • Bone density
  • paediatrics
  • haemophilia
  • physical activity
  • vitamin D
  • height-age-weight-adjusted score

Clinical Practice

Accesso libero

Personalising haemophilia management with shared decision making

Pubblicato online: 18 Jun 2021
Pagine: 69 - 79

Astratto

Abstract

The current standard of care for treating people with haemophilia (PWH) in the developed world is prophylaxis with regular infusions of clotting factor concentrates. Gene therapy is being investigated as a new treatment paradigm for haemophilia and if approved would potentially eliminate the need for chronic, burdensome infusions. In recent years, shared decision making (SDM) has become increasingly common in patient care settings. SDM is a stepwise process that relies on reciprocal information sharing between the practitioner and patient, resulting in health care decisions stemming from the informed preferences of both parties. SDM represents a departure from the traditional, paternalistic clinical model where the practitioner drives the treatment decision and the patient passively defers to this decision. As the potential introduction of gene therapy in haemophilia may transform the current standard of care, and impact disease management and goals in unique ways, both practitioners and PWH may find their knowledge tested when considering the appropriate use of a novel technology. Therefore, it is incumbent upon haemophilia practitioners to foster an open, trusting, and supportive relationship with their patients, while PWH and their caregivers must be knowledgeable and feel empowered to participate in the decision making process to achieve truly shared treatment decisions.

Parole chiave

  • Haemophilia
  • decision making
  • physician-patient relationships
  • decision support techniques
  • patient participation
  • patient-centred care
  • gene therapy
Accesso libero

The use of rIX-FP in patients with haemophilia B: a nurse's perspective

Pubblicato online: 18 Aug 2021
Pagine: 86 - 97

Astratto

Abstract

The management of patients with haemophilia is complex and requires lifelong care to be delivered by a specialist multidisciplinary team. Haemophilia B results from a deficiency or absence in coagulation factor IX (FIX), leading to easy bruising, and musculoskeletal and internal bleeding. For patients with severe or moderate haemophilia B, prophylaxis with standard half-life (SHL) coagulation FIX products requires frequent intravenous administration, which may negatively impact treatment adherence and increase burden of care. A recombinant fusion protein linking recombinant FIX (rFIX) with recombinant human albumin, rIX-FP, has an extended half-life compared with SHL rFIX, and has demonstrated a favourable safety and efficacy profile for the prevention and treatment of bleeding episodes in phase III and real-world studies of patients with severe haemophilia B. rIX-FP enables treatment to be tailored to the needs of individual patients, with dosing flexibility allowing selected patients to be treated with prophylaxis dosing intervals of 7, 10, 14 or 21 days. Patients switching to rIX-FP can reduce their annualised bleeding rate and some have successfully reduced their prophylactic dosing frequency while maintaining low bleeding rates and consistent factor consumption. This may ultimately minimise the occurrence of haemophilic arthropathy and improve patient quality of life. Educating patients and caregivers on the sustained use of rIX-FP prophylaxis is essential. The lifelong support and guidance provided by healthcare professionals at haemophilia treatment centres (HTCs) are critical for providing an optimal treatment approach that can increase adherence to treatment. This article reviews the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of rIX-FP demonstrated in clinical trials and clinical practice, and discusses haemophilia nurses’ clinical experiences with rIX-FP in patients in their HTCs.

Parole chiave

  • Factor IX
  • haemophilia B
  • pharmacokinetics
  • prophylaxis
  • rIX-FP
  • nurse
Accesso libero

Telemedicine in haemophilia during COVID-19 and beyond: a comprehensive review

Pubblicato online: 14 Oct 2021
Pagine: 98 - 110

Astratto

Abstract Introduction

Patients with haemophilia require regular assessments and physical examinations. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in the rapid adoption of telemedicine to enable virtual consultations and reduce hospital visits. However, the process of virtual consultations is new to many haemophilia clinics. A better understanding of best practices in telemedicine is important to ensure optimal quality of care for patients with haemophilia.

Objectives

To summarise the current literature on the use of direct-to-consumer telemedicine for patients with haemophilia and to describe the effectiveness and potential limitations of the technology and methods used.

Methods

A comprehensive search was conducted in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases using terms referring to the concepts “haemophilia” AND “telemedicine” and their synonyms. There were no time or language restrictions. Title, abstracts, and full texts were screened. Included articles involved telemedicine interventions to facilitate clinical services directly between patients and providers without the use of third-party personnel. The primary outcome was the satisfaction of providers and patients. Secondary outcomes included economic considerations and clinical outcomes. Information was extracted based on study-specific, patient-specific, intervention-specific, and outcome-specific data.

Results

Of the 925 articles screened, six were identified and summarised. Three described telemedicine within the context of COVID-19. Technologies used included telephone calls, videoconferencing, text messaging, and email. All studies involved a multidisciplinary team. Telemedicine in haemophilia care was found to positively impact the patient experience. Providers were satisfied with telemedicine. It was also suggested to be economically beneficial and positively impacted patient outcomes. However, none of the articles reported on how telemedicine was specifically used to perform assessments during the virtual consultation process.

Conclusions

There is preliminary evidence that telemedicine may be beneficial in haemophilia care. Overall, patients and providers reported high satisfaction with the usage of direct-to-consumer telemedicine. This positive reception warrants improvements in standardisation of reporting and quality of study design to better assess its clinical and economic impact. Developing a standard guideline for virtual consultations would support healthcare practitioners in how to best incorporate telemedicine to improve quality of care.

Parole chiave

  • Telemedicine
  • haemophilia
  • COVID-19
  • consultation
  • technology
Accesso libero

Haemophilia specialist nurses’ perceptions of haemophilia B

Pubblicato online: 14 Oct 2021
Pagine: 119 - 127

Astratto

Abstract Introduction

Some clinicians believe that haemophilia B is associated with less bleeding than haemophilia A, yet there appears to be little difference in health-related outcomes. Current clinical practice reduces the risk of bleeds, making differences difficult to measure. We surveyed specialist haemophilia nurses to discern their opinions about the impact of haemophilia B compared to haemophilia A.

