Rivista e Edizione

AHEAD OF PRINT

Volume 22 (2022): Edizione 4 (October 2022)

Volume 22 (2022): Edizione 3 (July 2022)

Volume 22 (2022): Edizione 2 (April 2022)

Volume 22 (2022): Edizione 1 (January 2022)

Volume 21 (2021): Edizione 4 (October 2021)

Volume 21 (2021): Edizione 3 (July 2021)

Volume 21 (2021): Edizione 2 (April 2021)

Volume 21 (2021): Edizione 1 (January 2021)

Volume 20 (2020): Edizione 4 (October 2020)

Volume 20 (2020): Edizione 3 (July 2020)

Volume 20 (2020): Edizione 2 (April 2020)

Volume 20 (2020): Edizione 1 (January 2020)

Volume 19 (2019): Edizione 4 (October 2019)

Volume 19 (2019): Edizione 3 (July 2019)

Volume 19 (2019): Edizione 2 (April 2019)

Volume 19 (2019): Edizione 1 (January 2019)

Volume 18 (2018): Edizione 4 (October 2018)

Volume 18 (2018): Edizione 3 (July 2018)

Volume 18 (2018): Edizione 2 (May 2018)

Volume 18 (2018): Edizione 1 (January 2018)

Volume 17 (2017): Edizione 4 (October 2017)

Volume 17 (2017): Edizione 3 (July 2017)

Volume 17 (2017): Edizione 2 (May 2017)

Volume 17 (2017): Edizione 1 (January 2017)

Volume 16 (2016): Edizione 4 (October 2016)

Volume 16 (2016): Edizione 3 (July 2016)

Volume 16 (2016): Edizione 2 (April 2016)

Volume 16 (2016): Edizione 1 (January 2016)

Volume 15 (2015): Edizione 4 (October 2015)

Volume 15 (2015): Edizione 3 (July 2015)

Volume 15 (2015): Edizione 2 (April 2015)

Volume 15 (2015): Edizione 1 (January 2015)

Volume 14 (2014): Edizione 4 (October 2014)

Volume 14 (2014): Edizione 3 (July 2014)

Volume 14 (2014): Edizione 2 (April 2014)

Volume 14 (2014): Edizione 1 (January 2014)

Volume 13 (2013): Edizione 4 (October 2013)
Edizione Editors: Magdalena Bielska, Jerzy Pilawski, Katarzyna Skupniewicz

Volume 13 (2013): Edizione 3 (July 2013)

Volume 13 (2013): Edizione 2 (April 2013)

Volume 13 (2013): Edizione 1 (January 2013)

Volume 12 (2012): Edizione 4 (October 2012)

Volume 12 (2012): Edizione 3 (July 2012)

Volume 12 (2012): Edizione 2 (April 2012)

Volume 12 (2012): Edizione 1 (January 2012)

Volume 11 (2011): Edizione 4 (August 2011)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2300-8733
Pubblicato per la prima volta
25 Nov 2011
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 22 (2022): Edizione 1 (January 2022)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2300-8733
Pubblicato per la prima volta
25 Nov 2011
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

27 Articoli

Review

Accesso libero

Enhancing in vitro oocyte maturation competence and embryo development in farm animals: roles of vitamin-based antioxidants – A review

