Rivista e Edizione

Volume 22 (2022): Edizione 3 (September 2022)

Volume 22 (2022): Edizione 2 (June 2022)

Volume 22 (2022): Edizione 1 (March 2022)

Volume 21 (2021): Edizione 4 (December 2021)

Volume 21 (2021): Edizione 3 (September 2021)

Volume 21 (2021): Edizione 2 (June 2021)

Volume 21 (2021): Edizione 1 (March 2021)

Volume 20 (2020): Edizione 6 (December 2020)
Special Edizione on New Developments in Scalable Computing

Volume 20 (2020): Edizione 5 (December 2020)
Special issue on Innovations in Intelligent Systems and Applications

Volume 20 (2020): Edizione 4 (November 2020)

Volume 20 (2020): Edizione 3 (September 2020)

Volume 20 (2020): Edizione 2 (June 2020)

Volume 20 (2020): Edizione 1 (March 2020)

Volume 19 (2019): Edizione 4 (November 2019)

Volume 19 (2019): Edizione 3 (September 2019)

Volume 19 (2019): Edizione 2 (June 2019)

Volume 19 (2019): Edizione 1 (March 2019)

Volume 18 (2018): Edizione 5 (May 2018)
Special Thematic Edizione on Optimal Codes and Related Topics

Volume 18 (2018): Edizione 4 (November 2018)

Volume 18 (2018): Edizione 3 (September 2018)

Volume 18 (2018): Edizione 2 (June 2018)

Volume 18 (2018): Edizione 1 (March 2018)

Volume 17 (2017): Edizione 5 (December 2017)
Special Edizione With Selected Papers From The Workshop “Two Years Avitohol: Advanced High Performance Computing Applications 2017

Volume 17 (2017): Edizione 4 (November 2017)

Volume 17 (2017): Edizione 3 (September 2017)

Volume 17 (2017): Edizione 2 (June 2017)

Volume 17 (2017): Edizione 1 (March 2017)

Volume 16 (2016): Edizione 6 (December 2016)
Special issue with selection of extended papers from 6th International Conference on Logistic, Informatics and Service Science LISS’2016

Volume 16 (2016): Edizione 5 (October 2016)
Edizione Title: Special Edizione on Application of Advanced Computing and Simulation in Information Systems

Volume 16 (2016): Edizione 4 (December 2016)

Volume 16 (2016): Edizione 3 (September 2016)

Volume 16 (2016): Edizione 2 (June 2016)

Volume 16 (2016): Edizione 1 (March 2016)

Volume 15 (2015): Edizione 7 (December 2015)
Special Edizione on Information Fusion

Volume 15 (2015): Edizione 6 (December 2015)
Special Edizione on Logistics, Informatics and Service Science

Volume 15 (2015): Edizione 5 (April 2015)
Special Edizione on Control in Transportation Systems

Volume 15 (2015): Edizione 4 (November 2015)

Volume 15 (2015): Edizione 3 (September 2015)

Volume 15 (2015): Edizione 2 (June 2015)

Volume 15 (2015): Edizione 1 (March 2015)

Volume 14 (2014): Edizione 5 (December 2014)
Special Edizione

Volume 14 (2014): Edizione 4 (December 2014)

Volume 14 (2014): Edizione 3 (September 2014)

Volume 14 (2014): Edizione 2 (June 2014)

Volume 14 (2014): Edizione 1 (March 2014)

Volume 13 (2013): Edizione Special-Edizione (December 2013)

Volume 13 (2013): Edizione 4 (December 2013)
The publishing of the present issue (Volume 13, No 4, 2013) of the journal “Cybernetics and Information Technologies” is financially supported by FP7 project “Advanced Computing for Innovation” (ACOMIN), grant agreement 316087 of Call FP7 REGPOT-2012-2013-1.