Methods

Between July and September 2020, European and Canadian nurses were invited to complete an online survey (25 questions) about perceptions of management and treatment of haemophilia B.

Results

Fifty-nine nurses (46 European, 13 Canadian) completed the survey. Bleeding was reported as different in haemophilia B by 37% of respondents, and treatment as different by over half. Opinions and experience around using extended half-life (EHL) products varied. Self-reported confidence in using EHL products was rated at a mean of 7.1 (range 3–10) with 47% believing these would remain the optimal treatment in 2025.

Conclusion

Some nurses believe haemophilia A and B are managed differently. Variations in experience and levels of confidence in the use of EHL products, combined with a belief that these products will remain an optimal treatment for haemophilia B for the next five years, indicates a need for education to promote confidence and competence.

Parole chiave

  • Haemophilia B
  • specialist nurses
  • factor IX
  • long-acting clotting factor
  • EHL FIX
Accesso libero

Haemophilia A management with emicizumab: A survey of haematologists in the United States

Pubblicato online: 02 Mar 2022
Pagine: 155 - 182

Astratto

Abstract Background

Emicizumab is a bispecific monoclonal antibody approved in the United States (US) for the treatment of people with haemophilia A (PwHA) with or without factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitors. Changes to haematologists’ practices since the approval of emicizumab are of interest to the haemophilia A community.

Aim

To identify the clinical characteristics of PwHA receiving emicizumab (PwHArE) in the real-world setting and gain insight into the disease management practices of haematologists treating PwHArE.

Methods

In total, 50 haematologists across the US completed a one-time, 30-minute, online, qualitative survey consisting of 55 questions (including 11 screening questions) in May 2019. Haematologists were required to be board-certified in haematology, practising in the US, ≥2 years post-residency experience, and currently treating ≥3 PwHA with emicizumab.

Results

Haematologists reported their PwHArE were mostly adults (aged ≥18 years; 66%) with severe phenotypes (66%), with and without FVIII inhibitors. Haematologists perceived that PwHArE had similar or better treatment adherence (40% and 50%, respectively) compared with PwHA on other treatments, sought the same or lower levels of routine care (72% and 14%, respectively), and were similarly or more physically active (52% and 32%, respectively). Additionally, most haematologists currently using immune tolerance induction (ITI) in PwHArE reported using lower doses of FVIII (73%) and shorter durations (45%) for ITI.

Conclusions

Availability of emicizumab has resulted in changes in the care of PwHArE, including bleed management, FVIII monitoring, activity guidance, surgery, and use of ITI. Understanding patterns of disease management can inform clinical care.

Parole chiave

  • emicizumab
  • haemophilia A
  • physicians
  • surveys and questionnaires
Accesso libero

Bone health assessment in haemophilic arthropathy: A single centre study from Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Pubblicato online: 02 Mar 2022
Pagine: 183 - 188

Astratto

Abstract Background

Haemophilia has been associated with increased prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) which in turn may aggravate haemophilic arthropathy. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is the gold standard for assessing BMD but is not widely available across India. Markers of bone turnover like bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP) reflect osteoblastic turnover and may be surrogate to low BMD.

Aim

To evaluate how bone health in people with haemophilia (PWH) can be assessed by serum vitamin D3 and b-ALP level, correlated with the degree of arthropathy.

Methods

In this cross-sectional study, people with haemophilia A and B of all severities with arthropathy involving ≥3 joints were included. The number of joints affected by haemophilic arthropathy was recorded. Hemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS) and Pettersson score were calculated for each patient. Levels of serum calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D3 and b-ALP were assayed in all cases.

Results

A total of 320 PWH were included; the majority (85%; 272/320) had severe haemophilia, 13.44% (43/320) moderate haemophilia and 1.56% (5/320) mild haemophilia. With increasing age, the number of joints involved increased significantly (r=0.2250, p<0.05). When adjusted for age, b-ALP was higher than normal for the majority of PWH (88.75%). Increased number of joints involved and severity of disease had a positive correlation with higher-than-normal b-ALP (adjusted for age) (r=0.2112, p=0.0001). A significant positive correlation was seen between Pettersson score and HJHS score (r=0.1126, p=0.04). There was no significant correlation between number of joints involved and serum vitamin D3 level across the whole cohort. (p<0.05).

Conclusion

PWH with severe disease and haemophilic arthropathy have higher than normal b-ALP, which in turn reflects increased bone turn over and low BMD. Hence, b-ALP may be a useful marker to help assess bone health in PWH, particularly in settings where access to DEXA scans is constrained.

Parole chiave

  • Haemophilic arthropathy
  • Bone health in haemophilia
  • Pettersson score
  • Hemophilia Joint Health Score

Commentary

Accesso libero

The B-team: Equal but different?

Pubblicato online: 07 Nov 2021
Pagine: 133 - 135

Astratto

Abstract

As a person with haemophilia B, I have known there are differences between haemophilia A and haemophilia B and their respective treatment throughout my life – though I was shocked when I learnt about the impact inhibitors can have when it comes to bleeding. Despite being very rare, as well as difficult to manage, in a recent survey reported by Chaplin et al., many nurses had experience in managing haemophilia B inhibitors. Nurses in the survey also thought extended half-life (EHL) factor products would remain the optimal treatment for haemophilia B in 2025. Ongoing clinical trials for novel molecules like concuzimab and fitusiran signal the start of more treatment options for haemophilia B, and the development of gene therapy has focused on haemophilia B in the first instance. But the fact remains that the pharmaceutical industry has focused on developing treatments for the larger haemophilia A market. Could this have distorted perceptions around treatment? In a further ‘perception bias’ that impacts management, some nurses feel there are differences in bleeding phenotype between haemophilia A and B. Garner et al.'s paper discussing rIX-FX, suggests that treatment adherence is better in haemophilia B due to lower dosing frequency, making it an easier treatment option than for haemophilia A. The patient perception may be somewhat different. While dosing schedules in haemophilia B have been more consistent for longer, there has been less pharmacokinetic modelling in haemophilia B and, arguably, less opportunity for truly tailored treatment. Gene therapy has been shown to be more ‘successful’ for haemophilia B than haemophilia A, but emicizumab has raised questions about the need for gene therapy in haemophilia A. Having an ‘emi-equivalent’ for haemophilia B will raise the same questions and may give people haemophilia B and inhibitors an effective treatment that is as transformative as emicizumab has been in the haemophilia A population.