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 3 - 19

Astratto

Abstract

Oocyte/embryo in vitro culture is one of the most important assisted reproductive technologies used as a tool for maintaining genetic resources biodiversity and the inheritance of valuable genetic resources through generations. The success of such processes affects the final goal of the in vitro culture, getting viable and healthy offspring. In common in vitro oocyte maturation and/or embryo development techniques, the development of oocytes/embryos is carried out at 5% carbon dioxide and roughly 20% atmosphere-borne oxygen ratios in cell culture incubators due to their reduced cost in comparison with low atmospheric oxygen-tension incubators. These conditions are usually accompanied by the emergence of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can extremely damage cell membrane integrity and other vital cellular organelles, as well as genetic material. The present review mainly focuses on the antioxidant roles of different vitamins on in vitro oocyte maturation competence and embryo development in farm animals. The use of antioxidant agents may prevent the extreme augmentation of ROS generation and enhance in vitro matured oocyte competence and embryo development. Therefore, this review aimed to provide an updated outline of the impact of antioxidant vitamin (Vit) supplementations during in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) on oocyte maturation and consequent embryo development, in various domestic animal species. Thus, the enrichment of the culture media with antioxidant agents may prevent and neutralize the extreme augmentation of ROS generation and enhance the in vitro embryo production (IVEP) outcomes.

Parole chiave

  • antioxidant
  • maturation
  • oocyte competence
  • embryo growth
  • animals
Accesso libero

A Review on the Use of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) in Aquaculture Feeds

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 21 - 42

Astratto

Abstract

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) to replace fishmeal (FM) or other plant protein sources and its effects on an aquatic animal’s growth performance and health system is rarely discussed. In recent times FM use in aquafeed has been a problem for the aquaculture industry because of the depletion of fish resources in the ocean and the high cost of FM. For that reason, researchers are focusing on reducing the cost of aquafeed production by lowering the inclusion of FM in aquafeed. One of the low-cost alternative protein sources to replace FM is DDGS. The present review discusses the compilation of available literature review and other works on the use of DDGS to replace FM in aquafeed and how it improves the growth performance, immune health system, and disease resistance in an aquatic animal. It focuses on the production of DDGS, the nutritional composition of DDGS, the chemical and physical characteristics of DDGS, and the effects of the DDGS inclusion in aquafeed on the aquatic animal. Apart from improving the growth performance of the aquatic animal when included in aquafeed, it also helps improve the immune health system of the animal. It also helps boost the immune system of the aquatic animal to fight diseases and increase disease resistance when included in aquafeed. Furthermore, DDGS also contains some constituents like carotenoids that help improve the meat quality of the animal when included in aquafeed. The current review also discusses the management and use of technology to improve the aquaculture industry, educate farmers on reducing diseases during the culturing periods, and increase productivity and profit in a friendly environment.

Parole chiave

  • aquafeed
  • aquatic animals
  • distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)
  • growth performance
  • immune health system
  • mycotoxins
Accesso libero

Harnessing the Value of Rumen Protected Amino Acids to Enhance Animal Performance – A Review

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 43 - 62

Astratto

Abstract

In general, higher mammals need nine amino acids (AA) in their diets as building blocks to synthesize proteins while ruminants can produce some of them through the synthesis of microbial proteins. Diet is utilized by ruminal microorganisms to synthesize microbial protein (MCP) which is digested in the small intestine (SI). Although protein and amino acid requirements in ruminants are subject to microbial protein synthesis, it is not enough for optimal daily production. Therefore, there is a current trend towards supplementing amino acids in ruminant diets. In the rumen, free amino acids can be degraded by rumen bacteria, therefore, the AAs need to be supplemented in a protected form to be stable in the rumen and absorbable post-ruminal for metabolic purposes. The main site of amino acid absorption is the small intestine (SI), and there is a need to keep AA from ruminal degradation and direct them to absorption sites. Several approaches have been suggested by feed scientists to decrease this problem such as defaunation and debacterization of the rumen against amino acid-fermenting fungi and bacteria, inhibitors or antagonists of vitamin B6 enzymes, diet composition and also protecting AA from rumen degradation. A number of studies have evaluated the roles of amino acids concerning their effects on milk yield, growth, digestibility, feed intake and efficiency of nitrogen utilization of ruminants. The focus of this review was on experimental and research studies about AAs in feedstuff, metabolism, supplementing amino acids for ruminants and the current trends of using rumen protected amino acids.