Volume 13 (2013): Edizione 3 (September 2013)

Volume 13 (2013): Edizione 2 (June 2013)

Volume 13 (2013): Edizione 1 (March 2013)

Volume 12 (2012): Edizione 4 (December 2012)

Volume 12 (2012): Edizione 3 (September 2012)

Volume 12 (2012): Edizione 2 (June 2012)

Volume 12 (2012): Edizione 1 (March 2012)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1314-4081
Pubblicato per la prima volta
13 Mar 2012
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 19 (2019): Edizione 1 (March 2019)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1314-4081
Pubblicato per la prima volta
13 Mar 2012
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

11 Articoli
Accesso libero

A Review of Feature Selection and Its Methods

Pubblicato online: 29 Mar 2019
Pagine: 3 - 26

Astratto

Abstract

Nowadays, being in digital era the data generated by various applications are increasing drastically both row-wise and column wise; this creates a bottleneck for analytics and also increases the burden of machine learning algorithms that work for pattern recognition. This cause of dimensionality can be handled through reduction techniques. The Dimensionality Reduction (DR) can be handled in two ways namely Feature Selection (FS) and Feature Extraction (FE). This paper focuses on a survey of feature selection methods, from this extensive survey we can conclude that most of the FS methods use static data. However, after the emergence of IoT and web-based applications, the data are generated dynamically and grow in a fast rate, so it is likely to have noisy data, it also hinders the performance of the algorithm. With the increase in the size of the data set, the scalability of the FS methods becomes jeopardized. So the existing DR algorithms do not address the issues with the dynamic data. Using FS methods not only reduces the burden of the data but also avoids overfitting of the model.

Parole chiave

  • Dimensionality Reduction (DR)
  • Feature Selection (FS)
  • Feature Extraction (FE)
Accesso libero

Recent Development in Smart Grid Authentication Approaches: A Systematic Literature Review

Pubblicato online: 29 Mar 2019
Pagine: 27 - 52

Astratto

Abstract

Smart Grid (SG) is a major electricity trend expected to replace traditional electricity systems. SG has faster response to electricity malfunctions and improved utilization of consumed power, and it has two-way communication between providers and consumers. However, SG is vulnerable to attacks and requires robust authentication techniques to provide secure authenticity for its components. This paper analyses previous literature, comprising 27 papers on the status of SG authentication techniques, main components, and kinds of attacks. This paper also highlights the main requirements and challenges for developing authentication approaches for the SG system. This can serve as useful guidance for the development and deployment of authentication techniques for SG systems and helps practitioners select authentication approaches applicable to system needs.

Parole chiave

  • Smart grid
  • Authentication
  • Smart meter
  • Key management
Accesso libero

Efficient Dynamic Bloom Filter Hashing Fragmentation for Cloud Data Storage

Pubblicato online: 29 Mar 2019
Pagine: 53 - 72

Astratto

Abstract

Security is important in cloud data storage while using the cloud services provided by the service provider in the cloud. Most of the research works have been designed for a secure cloud data storage. However, cloud users still have security issues with their outsourced data. In order to overcome such limitations, a Dynamic Bloom Filter Hashing based Cloud Data Storage (DBFH-CDS) Technique is proposed. The main goal of DBFH-CDS Technique is to improve confidentiality and security of data storage in a cloud environment. The proposed Technique is implemented using data fragmentation model and Bloom filter. The DBFH-CDS Technique uses data fragmentation model for fragmenting the large cloud datasets. After that, Bloom Filter is employed in DBFH-CDS Technique for storing the fragmented sensitive data along with higher security. The DBFH-CDS Technique ensures high data confidentiality and security for cloud data storage with the help of Bloom Filter. The performance of proposed DBFH-CDS Technique is measured in terms of Execution time and Data retrieval efficiency. The experimental results show that the DBFH-CDS Technique is able to improve the cloud data storage security with minimum space complexity as compared to state-of-the-art-works.

Parole chiave

  • Cloud data storage
  • Cloud users
  • security
  • Confidentiality
  • fragmented table
  • unfragmented table
  • Bloom filter
Accesso libero

VoIP Steganography Methods, a Survey

Pubblicato online: 29 Mar 2019
Pagine: 73 - 87

Astratto

Abstract

Achieving secured data transmission is not always an easy job. Secret data sharing requires confidentiality and Undetectability. Steganography is preferred than cryptography to achieve undetectability. Steganography hides the secret data inside the other file such as text, audio, video, so that the existence of the secret data is completely hidden. Recent research focuses much on utilizing Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) calls as a carrier for data hiding. VoIP calls are much preferred among internet users for its wide availability, dynamic time limit and low cost. This paper focuses on data hiding methods that uses VoIP as a carrier. The paper also analyzes the performance of the algorithms using the three metrics undetectability, bandwidth and robustness.