Parole chiave

  • haemophilia B
  • factor IX
  • novel therapies
  • patient views
Accesso libero

Seeing the bigger picture: Qualitative research in the Zoom® age

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2021
Pagine: 141 - 144

Astratto

Abstract

Participants in clinical trials for new haemophilia treatments are routinely asked to complete quality of life (QoL) questionnaires using validated and disease-specific instruments. Yet too often in clinical research we know very little about the life stories of individuals, making it difficult to know how they have been affected by a new therapy and what exactly has changed for the better – or for the worse. In my own research, I wanted to understand the differences that new treatments are really making to people's everyday lives. While traditional QoL instruments can be helpful, using a qualitative approach that involves speaking directly with people with haemophilia (PwH) and their family members has enabled me find out what has really been going on their lives, including impacts on the wider family. The Covid pandemic and the need to maintain social distancing changed the way in which my research has been carried out, but in fact provided an opportunity to see an even bigger picture. I believe that using videoconferencing platforms to conduct interviews and focus groups has both allowed me to see more of the world in which the participants live and has enabled participants to be more relaxed and open in their conversations, resulting in a potentially richer dataset. While this approach to qualitative QoL research should not replace interviews and focus groups, the use of videoconferencing should be considered as another methodology researchers can and should use to enable them to glean the richest data possible. Qualitative interviews offer an important complementary addition to the validated QoL measures used in clinical trials, enabling us to hear more about where improvements have occurred, where further improvements can be made, and the real-life impact of a new treatment for PwH and their families.

Parole chiave

  • haemophilia
  • gene therapy
  • qualitative research
20 Articoli

Community Focus

Accesso libero

A descriptive study of United States bleeding disorders camps

Pubblicato online: 03 Mar 2021
Pagine: 1 - 10

Astratto

Abstract Background

Disease-specific camps present one means of helping children overcome the challenges associated with chronic conditions and improving clinical and psychosocial outcomes. For more than 50 years, bleeding disorders camps (BDCs) in the United States (US) have been promoting independence, self-care, and leadership skills in children with bleeding disorders, all while fostering camaraderie in a secure and safe environment. However, little is known about how BDCs are organised, administered, funded, staffed, or how staff are compensated.

Aim

This article aims to describe the attributes of BDCs that service the US bleeding disorders community, and to compare and contrast these attributes to identify gaps in the BDC system and areas for improvement.

Methods

The National Hemophilia Foundation (NHF), in collaboration with several members of its Nursing Working Group and Physical Therapy Working Group, developed a survey that was distributed to BDC administrators (CAs) and health care providers (HCPs).

Results

A total of 101 HCPs and 20 CAs completed the survey. Findings indicated that BDCs are an informal extension of both the HTCs and NHF chapters, reaffirming that camps play a crucial role in the overall care of bleeding disorders. In general, diminishing financial resources threaten the existence of BDCs. Although there are BDC guidelines for formal staff training and specific interventions delivered to camp participants, adherence is variable. Other gaps included minimal self-infusion education follow-up with no documentation on effect or benefit of infusion education provided at camp.

Conclusion

Addressing the gaps identified by this survey and documenting resultant data supporting the value of BDCs will facilitate their continued sustainability in light of increasingly limited funding.

Parole chiave

  • camping
  • blood coagulation disorders
  • haemophilia
  • staffing
  • children
  • adolescents
Accesso libero

The impact of heavy periods on women with a bleeding disorder

Pubblicato online: 02 May 2021
Pagine: 15 - 31

Astratto

Abstract Background

Women with a bleeding disorder (WBD), including those diagnosed as a carrier, often have heavy periods associated with prolonged bleeding and pain. This survey sought to describe the impact of this substantial burden on daily living and the personal cost of managing heavy periods.

Methods

An online survey was promoted to women who identify as having a bleeding disorder via the social media of The Haemophilia Society in January and February 2020. The survey included 20 questions about personal data, symptoms and the practicalities of living with a bleeding disorder.

Results

A total of 181 responses were received, of which 151 were complete questionnaires. Of these, 58% of respondents were aged 18–45 and 136 identified as having a bleeding disorder, mostly haemophilia or von Willebrand disease. Thirteen (10%) had been diagnosed as a haemophilia carrier and a further four women were probable carriers. Prolonged or painful periods were reported by the majority of respondents; the median duration of bleeding was 7 days (range 2–42). Thirty-six per cent took time off work or study as a result and 42% reported a negative impact on social life. Eighteen women (13%) reported having to use a combination of sanitary protection products to manage their bleeding. Women diagnosed as a carrier reported morbidity comparable with that of women with a diagnosed bleeding disorder and reported greater use of combinations of sanitary protection.

Conclusion

WBD experience a high prevalence of heavy bleeding and prolonged, painful periods despite using appropriate symptomatic treatment. The impact of heavy periods on women diagnosed as a being a carrier is comparable with that experienced by women with a diagnosed bleeding disorder, but as they are not always clinically recognised they may lack access to care and support.