Parole chiave

  • essential amino acids
  • methionine
  • lysine
  • rumen protected amino acid
  • ruminants
Accesso libero

Technical, Biological and Molecular Aspects of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer – A Review

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 63 - 87

Astratto

Abstract

Since the announcement of the birth of the first cloned mammal in 1997, Dolly the sheep, 24 animal species including laboratory, farm, and wild animals have been cloned. The technique for somatic cloning involves transfer of the donor nucleus of a somatic cell into an enucleated oocyte at the metaphase II (MII) stage for the generation of a new individual, genetically identical to the somatic cell donor. There is increasing interest in animal cloning for different purposes such as rescue of endangered animals, replication of superior farm animals, production of genetically engineered animals, creation of biomedical models, and basic research. However, the efficiency of cloning remains relatively low. High abortion, embryonic, and fetal mortality rates are frequently observed. Moreover, aberrant developmental patterns during or after birth are reported. Researchers attribute these abnormal phenotypes mainly to incomplete nuclear remodeling, resulting in incomplete reprogramming. Nevertheless, multiple factors influence the success of each step of the somatic cloning process. Various strategies have been used to improve the efficiency of nuclear transfer and most of the phenotypically normal born clones can survive, grow, and reproduce. This paper will present some technical, biological, and molecular aspects of somatic cloning, along with remarkable achievements and current improvements.

Parole chiave

  • nuclear transfer
  • animal cloning
  • nuclear reprogramming
  • telomeres
  • donor cells
Accesso libero

Emissions of Gaseous Pollutants from Pig Farms and Methods for their Reduction – A Review

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 89 - 107

Astratto

Abstract

Agriculture contributes significantly to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Livestock production, including pig production, is associated with several gaseous pollutants released into the atmosphere, including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including alcohols, aldehydes, and aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, as well as typically odorous pollutants, are an inseparable element of raising and breeding farm animals. These emissions can degrade local and regional air quality, contribute to surface water eutrophication and acid rain, and increase the greenhouse gas footprint of the production sector. The paper is organized as follows. First, the sources and factors influencing the level of emissions from pig houses are described. Next, the effects of dietary methods (optimization of animal diets), hygienic methods (including microclimate optimization) and technological methods (application of technological solutions) for mitigating emissions from pigs are discussed.

Parole chiave

  • carbon dioxide
  • methane
  • ammonia
  • VOCs
  • pig

Animal genetics and breeding

Accesso libero

Association Between Natriuretic Peptide Receptor 2 (NPR2) RS208158047 Polymorphism and Fattening Performance of Young Bulls

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 109 - 119

Astratto

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine fattening performance data for Charolais, Limousin and Blonde d’Aquitaine beef cattle and associate these data with NPR2 gene 8:g.59961937 T>C (rs208158047) mutation. Experiments were conducted with 176 beef cattle (77 Charolais, 66 Limousin and 33 Blonde d’Aquitaine) at nine months of age. Experiments lasted for 9 months and animals were slaughtered at the age of 18 months. Cattle body weights were determined at four different periods: beginning of fattening (d0), 60th day of fattening (d60), 120th day of fattening (d120) and at the end of fattening (sw). In terms of rs208158047 mutation of Charolais, Limousin and Blonde d’Aquitaine breeds, TT and CT genotypes were identified, and CC genotype was not encountered. The association of average daily gain (ADG) in d0-d60, d0-d120 and d0-sw periods with the genotypes of rs208158047 mutation was found to be significant (P<0.05). Greater ADGs were observed in rs208158047-CT genotypes compared to rs208158047-TT genotypes. These results indicate that the selection of bovine NPR2 gene could be used to ensure the breeding direction for growth related traits of the beef cattle.