Parole chiave

  • VoIP
  • LSB
  • PCM
  • QIM
Accesso libero

Deep Learning for Plant Classification and Content-Based Image Retrieval

Pubblicato online: 29 Mar 2019
Pagine: 88 - 100

Astratto

Abstract

The main goal of the present research is to classify images of plants to species with deep learning. We used convolutional neural network architectures for feature learning and fully connected layers with logsoftmax output for classification. Pretrained models on ImageNet were used, and transfer learning was applied. In the current research image sets published in the scope of the PlantCLEF 2015 challenge were used. The proposed system surpasses the results of all top competitors of the challenge by 8% and 7% at observation and image levels, respectively. Our secondary goal was to satisfy the users’ needs in content-based image retrieval to give relevant hits during species search task. We optimized the length of the returned lists in order to maximize MAP (Mean Average Precision), which is critical to the performance of image retrieval. Thus, we achieved more than 50% improvement of MAP in the test set compared to the baseline.

Parole chiave

  • deep learning
  • convolutional neural networks
  • Inception V3
  • MAP
  • image retrieval
Accesso libero

Hybrid Recommender System via Personalized Users’ Context

Pubblicato online: 29 Mar 2019
Pagine: 101 - 115

Astratto

Abstract

In movie domain, finding the appropriate movie to watch is a challenging task. This paper proposes a recommender system that suggests movies in cinema that fit the user’s available time, location, mood and emotions. Conducted experiments for evaluation showed that the proposed method outperforms the other baselines.

Parole chiave

  • Movie recommender
  • Emotion recommendation
  • Hybrid recommender system
  • sentiment analysis
  • spatio-temporal recommendation
Accesso libero

Multi-Channel Target Shadow Detection in GPS FSR

Pubblicato online: 29 Mar 2019
Pagine: 116 - 132

Astratto

Abstract

The paper offers new application of a Multi-channel Forward Scatter Radar (MFSR), which uses GPS signals for detection of air targets on their GPS radio shadows. The multi-channel GPS MFSR detector consists of several channels, which process information from several satellites simultaneously. The phenomena of diffraction in the near area is used for shadow target detection. The target is considered to be detected, if it is detected at least in one of detector channels. Two experiments have been made to verify the proposed detection algorithm. The results obtained show that the proposed multi-channel detection algorithm can be successfully used for detection of low-flying air targets at very short distances or the near area of diffraction. Such targets are undetectable in GPS bistatic radar.

Parole chiave

  • FSR
  • GPS
  • signal detection and estimation
Accesso libero

Security of Low Computing Power Devices: A Survey of Requirements, Challenges & Possible Solutions

Pubblicato online: 29 Mar 2019
Pagine: 133 - 164

Astratto

Abstract

Security has been a primary concern in almost all areas of computing and for the devices that are low on computing power it becomes more important. In this paper, a new class of computing device termed as Low Computing Power Device (LCPD) has been defined conceptually. The paper brings out common attributes, security requirements and security challenges of all kinds of low computing power devices in one place so that common security solutions for these can be designed and implemented rather than doing this for each individual device type. A survey of existing recent security solutions for different LCPDs hasve been presented here. This paper has also provided possible security solutions for LCPDs which include identification of countermeasures against different threats and attacks on these devices, and choosing appropriate cryptographic mechanism for implementing the countermeasures efficiently.

Parole chiave

  • Computing power
  • security
  • requirements
  • challenges
  • solutions
Accesso libero

Adaptive Observer of Resistance in Sensorless Estimation of Speed and Position in Brushless DC Electric Motor

Pubblicato online: 29 Mar 2019
Pagine: 165 - 176

Astratto

Abstract

Estimating the speed and position using measurable electrical parameters would allow establishment of sensorless control systems for brushless DC motors, without the need to use expensive sensors for the rotor position and speed. When the motor is running, it heats up and the stator resistance rises. This heat-dependent change needs to be reflected in the observer, as it would produce an error in rated speed and position. An adaptive algorithm can compensate for the change of resistance as a disturbing effect of the motor heating. The adaptive algorithm for estimating the resistance is synthesized using the function of Lyapunov. This article is useful for estimation of brushless electric motor speed and position with observer. It contains simulations with an adaptive observer of resistance for sensorless estimation of speed and position in brushless DC motor through measurement of voltage and current.