Parole chiave

  • women with bleeding disorders
  • menstrual bleeding
  • menorrhagia
  • haemophilia
  • von Willebrand disease
Accesso libero

“You’re only a carrier” – women and the language of haemophilia

Pubblicato online: 07 Nov 2021
Pagine: 128 - 132

Astratto

Abstract

Women who have the gene variant for haemophilia are labelled solely as ‘carriers’ unless they have a factor VIII activity of ≤40%. This term, which describes an individual who can pass on a disorder but are themselves unaffected, reflects a legacy that extends from the 18th century to the present day. There is strong evidence that women labelled as carriers experience heavy periods, joint damage, pain and impaired quality of life. The label ‘carrier’ does not recognise this burden and is associated with guilt, stigma and difficulty accessing care. People living with a long-term disorder should now be described using person-first terminology and it is common to see the term ‘people with haemophilia’. The term ‘carrier’ should be limited to its application in genetics and not used as a catch-all label for women with haemophilia.

Parole chiave

  • Haemophilia
  • women
  • carriers
  • genetics
  • terminology as topic
Accesso libero

“It's a way of life”: Results from the Perceptions of Pain in Haemophilia study

Pubblicato online: 02 Mar 2022
Pagine: 145 - 154

Astratto

Abstract Introduction

Pain is recognised as a subjective phenomenon, often defined as ‘whatever the experiencing person says it is, existing whenever the experiencing person says it does’. Pain is a critical aspect of life for many people with haemophilia (PWH) but is under-recognised and inconsistently managed by clinicians. As haemophilia management moves towards non-factor-based treatments which may normalise life experience, it is unclear how this will impact on the experience and management of pain.

Aims

The Perceptions of Pain in Haemophilia study aimed to identify the impact of pain on men with haemophilia in the UK.

Methods

The study used mixed qualitative research methods (paper-based questionnaires and focus group interviews). Eligible PWH aged >18 years were invited to participate in a focus group to discuss pain, assessment and management. Each focus group discussion was recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically.

Results

Eighteen participants (13 haemophilia A (12 severe) and 5 severe haemophilia B) age range 18–58 years (median 32.5 years) joined focus groups conducted using an online video platform. The majority (95%) were treated with prophylaxis and reported few recent bleeds. Three main themes emerged: the impact of pain, managing pain, and factors influencing the experience of pain. Participants connected their earliest experiences of pain with childhood; it impacted their mental health and wellbeing, daily habits, routines, sports, hobbies, social life, work and education. Participants recognised the difference between the pain of acute bleeds and arthritic pain. Many did not like taking strong analgesics due to side-effects and concerns around addiction. Participants doubted the value of pain scales and noted a lack of empathy and understanding among health care professionals (HCPs), but valued physiotherapists. Participants recognised the value of talking about the negative impact of their pain experiences; however, they reported that family members, who often provided the most support, could not always truly understand their pain.

Conclusion

Pain is ‘normal’ for PWH, who adopt it into part of their everyday life experience. HCPs are ideally placed to impact this experience but seem to lack insight as to the extent of pain and how to manage it beyond prescribing stronger analgesia. The social and psychological implications of chronic pain should be better addressed by HCPs. This includes being cognisant that new therapeutic options will not resolve old pain.

Parole chiave

  • pain
  • chronic pain
  • analgesia
  • haemophilia
  • patients’ views

Case Study

Accesso libero

Case report of nasal pseudotumor – a rare presentation in severe haemophilia A with high titre inhibitors

Pubblicato online: 03 Mar 2021
Pagine: 11 - 14

Astratto

Abstract

Haemophilia patients with inhibitors suffer from increased morbidity and mortality due to the ineffectiveness of factor VIII replacement. Pseudotumors are rare but dangerous complications in these patients, and nasal pseudotumors are even rarer. Here, we present the case of a young child with severe haemophilia A with high titre inhibitors who developed a nasal pseudotumor. When immune tolerance therapy was not possible due to financial constraints, he was treated with FEIBA prophylaxis and rituximab. The pseudotumor was managed with surgical excision. We conclude that epistaxis in haemophiliacs can be due to an underlying nasal pseudotumor, and highlight the use of rituximab for the eradication of inhibitors.

Parole chiave

  • haemophilia with inhibitors
  • rituximab
  • nasal pseudotumor
  • surgical removal
  • case report
Accesso libero

Dental extraction in congenital factor Vll deficiency with inhibitor – a case report

Pubblicato online: 30 May 2021
Pagine: 52 - 55

Astratto

Abstract Background

Hereditary factor VII (FVII) deficiency is a rare bleeding disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance, and FVII deficiency with an inhibitor is extremely rare. There is sparse information in the literature on the management of tooth extraction in patients with FVII deficiency and an inhibitor.

Case description

We report the case of a five-year-old child with FVII deficiency and an inhibitor who underwent dental extraction. The child had had multiple bleeding episodes including intracranial haemorrhage and had a history of severe allergic reaction to the infusion of recombinant FVII. The tooth was extracted using lignocaine gel and the antifibrinolytic agent oral tranexamic acid.

Conclusion

The extraction of a deciduous tooth in a patient with FVII deficiency and an inhibitor was undertaken without bleeding complications. There are currently no guidelines regarding management of this type of case. Further studies and evidence are required so that management can be standardised.

Parole chiave

  • Congenital factor VII deficiency with inhibitor
  • dental extraction
  • tranexamic acid
Accesso libero

Management of multiple myeloma in a patient with haemophilia with concurrent emicizumab – case report

Pubblicato online: 22 Dec 2021
Pagine: 136 - 140

Astratto

Abstract

With the increased life expectancies of people with severe haemophilia A, diagnoses of disorders associated with increased age are likely to become more common. Multiple myeloma is a commonly diagnosed plasma cell dyscrasia, with incidence strongly related to age. Both the disease itself and specific myeloma therapies are associated with a significant increase in rates of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Management of VTE prophylaxis can be challenging, especially in patients with a bleeding disorder. In this case report, we describe the management of a patient with concurrent diagnosis of multiple myeloma and severe haemophilia A, undergoing first line myeloma chemotherapy. The patient was successfully managed on standard of care myeloma treatment, with use of emicizumab and venous thromboprophylaxis. This case demonstrates the successful management of a haematological malignancy and a bleeding disorder using integrated and multidisciplinary patient-focused care.