Parole chiave

  • bovine
  • SNP
  • live weight gain
  • selection signature
Accesso libero

Association of SNPs in AKIRIN2, TTN, EDG1 and MYBPC1 Genes with Growth and Carcass Traits in Qinchuan Cattle

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 121 - 139

Astratto

Abstract

Growth and carcass traits are the main breeding objectives in beef cattle. The aim of this study was to confirm genetic effects of the c.*188G>A SNP of AKIRIN2, the g.231054C>T SNP of TTN, the g.1471620G>T SNP of EDG1 and the g.70014208A>G SNP of MYBPC1 on growth and carcass traits in Chinese Qinchuan (QC) cattle, as well as to compare the frequencies of the well-characterized alleles of these SNPs among six Chinese cattle populations, three Japanese cattle populations, two European cattle populations and one Korean cattle population. In this study, a total of 665 cattle samples were genotyped using MassARRAY and PCR-RFLP. Association analysis explored effects of four SNPs on growth and carcass traits including body length, wither height, hip height, hip width, rump length, chest depth, chest circumference, back fat thickness, ultrasound longissimus muscle area and ultrasound longissimus muscle depth in QC (P<0.05 to P<0.001). The well-characterized A (c.*188G>A), T (g.231054C>T) and T (g.1471620G>T) alleles in Japanese Black cattle were significantly higher than Chinese cattle breeds; on the contrary, the G allele (g.70014208A>G) was markedly higher in Chinese cattle breeds than other cattle breeds. These results suggest that the four SNPs might be useful as a molecular marker for growth-related traits in Chinese QC cattle.

Parole chiave

  • association
  • candidate genes
  • economic traits
  • SNPs
  • Qinchuan cattle

The biology, physiology, reproduction, and health

Accesso libero

Effects of Sex Steroid Receptor Agonists and Antagonists on the Expression of the FOXL2 Transcription Factor and its Target Genes AMH and CYP19A1 in the Neonatal Porcine Ovary

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 141 - 153

Astratto

Abstract

Recently, we have demonstrated that neonatal exposure to androgen and estrogen agonists or antagonists influenced the number of ovarian follicles in piglets. Since the FOXL2 transcription factor is required for proper ovarian follicle formation and activation, the objective of the study was to examine effects of exposure of the neonatal porcine ovary to testosterone propionate (TP; an androgen), flutamide (FLU; an antiandrogen), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP; compound with estrogenic activity), ICI 182,780 (ICI; an antiestrogen), and methoxychlor (MXC; compound with estrogenic, antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic properties) on FOXL2 expression and expression of its target genes, AMH and CYP19A1. Piglets were injected subcutaneously with TP, FLU, OP, ICI, MXC, or corn oil (control) between postnatal days 1 and 10 (n = 4/each group). Ovaries were excised from the 11-day-old piglets and the expression of FOXL2, AMH and CYP19A1 was examined using immunohistochemistry and/or real-time PCR and Western blot. FOXL2 was localized in stroma cells surrounding egg nests and in granulosa cells. TP, OP and MXC increased both FOXL2 and AMH mRNAs, while FLU and ICI decreased CYP19A1 mRNA. The increased FOXL2 protein abundance was found in all examined groups. In addition, TP, OP, ICI and MXC increased AMH protein abundance, while TP, FLU and OP decreased CYP19A1 protein abundance. In conclusion, neonatal exposure to sex steroid receptor agonists and antagonists increased FOXL2 expression at mRNA and/or protein levels and affected FOXL2 target genes in the ovaries of 11-day-old piglets. Therefore, it seems that impaired ovarian folliculogenesis induced by altered steroid milieu during the neonatal development period in pigs may, at least in part, involve FOXL2.