Parole chiave

  • Brushless motor
  • observer
  • speed
  • position
  • estimate
  • Lyapunov
  • stator resistance
Accesso libero

Optimum Design of CDM-Backstepping Control with Nonlinear Observer for Electrohydraulic Servo System Using Ant Swarm

Pubblicato online: 29 Mar 2019
Pagine: 177 - 189

Astratto

Abstract

This paper introduces an application of an Ant Colony Optimization algorithm to optimize the parameters in the design of a type of nonlinear robust control algorithm based on coefficient diagram method and backstepping strategy with nonlinear observer for the electrohydraulic servo system with supply pressure under the conditions of uncertainty and the action of external disturbance. Based on this model, a systematic analysis and design algorithm is developed to deal with stabilization and angular displacement tracking, one feature of this work is employing the nonlinear observer to achieve the asymptotic stability with state estimations. Finally, numerical simulations are given to demonstrate the usefulness and advantages of the proposed optimization method.

Parole chiave

  • Ant colony optimization
  • Coefficients diagram method
  • Backstepping control
  • Electrohydraulic servo systems
  • Observers
Accesso libero

Application of Information Technologies and Algorithms in Ship Passage Planning

Pubblicato online: 29 Mar 2019
Pagine: 190 - 200

Astratto

Abstract

With the continuous increase of international oil prices, more and more shipping companies look for new solutions to the ever present question: How to reduce operational fuel consumption and decrease air pollution. Ship route planning is an indispensable part of the ship navigation process. In the modern world, the passage planning aspect of navigation is shifting. No longer do we see mariners drawing course lines on a paper chart. No longer do they calculate distances with compasses. Elaborate algorithms on various digital devices perform all these tasks. Algorithms plot the optimum tracks on digital charts and algorithms can decide how to avoid collision situations. Nowadays charter companies do not rely solely on the experienced navigators on board their vessels to decide the best route. Instead, this task is outsourced ashore to routing and weather-routing enterprises. The algorithms used by those enterprises are continuously evolving and getting better and better. They are coming popular because of another reason – more and more the shipping society support the newly idea for using crewless ships. However, are they up to the task to eliminate the human element in passage planning? In this article, we are going to review some of the weak points of the algorithms in use.

Parole chiave

  • Information technologies in shipping
  • cybernetic decisions
  • evolutionary algorithm
  • safety of navigation
11 Articoli
Accesso libero

A Review of Feature Selection and Its Methods

Pubblicato online: 29 Mar 2019
Pagine: 3 - 26

Astratto

Abstract

Nowadays, being in digital era the data generated by various applications are increasing drastically both row-wise and column wise; this creates a bottleneck for analytics and also increases the burden of machine learning algorithms that work for pattern recognition. This cause of dimensionality can be handled through reduction techniques. The Dimensionality Reduction (DR) can be handled in two ways namely Feature Selection (FS) and Feature Extraction (FE). This paper focuses on a survey of feature selection methods, from this extensive survey we can conclude that most of the FS methods use static data. However, after the emergence of IoT and web-based applications, the data are generated dynamically and grow in a fast rate, so it is likely to have noisy data, it also hinders the performance of the algorithm. With the increase in the size of the data set, the scalability of the FS methods becomes jeopardized. So the existing DR algorithms do not address the issues with the dynamic data. Using FS methods not only reduces the burden of the data but also avoids overfitting of the model.

Parole chiave

  • Dimensionality Reduction (DR)
  • Feature Selection (FS)
  • Feature Extraction (FE)
Accesso libero

Recent Development in Smart Grid Authentication Approaches: A Systematic Literature Review

Pubblicato online: 29 Mar 2019
Pagine: 27 - 52

Astratto

Abstract

Smart Grid (SG) is a major electricity trend expected to replace traditional electricity systems. SG has faster response to electricity malfunctions and improved utilization of consumed power, and it has two-way communication between providers and consumers. However, SG is vulnerable to attacks and requires robust authentication techniques to provide secure authenticity for its components. This paper analyses previous literature, comprising 27 papers on the status of SG authentication techniques, main components, and kinds of attacks. This paper also highlights the main requirements and challenges for developing authentication approaches for the SG system. This can serve as useful guidance for the development and deployment of authentication techniques for SG systems and helps practitioners select authentication approaches applicable to system needs.