Parole chiave

  • emicizumab
  • myeloma
  • thromboprophylaxis
  • thalidomide
  • lenalidomide

Clinical Research

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The patient gene therapy journey: Findings from qualitative interviews with trial participants at one UK haemophilia centre

Pubblicato online: 02 May 2021
Pagine: 32 - 44

Astratto

Abstract Introduction

Gene therapy for haemophilia is in late-stage clinical development and has the potential to become a therapeutic option in clinical practice.

Aims

To enhance the understanding of the perspectives of people with haemophilia around gene therapy, and to highlight their concerns about and motivations for having gene therapy.

Method

Structured, qualitative interviews were conducted and recorded with six people who had received an investigational gene therapy product. The recordings were transcribed and thematically analysed.

Results

Most of those interviewed were under the age of 40, and the mean time out from their gene therapy infusion was 10 months. Adverse events were the main concerns pre-infusion, and impact on quality of life was the main motivating factor for choosing to go ahead. Pre-infusion, the treating centre and the health care professionals working there were the main source of information regarding gene therapy; only two participants looked elsewhere for information to support their decision. None of the respondents expressed concerns about the infusion day itself, and all found the infusion to be simple or uneventful. Post-infusion, four found the frequency of follow-up appointments difficult, with time and travel the main issues.

Conclusion

Although participants' perspectives on gene therapy were generally positive, there remains a need for education and support. Nurses will play an important role in the delivery of gene therapy for haemophilia, but all staff within the haemophilia treatment centre should be armed with the knowledge and confidence to answer questions about gene therapy.

Parole chiave

  • gene therapy
  • haemophilia
  • experience
  • views of people with haemophilia
  • nurse
Accesso libero

Red Flag Study: An observational cross-sectional survey looking at bleeding in patients with a bleeding disorder who are lost to follow-up

Pubblicato online: 30 May 2021
Pagine: 45 - 51

Astratto

Abstract Background

Regular follow-up visits and routine care is important for people with a mild bleeding disorder in terms of lowering their risk of complications from untreated bleeds and helping them maintain a healthy lifestyle. However, follow-up visits among this population can sometimes be missed for unclear reasons.

Aim

The present study aimed to question if lost-to-follow-up patients with a bleeding disorder experience unreported but important bleeding events that are not communicated to their haemophilia treatment centre (HTC) and if they could benefit from more frequent clinic visits.

Methods

A multicentre paper-based cross-sectional survey was sent to people diagnosed with an inherited blood disorder and lost to follow-up for two years or more. Those who met the eligibility criteria received the survey by mail and completed and returned it to their HTC between October 2015 and July 2016.

Results

Invitation packages were sent to 71 individuals; 14 questionnaires returned, with a survey response rate of 19.7%. Of the 14 returned surveys, only 11 participants were eligible who either responded completely or partially to the survey. Quality of life was reported as almost never or never a problem by all but one participant, who limited activities due to bleeding problems. Spontaneous nosebleeds were sometimes, often or always a problem for three participants; one female participant reported issues associated with heavy menstrual bleeding as often or almost always a problem.

Conclusion

We concluded that although the mean annual bleeding self-reported events were relatively low, they cannot be underestimated when keeping in mind the limitations and challenges of accessing data among this population. Our study highlighted the importance of educating this group of patients on their bleeding disorder and engaging them in their own care and health status, which may result in improving their health-related quality of life and overall health outcomes.

Parole chiave

  • mild bleeding disorders
  • haemophilia
  • education
  • follow-up
Accesso libero

The potential impact of gene therapy on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) domains in haemophilia

Pubblicato online: 30 May 2021
Pagine: 56 - 68

Astratto

Abstract Introduction

Haemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder characterised by spontaneous bleeding, often leading to impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Commonly used treatments include episodic and prophylactic treatment regimens. Gene therapies could soon become available, potentially creating a paradigm shift in patient management.

Aim

This paper proposes hypotheses about the potential impact of gene therapy on HRQoL domains in haemophilia, and how these impacts might differ compared with existing treatments.

Methods

An expert working group with 10 individuals experienced in haemophilia and HRQoL research was established to discuss potential impacts of gene therapy on HRQoL in general and for specific domains in haemophilia. As part of a one-day workshop, domains of three widely used patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments were explored: the Haemo-QoL-A, the Patient Reported Outcomes, Burden and Experiences (PROBE), and the Haemophilia Activities List (HAL).

Results

The group expected a greater improvement in HRQoL from gene therapy compared with existing treatments for the following domains: physical/role functioning, worry, and consequences of bleeding (Haemo-QoL-A); haemophilia-related health and EQ-5D-5L (part of the PROBE); leg and arm function, and leisure activities (HAL). In contrast, the experts suggested that no change or potential deterioration might be observed for the emotional impact (HAL) and treatment concerns (Haemo-QoL-A) domains.

Conclusions

Current PRO instruments in haemophilia have limitations when applied in the context of gene therapy, and no single instrument fully captures the relevant HRQoL domains. However, the PROBE and Haemo-QoL-A were considered as the most suitable existing instruments. As haemophilia treatments evolve, further research should examine the potential effectiveness of existing PRO instruments as compared to the development of novel PRO measures.

Parole chiave

  • Haemophilia
  • gene therapy
  • patient-reported outcomes
  • health-related quality of life
Accesso libero

Web-based Application for the Population Pharmacokinetic Service (WAPPS)'s impact on dosage selection: a single paediatric centre experience

Pubblicato online: 13 Jul 2021
Pagine: 80 - 85

Astratto

Abstract Background

Current treatment for severe haemophilia includes prophylactic factor replacement to prevent bleeding. Coagulation factor products have significant inter-patient variability in pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters. Optimal management requires tailoring prophylaxis to individual PK parameters. Web-based Application for the Population Pharmacokinetic Service (WAPPS) is a tool that estimates individual PK values using a population approach. Despite its growing use to help guide dosing selection, few studies have investigated its clinical impact.