Parole chiave

  • pig
  • ovary
  • endocrine-active chemicals
  • FOXL2
Accesso libero

The Effect of Hesperidin, Chrysin, and Naringenin on Somatic Cell Count in Mastitis Dairy Cows After Multiple Intramammary Administration

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 155 - 172

Astratto

Abstract

Hesperidin (HE), chrysin (CH) and naringenin (NA) are flavonoids, being the most important group of polyphenols, and show anti-inflammatory properties which have been demonstrated on various models. Polyphenols have a lot of biological properties, such as antioxidative, antiviral, immunomodulatory and anticancer activities. However, the effect on mastitis has not been yet described. This research aimed to analyse the tolerability of selected polyphenols after multiple intramammary administrations (IMM) as well as to investigate their potential impact on somatic cell count (SCC) in mastitis dairy cows. The study was performed on 12 Polish Holstein Blackand- White cows in their 4th to 6th lactation. Only animals with inflammation in one-quarter of the udder were selected. The selection was based on SCC and clinical assessment. The experiment was performed with multiple intramammary administrations with each of these polyphenols in dairy cows affected with mastitis. Polyphenols were administered at a dose of 30 mg/quarter/day. Milk samples for SCC, blood plasma samples for pharmacokinetics and blood haematology and biochemistry (selected blood parameters were tested) were collected at baseline, treatment period and within the recovery period. Positive effects concerning the SCC in milk of mastitic cows were confirmed for all tested polyphenols.

Parole chiave

  • dairy cows
  • inflammation
  • immunomodulator
  • mastitis
  • flavonoids

Animal nutrition, and feedstuffs

Accesso libero

The Effect of Silybum Marianum Seed, Thymus Vulgaris, and Rosmarinus Officinalis Powders in Alleviating the Risks of Aflatoxin B1 in Young Broiler Chicks

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 173 - 187

Astratto

Abstract

This investigation was aimed to evaluate the effects of Silybum marianum seed, Thymus vulgaris, and Rosmarinus officinalis powders and their combination in alleviating the risks of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in young broiler chicks. One-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chickens were allocated to 6 experimental groups from d 1 to 21. The experimental dietary groups included: Negative control (NC) received the basal diet, Positive control (PC) containing 2 mg AFB1/kg diet; Positive control + 10 g/kg diet of Silybum marianum seed (SMS); Positive control + 10 g/kg diet of Thymus vulgaris (TV); Positive control + 5 g/kg diet of Rosmarinus officinalis (RO); Positive control + 10 g/kg diet of SMS + 10 g/kg diet of TV + 5 g/kg diet of RO as a blend of herbs (BH). There was no difference between feed intake and body weight gain among the experimental groups (P>0.05). In contrast, the feed conversion rate (FCR) in NC and SMS groups was lower than in other groups (P<0.05). Calcium levels and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) were lower in serum samples, but the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were higher in PC chickens (P<0.05). Increase in the thigh muscle malondialdehyde (MDA) in chickens fed AFB1 was significantly reduced in the NC, SMS, and BH chickens (P<0.05). Chickens of NC and SMS groups showed the highest response to respiratory burst of heterophil (NBT assay) and lymphocyte proliferation assays (MTT assay) (P<0.05). In conclusion, the addition of studied herbs, especially SMS, to the AFB1 contaminated diet could have a protective effect against aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens.

Parole chiave

  • antioxidant
  • broiler immune system
  • herbal medicine
  • mycotoxin
  • performance
Accesso libero

The Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Encapsulated Thyme Essential Oil on Growth, Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines, and Serum Amino Acid Profiles of Broiler Chicks Challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 189 - 200

Astratto

Abstract

Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) causes inflammation and has adverse effects on the growth of broiler chicks. Meanwhile, plant derivations improve the growth performance and decrease inflammation, but they do not have enough stability. Encapsulation of essential oils is a new strategy for decreasing their instability. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of encapsulated thyme essential oil (ETEO) on growth, inflammatory cytokines, and amino acid profiles of broiler chicks challenged with S. Typhimurium. Three hundred one-d-old broiler chicks were assigned into 6 groups, and 5 replications per group. The broiler chicks (3 groups) were challenged with S. Typhimurium on day 21 and birds received basal diet (positive control), encapsulated thyme (P-ETEO), and non-capsulated thyme (P-NETEO), while other groups received the same diets, but under normal as a negative control, encapsulated thyme (N-ETEO) and non-capsulated thyme (N-NETEO). Growth performance, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and serum amino acid profiles were assessed on day 42. The challenged birds in positive control showed lower growth performance, higher concentration for inflammatory cytokines, and disturbed blood serum concentrations for amino acid profiles compared to the negative control (P<0.05). The result showed that dietary supplementation of the ETEO could improve growth performance and amino acid profiles, and also decrease inflammatory responses (P<0.05). In sum, S. Typhimurium had negative effects on growth, immunity, and inflammation, but dietary inclusion of the ETEO could decrease its negative effects.