Parole chiave

  • Smart grid
  • Authentication
  • Smart meter
  • Key management
Accesso libero

Efficient Dynamic Bloom Filter Hashing Fragmentation for Cloud Data Storage

Pubblicato online: 29 Mar 2019
Pagine: 53 - 72

Astratto

Abstract

Security is important in cloud data storage while using the cloud services provided by the service provider in the cloud. Most of the research works have been designed for a secure cloud data storage. However, cloud users still have security issues with their outsourced data. In order to overcome such limitations, a Dynamic Bloom Filter Hashing based Cloud Data Storage (DBFH-CDS) Technique is proposed. The main goal of DBFH-CDS Technique is to improve confidentiality and security of data storage in a cloud environment. The proposed Technique is implemented using data fragmentation model and Bloom filter. The DBFH-CDS Technique uses data fragmentation model for fragmenting the large cloud datasets. After that, Bloom Filter is employed in DBFH-CDS Technique for storing the fragmented sensitive data along with higher security. The DBFH-CDS Technique ensures high data confidentiality and security for cloud data storage with the help of Bloom Filter. The performance of proposed DBFH-CDS Technique is measured in terms of Execution time and Data retrieval efficiency. The experimental results show that the DBFH-CDS Technique is able to improve the cloud data storage security with minimum space complexity as compared to state-of-the-art-works.

Parole chiave

  • Cloud data storage
  • Cloud users
  • security
  • Confidentiality
  • fragmented table
  • unfragmented table
  • Bloom filter
Accesso libero

VoIP Steganography Methods, a Survey

Pubblicato online: 29 Mar 2019
Pagine: 73 - 87

Astratto

Abstract

Achieving secured data transmission is not always an easy job. Secret data sharing requires confidentiality and Undetectability. Steganography is preferred than cryptography to achieve undetectability. Steganography hides the secret data inside the other file such as text, audio, video, so that the existence of the secret data is completely hidden. Recent research focuses much on utilizing Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) calls as a carrier for data hiding. VoIP calls are much preferred among internet users for its wide availability, dynamic time limit and low cost. This paper focuses on data hiding methods that uses VoIP as a carrier. The paper also analyzes the performance of the algorithms using the three metrics undetectability, bandwidth and robustness.

Parole chiave

  • VoIP
  • LSB
  • PCM
  • QIM
Accesso libero

Deep Learning for Plant Classification and Content-Based Image Retrieval

Pubblicato online: 29 Mar 2019
Pagine: 88 - 100

Astratto

Abstract

The main goal of the present research is to classify images of plants to species with deep learning. We used convolutional neural network architectures for feature learning and fully connected layers with logsoftmax output for classification. Pretrained models on ImageNet were used, and transfer learning was applied. In the current research image sets published in the scope of the PlantCLEF 2015 challenge were used. The proposed system surpasses the results of all top competitors of the challenge by 8% and 7% at observation and image levels, respectively. Our secondary goal was to satisfy the users’ needs in content-based image retrieval to give relevant hits during species search task. We optimized the length of the returned lists in order to maximize MAP (Mean Average Precision), which is critical to the performance of image retrieval. Thus, we achieved more than 50% improvement of MAP in the test set compared to the baseline.

Parole chiave

  • deep learning
  • convolutional neural networks
  • Inception V3
  • MAP
  • image retrieval
Accesso libero

Hybrid Recommender System via Personalized Users’ Context

Pubblicato online: 29 Mar 2019
Pagine: 101 - 115

Astratto

Abstract

In movie domain, finding the appropriate movie to watch is a challenging task. This paper proposes a recommender system that suggests movies in cinema that fit the user’s available time, location, mood and emotions. Conducted experiments for evaluation showed that the proposed method outperforms the other baselines.

Parole chiave

  • Movie recommender
  • Emotion recommendation
  • Hybrid recommender system
  • sentiment analysis
  • spatio-temporal recommendation
Accesso libero

Multi-Channel Target Shadow Detection in GPS FSR

Pubblicato online: 29 Mar 2019
Pagine: 116 - 132

Astratto

Abstract

The paper offers new application of a Multi-channel Forward Scatter Radar (MFSR), which uses GPS signals for detection of air targets on their GPS radio shadows. The multi-channel GPS MFSR detector consists of several channels, which process information from several satellites simultaneously. The phenomena of diffraction in the near area is used for shadow target detection. The target is considered to be detected, if it is detected at least in one of detector channels. Two experiments have been made to verify the proposed detection algorithm. The results obtained show that the proposed multi-channel detection algorithm can be successfully used for detection of low-flying air targets at very short distances or the near area of diffraction. Such targets are undetectable in GPS bistatic radar.