Aim

To investigate any change in prophylaxis regimen and hours per week where factor level is under 1%, pre- and post-PK testing using WAPPS, for paediatric patients with severe haemophilia.

Methods

A retrospective chart review was conducted for all paediatric patients with severe haemophilia receiving care between April 2013 and July 2018 at McMaster Children's Hospital who have used WAPPS. Data extracted included: patient demographics, PK data generated by WAPPS, prophylaxis regimen pre- and post-PK testing, and reason for regimen change. The number of hours per week where factor level was under 1% pre- and post-PK testing was calculated using WAPPS.

Results

Thirty-one patients were included; 42% (n=13) changed their prophylaxis regimen after PK testing. After using PK data to personalise prophylaxis recommendations, there was a decrease in the number of hours per week where factor level is under 1% (from an average of 13.1 hours/week to 11.8 hours/week), though not statistically significant (p=0.16).

Conclusion

PK data generated by WAPPS has direct impact by informing changes to prophylaxis recommendations. This individualised approach promotes patient-centred care and patient engagement without increasing the time spent with factor levels below 1%. It also confirms and validates clinical practice.

Parole chiave

  • haemophilia A
  • haemophilia B
  • factor VIII
  • factor IX
  • children
  • pharmacokinetics
Accesso libero

Bone mineral density in Canadian children with severe haemophilia A or B: a cross-sectional study

Pubblicato online: 14 Oct 2021
Pagine: 111 - 118

Astratto

Abstract Background

Previous research has shown that bone mineral density (BMD), a measure of bone strength, may be lower among people with haemophilia. However, the majority of this research has been done in adults and in countries where the treatment for haemophilia differs from the standard of care in Canada, and there is a lack of paediatric data.

Aims

The primary objective of this study was to determine whether Canadian children and youth with severe haemophilia A and B have BMD similar to healthy controls matched for height, age and weight (HAW-score). Secondary objectives included the exploration of any association between BMD and the following variables: factor replacement regimen, Hemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS), bleeding history, physical activity level, and dietary intake of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K and protein.

Methods

A cross-sectional observational study was designed to determine the BMD of children with severe haemophilia A and B in Canada. Ethical approvals were obtained from participating institutions. Thirty-eight participants aged 3–18 with severe haemophilia A and B were recruited from two treatment centres in Canada. Subjects underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan, and data was collected from regular clinic visit to identify factor replacement regimen, HJHS, and number of joint bleeds over the lifespan. Physical activity level and dietary intake of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K and protein were identified using self-report questionnaires.

Results

Participants showed a mean spine BMD Z-score and HAW-score higher than controls, with no participants showing a spine Z-score or HAW-score of <0. Hip BMD score was within normal range, and 2 participants had a Z-score and HAW-score of <−2. Total body BMD score was lower than controls, with 6 participants having a Z-score of <−2.0, and 3 participants having a HAW-score of <−2.0. Factor replacement regimen, HJHS, calcium intake, and physical activity level had no relationship to BMD Z-score or HAW-score. Low intake of vitamin D was associated with a low hip and spine BMD Z-score and HAW-score. Participants with a HJHS joint score greater than 0 had a higher total body HAW-score than those who had a joint score of 0.

Conclusion

Canadian children with severe haemophilia A and B demonstrate differences in spine and total body BMD from height-, age-, and weight-matched controls, where spine BMD is higher than controls and total body BMD is lower than controls. Studies with a larger sample size are needed to clarify the status of BMD in children with haemophilia treated with primary prophylaxis.

Parole chiave

  • Bone density
  • paediatrics
  • haemophilia
  • physical activity
  • vitamin D
  • height-age-weight-adjusted score

Clinical Practice

Accesso libero

Personalising haemophilia management with shared decision making

Pubblicato online: 18 Jun 2021
Pagine: 69 - 79

Astratto

Abstract

The current standard of care for treating people with haemophilia (PWH) in the developed world is prophylaxis with regular infusions of clotting factor concentrates. Gene therapy is being investigated as a new treatment paradigm for haemophilia and if approved would potentially eliminate the need for chronic, burdensome infusions. In recent years, shared decision making (SDM) has become increasingly common in patient care settings. SDM is a stepwise process that relies on reciprocal information sharing between the practitioner and patient, resulting in health care decisions stemming from the informed preferences of both parties. SDM represents a departure from the traditional, paternalistic clinical model where the practitioner drives the treatment decision and the patient passively defers to this decision. As the potential introduction of gene therapy in haemophilia may transform the current standard of care, and impact disease management and goals in unique ways, both practitioners and PWH may find their knowledge tested when considering the appropriate use of a novel technology. Therefore, it is incumbent upon haemophilia practitioners to foster an open, trusting, and supportive relationship with their patients, while PWH and their caregivers must be knowledgeable and feel empowered to participate in the decision making process to achieve truly shared treatment decisions.

Parole chiave

  • Haemophilia
  • decision making
  • physician-patient relationships
  • decision support techniques
  • patient participation
  • patient-centred care
  • gene therapy
Accesso libero