Parole chiave

  • broiler chicks
  • encapsulation
  • pro-inflammatory cytokines
  • infection
  • serum amino acids
Accesso libero

Effect pf Fermented Rapeseed Meal as a Feed Component on the Redox and Immune System of Pregnant Sows and their Offspring

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 201 - 219

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the study was to assess the effect of dried fermented rapeseed meal (FRSM) in diets for sows on blood redox and immunological parameters, taking into account the physiological period (pregnancy or lactation) and age (primiparous vs multiparous sows). The experiment also aimed to determine how FRSM administered to pregnant sows, affects the antioxidant and immune systems of piglets. The animals were divided into 4 groups of 15 animals each. Control groups of primiparous (CG) and multiparous sows (CS) received a standard diet for pregnant or lactating sows. Experimental groups of primiparous (EG) and multiparous sows (ES) received feed with a 4% share of FRSM in place of soybean meal up to day 100 of gestation, 9% share of FRSM from day 100 of gestation to day 7 of lactation, and then again 4% share of FRSM until the end of lactation. In the blood plasma of pregnant sows fed diet with FRSM addition, higher FRAP value and vitamin C, uric acid (UA), immunoglobulin IgG content, lymphocytes (LYM) count and a lower content of malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid hydroperoxides (LOH), immunoglobulin IgM was noted than in the blood plasma of control sows. Both primiparous and multiparous lactation sows whose feed included FRSM had higher catalase (CAT) activity, higher FRAP, vitamin C, immunoglobulin IgG and IL-6 content, and lower UA content than the control sows. Piglets born to sows fed diet with FRSM addition had significantly higher FRAP values, vitamin C, IgG, and IL-6 content and white blood cells (WBC) count and lower MDA and UA content in the blood plasma than piglets born to sows from control group. Multiparous sows compared to primiparous sows had higher CAT activity, and higher vitamin C, LOH, creatinine (CREAT), and IgM content. Elevated FRAP, and CREAT levels and reduced MDA content were also observed in the plasma of the multiparous sows compared to primiparous sows during lactation. Multiparous lactation sows compared to primiparous sows had lower WBC count, and IgG and IgM content. Piglets born to multiparous sows had higher FRAP values, LOH content and IgA content while lower MDA content compared to piglets born to primiparous sows. The inclusion of dried fermented rapeseed meal in feed for sows significantly stimulates antioxidant processes in primiparous and multiparous sows and in their piglets. The inclusion of dried fermented rapeseed meal in the diet of sows stimulates antioxidant processes in primiparous and multiparous sows and in their piglets. This is responsible for stimulation of the immune system (increased LYM counts and IgG titres in the blood plasma). The improved antioxidant status in the plasma suggests that dried fermented rapeseed meal stimulated the immune system of pregnant and lactating sows and their newborn offspring.