Parole chiave

  • FSR
  • GPS
  • signal detection and estimation
Accesso libero

Security of Low Computing Power Devices: A Survey of Requirements, Challenges & Possible Solutions

Pubblicato online: 29 Mar 2019
Pagine: 133 - 164

Astratto

Abstract

Security has been a primary concern in almost all areas of computing and for the devices that are low on computing power it becomes more important. In this paper, a new class of computing device termed as Low Computing Power Device (LCPD) has been defined conceptually. The paper brings out common attributes, security requirements and security challenges of all kinds of low computing power devices in one place so that common security solutions for these can be designed and implemented rather than doing this for each individual device type. A survey of existing recent security solutions for different LCPDs hasve been presented here. This paper has also provided possible security solutions for LCPDs which include identification of countermeasures against different threats and attacks on these devices, and choosing appropriate cryptographic mechanism for implementing the countermeasures efficiently.

Parole chiave

  • Computing power
  • security
  • requirements
  • challenges
  • solutions
Accesso libero

Adaptive Observer of Resistance in Sensorless Estimation of Speed and Position in Brushless DC Electric Motor

Pubblicato online: 29 Mar 2019
Pagine: 165 - 176

Astratto

Abstract

Estimating the speed and position using measurable electrical parameters would allow establishment of sensorless control systems for brushless DC motors, without the need to use expensive sensors for the rotor position and speed. When the motor is running, it heats up and the stator resistance rises. This heat-dependent change needs to be reflected in the observer, as it would produce an error in rated speed and position. An adaptive algorithm can compensate for the change of resistance as a disturbing effect of the motor heating. The adaptive algorithm for estimating the resistance is synthesized using the function of Lyapunov. This article is useful for estimation of brushless electric motor speed and position with observer. It contains simulations with an adaptive observer of resistance for sensorless estimation of speed and position in brushless DC motor through measurement of voltage and current.

Parole chiave

  • Brushless motor
  • observer
  • speed
  • position
  • estimate
  • Lyapunov
  • stator resistance
Accesso libero

Optimum Design of CDM-Backstepping Control with Nonlinear Observer for Electrohydraulic Servo System Using Ant Swarm

Pubblicato online: 29 Mar 2019
Pagine: 177 - 189

Astratto

Abstract

This paper introduces an application of an Ant Colony Optimization algorithm to optimize the parameters in the design of a type of nonlinear robust control algorithm based on coefficient diagram method and backstepping strategy with nonlinear observer for the electrohydraulic servo system with supply pressure under the conditions of uncertainty and the action of external disturbance. Based on this model, a systematic analysis and design algorithm is developed to deal with stabilization and angular displacement tracking, one feature of this work is employing the nonlinear observer to achieve the asymptotic stability with state estimations. Finally, numerical simulations are given to demonstrate the usefulness and advantages of the proposed optimization method.

Parole chiave

  • Ant colony optimization
  • Coefficients diagram method
  • Backstepping control
  • Electrohydraulic servo systems
  • Observers
Accesso libero

Application of Information Technologies and Algorithms in Ship Passage Planning

Pubblicato online: 29 Mar 2019
Pagine: 190 - 200

Astratto

Abstract

With the continuous increase of international oil prices, more and more shipping companies look for new solutions to the ever present question: How to reduce operational fuel consumption and decrease air pollution. Ship route planning is an indispensable part of the ship navigation process. In the modern world, the passage planning aspect of navigation is shifting. No longer do we see mariners drawing course lines on a paper chart. No longer do they calculate distances with compasses. Elaborate algorithms on various digital devices perform all these tasks. Algorithms plot the optimum tracks on digital charts and algorithms can decide how to avoid collision situations. Nowadays charter companies do not rely solely on the experienced navigators on board their vessels to decide the best route. Instead, this task is outsourced ashore to routing and weather-routing enterprises. The algorithms used by those enterprises are continuously evolving and getting better and better. They are coming popular because of another reason – more and more the shipping society support the newly idea for using crewless ships. However, are they up to the task to eliminate the human element in passage planning? In this article, we are going to review some of the weak points of the algorithms in use.

Parole chiave

  • Information technologies in shipping
  • cybernetic decisions
  • evolutionary algorithm
  • safety of navigation

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