The use of rIX-FP in patients with haemophilia B: a nurse's perspective

Pubblicato online: 18 Aug 2021
Pagine: 86 - 97

Astratto

Abstract

The management of patients with haemophilia is complex and requires lifelong care to be delivered by a specialist multidisciplinary team. Haemophilia B results from a deficiency or absence in coagulation factor IX (FIX), leading to easy bruising, and musculoskeletal and internal bleeding. For patients with severe or moderate haemophilia B, prophylaxis with standard half-life (SHL) coagulation FIX products requires frequent intravenous administration, which may negatively impact treatment adherence and increase burden of care. A recombinant fusion protein linking recombinant FIX (rFIX) with recombinant human albumin, rIX-FP, has an extended half-life compared with SHL rFIX, and has demonstrated a favourable safety and efficacy profile for the prevention and treatment of bleeding episodes in phase III and real-world studies of patients with severe haemophilia B. rIX-FP enables treatment to be tailored to the needs of individual patients, with dosing flexibility allowing selected patients to be treated with prophylaxis dosing intervals of 7, 10, 14 or 21 days. Patients switching to rIX-FP can reduce their annualised bleeding rate and some have successfully reduced their prophylactic dosing frequency while maintaining low bleeding rates and consistent factor consumption. This may ultimately minimise the occurrence of haemophilic arthropathy and improve patient quality of life. Educating patients and caregivers on the sustained use of rIX-FP prophylaxis is essential. The lifelong support and guidance provided by healthcare professionals at haemophilia treatment centres (HTCs) are critical for providing an optimal treatment approach that can increase adherence to treatment. This article reviews the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of rIX-FP demonstrated in clinical trials and clinical practice, and discusses haemophilia nurses’ clinical experiences with rIX-FP in patients in their HTCs.

Parole chiave

  • Factor IX
  • haemophilia B
  • pharmacokinetics
  • prophylaxis
  • rIX-FP
  • nurse
Accesso libero

Telemedicine in haemophilia during COVID-19 and beyond: a comprehensive review

Pubblicato online: 14 Oct 2021
Pagine: 98 - 110

Astratto

Abstract Introduction

Patients with haemophilia require regular assessments and physical examinations. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in the rapid adoption of telemedicine to enable virtual consultations and reduce hospital visits. However, the process of virtual consultations is new to many haemophilia clinics. A better understanding of best practices in telemedicine is important to ensure optimal quality of care for patients with haemophilia.

Objectives

To summarise the current literature on the use of direct-to-consumer telemedicine for patients with haemophilia and to describe the effectiveness and potential limitations of the technology and methods used.

Methods

A comprehensive search was conducted in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases using terms referring to the concepts “haemophilia” AND “telemedicine” and their synonyms. There were no time or language restrictions. Title, abstracts, and full texts were screened. Included articles involved telemedicine interventions to facilitate clinical services directly between patients and providers without the use of third-party personnel. The primary outcome was the satisfaction of providers and patients. Secondary outcomes included economic considerations and clinical outcomes. Information was extracted based on study-specific, patient-specific, intervention-specific, and outcome-specific data.

Results

Of the 925 articles screened, six were identified and summarised. Three described telemedicine within the context of COVID-19. Technologies used included telephone calls, videoconferencing, text messaging, and email. All studies involved a multidisciplinary team. Telemedicine in haemophilia care was found to positively impact the patient experience. Providers were satisfied with telemedicine. It was also suggested to be economically beneficial and positively impacted patient outcomes. However, none of the articles reported on how telemedicine was specifically used to perform assessments during the virtual consultation process.

Conclusions

There is preliminary evidence that telemedicine may be beneficial in haemophilia care. Overall, patients and providers reported high satisfaction with the usage of direct-to-consumer telemedicine. This positive reception warrants improvements in standardisation of reporting and quality of study design to better assess its clinical and economic impact. Developing a standard guideline for virtual consultations would support healthcare practitioners in how to best incorporate telemedicine to improve quality of care.

Parole chiave

  • Telemedicine
  • haemophilia
  • COVID-19
  • consultation
  • technology
Accesso libero

Haemophilia specialist nurses’ perceptions of haemophilia B

Pubblicato online: 14 Oct 2021
Pagine: 119 - 127

Astratto

Abstract Introduction

Some clinicians believe that haemophilia B is associated with less bleeding than haemophilia A, yet there appears to be little difference in health-related outcomes. Current clinical practice reduces the risk of bleeds, making differences difficult to measure. We surveyed specialist haemophilia nurses to discern their opinions about the impact of haemophilia B compared to haemophilia A.

Methods

Between July and September 2020, European and Canadian nurses were invited to complete an online survey (25 questions) about perceptions of management and treatment of haemophilia B.

Results

Fifty-nine nurses (46 European, 13 Canadian) completed the survey. Bleeding was reported as different in haemophilia B by 37% of respondents, and treatment as different by over half. Opinions and experience around using extended half-life (EHL) products varied. Self-reported confidence in using EHL products was rated at a mean of 7.1 (range 3–10) with 47% believing these would remain the optimal treatment in 2025.

Conclusion

Some nurses believe haemophilia A and B are managed differently. Variations in experience and levels of confidence in the use of EHL products, combined with a belief that these products will remain an optimal treatment for haemophilia B for the next five years, indicates a need for education to promote confidence and competence.

Parole chiave

  • Haemophilia B
  • specialist nurses
  • factor IX
  • long-acting clotting factor
  • EHL FIX
Accesso libero

Haemophilia A management with emicizumab: A survey of haematologists in the United States

Pubblicato online: 02 Mar 2022
Pagine: 155 - 182

Astratto

Abstract Background

Emicizumab is a bispecific monoclonal antibody approved in the United States (US) for the treatment of people with haemophilia A (PwHA) with or without factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitors. Changes to haematologists’ practices since the approval of emicizumab are of interest to the haemophilia A community.

Aim

To identify the clinical characteristics of PwHA receiving emicizumab (PwHArE) in the real-world setting and gain insight into the disease management practices of haematologists treating PwHArE.

Methods

In total, 50 haematologists across the US completed a one-time, 30-minute, online, qualitative survey consisting of 55 questions (including 11 screening questions) in May 2019. Haematologists were required to be board-certified in haematology, practising in the US, ≥2 years post-residency experience, and currently treating ≥3 PwHA with emicizumab.

Results

Haematologists reported their PwHArE were mostly adults (aged ≥18 years; 66%) with severe phenotypes (66%), with and without FVIII inhibitors. Haematologists perceived that PwHArE had similar or better treatment adherence (40% and 50%, respectively) compared with PwHA on other treatments, sought the same or lower levels of routine care (72% and 14%, respectively), and were similarly or more physically active (52% and 32%, respectively). Additionally, most haematologists currently using immune tolerance induction (ITI) in PwHArE reported using lower doses of FVIII (73%) and shorter durations (45%) for ITI.