Parole chiave

  • fermented rapeseed meal
  • sows
  • piglets
  • antioxidant
  • immune system
Accesso libero

Effect of Diet Supplementation with Enterococcus Durans ED26E/7 and its Durancin ED26E/7 on Growth Performance, Caecal Enzymatic Activity, Jejunal Morphology and Meat Properties of Broiler Rabbits

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 221 - 235

Astratto

Abstract

The present study investigates the effects of Enterococcus durans ED26E/7 beneficial strain and its enterocin – durancin (Ent) ED26E/7 on selected parameters in rabbits: growth performance, caecal enzymatic activity, jejunal morphometry and meat physico-chemical characteristics. Seventytwo rabbits (aged five weeks, M91 meat line, both sexes) were divided into experimental groups E1 (E. durans ED26E/7 strain; dose 500 μL/animal/day, concentration 109 CFU/mL) and E2 (durancin EntED26E/7; dose 50 μL/animal/day, with activity 12 800 AU/mL) and control group (C). The additives were administered in drinking water for a period of 21 days. All animals remained in good health during the experiment. The highest body weight gain (increase by 1.5% compared to C) was noted in E1 group during ED26E/7 strain application (P<0.001). Both bioactive compounds positively influenced (reduced) the feed conversion ratio (P<0.001). The ED26E/7 strain and its EntED26E/7 application stimulated the activity of most enzymes tested in the caecum; only the amylolytic and inulolytic activity in E2 group decreased during durancin ED26E/7 addition. Both additives, but mainly the ED26E/7 strain, showed a tendency to improve the jejunal morhological parameters till the end of the experiment (day 42). The meat physico-chemical parameters were not negatively influenced by the application of E. durans ED26E/7 strain and its durancin ED26E/7. The diet supplementation with bacteriocinogenic and probiotic E. durans ED26E/7 strain and its EntED26E/7 may improve the growth performance, caecal enzymatic activity and jejunal morphometry of rabbits, without any negative effect on rabbit meat quality.

Parole chiave

  • durancin
  • rabbit
  • morphometry
  • meat quality
Accesso libero

Effect of Replacing Maize Grain by Hybrid Rye Grain in the TMR on Performance of Mid-Lactating Dairy Cows

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 237 - 254

Astratto

Abstract

Grain from traditional varieties of rye is not commonly used in dairy cattle nutrition. However, new hybrid varieties of rye currently available are characterized by some nutritional and agrotechnical benefits. This paper deals with the hypothesis that rye grain derived from a hybrid variety may be an alternative for maize grain in diets for dairy cattle. Sixteen lactating Polish Holstein- Friesian cows were divided into two groups according to their parity (8 primi- and 8 multiparous), stage of lactation (106 ± 30 days after calving) and milk yield (34 ± 4 kg/day). Cows were fed a total mixed ration (TMR) containing grass silage and whole crop maize silage and 29.2% of the concentrate (in dry matter). The latter contained approximately 48% (as fed) of either maize grain (M) or hybrid rye grain (HR) as a main source of cereal grain. Experimental diets were fed for 9 weeks. The use of HR as a substitute for M did not affect (P>0.05) dry matter intake and milk yield. There were no differences between treatments in the content of milk solids, amino acids, and fatty acid profile. However, substituting M by HR positively influenced composition of milk protein fractions by increasing the proportion of α-casein (37.0 vs 39.7%; P<0.01) and к-casein (6.5 vs 7.3%; P=0.02) as well as decreasing the proportion of β-casein (28.8 vs 27.8%; P=0.02) and sensory characteristics of the milk (body and texture, and taste; P<0.05). In turn, the composition of the diet did not affect the technological suitability for processing of milk fat (acid and peroxide number, melting and solidification temperature), rennet coagulation time, heat stability or titratable acidity. This study has shown that hybrid rye grain may be an alternative for maize grain in a TMR based on grass and whole maize silage for mid-lactation dairy cows. Further studies are needed with higher proportion of hybrid rye grain in TMR or with other roughages used in a basal diet to fully determine efficiency of hybrid rye grain use in diets for dairy cows.