Conclusions

Availability of emicizumab has resulted in changes in the care of PwHArE, including bleed management, FVIII monitoring, activity guidance, surgery, and use of ITI. Understanding patterns of disease management can inform clinical care.

Parole chiave

  • emicizumab
  • haemophilia A
  • physicians
  • surveys and questionnaires
Accesso libero

Bone health assessment in haemophilic arthropathy: A single centre study from Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Pubblicato online: 02 Mar 2022
Pagine: 183 - 188

Astratto

Abstract Background

Haemophilia has been associated with increased prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) which in turn may aggravate haemophilic arthropathy. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is the gold standard for assessing BMD but is not widely available across India. Markers of bone turnover like bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP) reflect osteoblastic turnover and may be surrogate to low BMD.

Aim

To evaluate how bone health in people with haemophilia (PWH) can be assessed by serum vitamin D3 and b-ALP level, correlated with the degree of arthropathy.

Methods

In this cross-sectional study, people with haemophilia A and B of all severities with arthropathy involving ≥3 joints were included. The number of joints affected by haemophilic arthropathy was recorded. Hemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS) and Pettersson score were calculated for each patient. Levels of serum calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D3 and b-ALP were assayed in all cases.

Results

A total of 320 PWH were included; the majority (85%; 272/320) had severe haemophilia, 13.44% (43/320) moderate haemophilia and 1.56% (5/320) mild haemophilia. With increasing age, the number of joints involved increased significantly (r=0.2250, p<0.05). When adjusted for age, b-ALP was higher than normal for the majority of PWH (88.75%). Increased number of joints involved and severity of disease had a positive correlation with higher-than-normal b-ALP (adjusted for age) (r=0.2112, p=0.0001). A significant positive correlation was seen between Pettersson score and HJHS score (r=0.1126, p=0.04). There was no significant correlation between number of joints involved and serum vitamin D3 level across the whole cohort. (p<0.05).

Conclusion

PWH with severe disease and haemophilic arthropathy have higher than normal b-ALP, which in turn reflects increased bone turn over and low BMD. Hence, b-ALP may be a useful marker to help assess bone health in PWH, particularly in settings where access to DEXA scans is constrained.

Parole chiave

  • Haemophilic arthropathy
  • Bone health in haemophilia
  • Pettersson score
  • Hemophilia Joint Health Score

Commentary

Accesso libero

The B-team: Equal but different?

Pubblicato online: 07 Nov 2021
Pagine: 133 - 135

Astratto

Abstract

As a person with haemophilia B, I have known there are differences between haemophilia A and haemophilia B and their respective treatment throughout my life – though I was shocked when I learnt about the impact inhibitors can have when it comes to bleeding. Despite being very rare, as well as difficult to manage, in a recent survey reported by Chaplin et al., many nurses had experience in managing haemophilia B inhibitors. Nurses in the survey also thought extended half-life (EHL) factor products would remain the optimal treatment for haemophilia B in 2025. Ongoing clinical trials for novel molecules like concuzimab and fitusiran signal the start of more treatment options for haemophilia B, and the development of gene therapy has focused on haemophilia B in the first instance. But the fact remains that the pharmaceutical industry has focused on developing treatments for the larger haemophilia A market. Could this have distorted perceptions around treatment? In a further ‘perception bias’ that impacts management, some nurses feel there are differences in bleeding phenotype between haemophilia A and B. Garner et al.'s paper discussing rIX-FX, suggests that treatment adherence is better in haemophilia B due to lower dosing frequency, making it an easier treatment option than for haemophilia A. The patient perception may be somewhat different. While dosing schedules in haemophilia B have been more consistent for longer, there has been less pharmacokinetic modelling in haemophilia B and, arguably, less opportunity for truly tailored treatment. Gene therapy has been shown to be more ‘successful’ for haemophilia B than haemophilia A, but emicizumab has raised questions about the need for gene therapy in haemophilia A. Having an ‘emi-equivalent’ for haemophilia B will raise the same questions and may give people haemophilia B and inhibitors an effective treatment that is as transformative as emicizumab has been in the haemophilia A population.

Parole chiave

  • haemophilia B
  • factor IX
  • novel therapies
  • patient views
Accesso libero

Seeing the bigger picture: Qualitative research in the Zoom® age

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2021
Pagine: 141 - 144

Astratto

Abstract

Participants in clinical trials for new haemophilia treatments are routinely asked to complete quality of life (QoL) questionnaires using validated and disease-specific instruments. Yet too often in clinical research we know very little about the life stories of individuals, making it difficult to know how they have been affected by a new therapy and what exactly has changed for the better – or for the worse. In my own research, I wanted to understand the differences that new treatments are really making to people's everyday lives. While traditional QoL instruments can be helpful, using a qualitative approach that involves speaking directly with people with haemophilia (PwH) and their family members has enabled me find out what has really been going on their lives, including impacts on the wider family. The Covid pandemic and the need to maintain social distancing changed the way in which my research has been carried out, but in fact provided an opportunity to see an even bigger picture. I believe that using videoconferencing platforms to conduct interviews and focus groups has both allowed me to see more of the world in which the participants live and has enabled participants to be more relaxed and open in their conversations, resulting in a potentially richer dataset. While this approach to qualitative QoL research should not replace interviews and focus groups, the use of videoconferencing should be considered as another methodology researchers can and should use to enable them to glean the richest data possible. Qualitative interviews offer an important complementary addition to the validated QoL measures used in clinical trials, enabling us to hear more about where improvements have occurred, where further improvements can be made, and the real-life impact of a new treatment for PwH and their families.

Parole chiave

  • haemophilia
  • gene therapy
  • qualitative research

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