Parole chiave

  • hybrid rye grain
  • dairy cows
  • feed intake
  • milk yield and composition
Accesso libero

Fennel and Ginger Improved Nutrient Digestibility and Milk Yield and Quality in Early Lactating Egyptian Buffaloes

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 255 - 270

Astratto

Abstract

The supplementation with herbal and medicinal plants to animals showed positive effects on feed digestion, performance and animal’s health. Fifteen multiparous Egyptian buffaloes (537 ± 18.1 kg body weight), 7 days after parturition, were randomly assigned to 3 treatments in a quintupled 3 × 3 Latin square design in a 63-day experiment. Each experimental period lasted 21 days (15 days of adaptation + 7 days for measurements and samples collection). Buffaloes were assigned according to their previous milk production, weight and parity to study the effect of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) or ginger (Zingiber officinale) supplementation on feed utilization and lactational performance. Buffaloes were fed a basal diet of concentrates, berseem clover and rice straw in a ratio of 60:30:10 dry matter (DM) basis. The first group was fed the basal diet with no additive as the control treatment, while other buffaloes were fed on the basal diet supplemented with 75 g fennel or ginger/buffalo daily. Additives supplementation did not affect feed intake; however, fennel followed by ginger improved (P<0.05) dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber digestibilities compared to the control. Without affecting blood chemistry, fennel and ginger supplementation improved (P<0.05) production of milk and energy corrected milk, fat concentration and milk energy content and output. Fennel followed by ginger decreased the somatic cell count (P=0.035) compared with the control. Fennel and ginger improved feed efficiency (P<0.05) compared with the control. Fennel increased the proportion of milk trans-10, cis-12 C18:2 (P=0.028), total conjugated linoleic acid without affecting other fatty acids. It is concluded that fennel or ginger at 75 g/buffalo/d improved nutrient digestibility and milk production of lactating buffaloes. Fennel improved milk nutritive value more than ginger.

Parole chiave

  • feed utilization
  • fennel
  • ginger
  • ionophores
  • milk fatty acids
  • milk production
Accesso libero

Inhibition of in Vitro Rumen Methane Production by Three Statins

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 271 - 282

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing concentrations of three pure statins on in vitro methane production and rumen fermentation. The effects of atorvastatin, rosuvastatin and simvastatin at three concentrations (1, 10, and 100 mg/L of culture fluid) were evaluated using in vitro 24 h batch incubation of buffered rumen fluid with a 70:30 forage:concentrate substrate. All statins tested demonstrated the ability to reduce methanogenesis. Methane inhibition potential was decreasing in the following order: simvastatin>atorvastatin>rosuvastatin. Methane production was reduced (P<0.05) by simvastatin at 10 mg/L (by 9.3%) and by atorvastatin at 100 mg/L (by 13.2%) without compromising fermentation and feed digestibility. Simvastatin at 100 mg/L decreased methane production by 26.2%, however, net production of volatile fatty acids (nVFA) was also reduced (P<0.05). The only effect of rosuvastatin was a slight reduction (P<0.05) of methane proportion at 10 and 100 mg/L. Simvastatin and atorvastatin at 100 mg/L increased (P<0.05) relative proportion of propionate at the expense of acetate and butyrate. Ammonia-N concentrations were not affected (P>0.05) by statins. The current study demonstrated that selected statins could selectively decrease methane production. The effects of statins on methanogenesis and overall rumen fermentation vary depending on statin type and concentration. Hydrophobic statins, such as simvastatin and atorvastatin, seem to be more effective compared to the hydrophilic statins, such as rosuvastatin.

Parole chiave

  • rumen fermentation
  • methane
  • digestibility
  • statin
Accesso libero

Influence of Replacement Levels of Orange Waste Silage on Intake, Nutrient Digestion, Ruminal Fermentation and Milk Yield in Barki Goats

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 283 - 303

Astratto

Abstract

Exploring new alternative sources of feedstuffs can contribute to animal production sustainability in some Mediterranean regions in order to overcome the rising food demand. The influence of dietary replacement of wheat straw (WS) with orange waste silage (OWS) on nutrient intakes, apparent digestibility, ruminal fermentation and blood biochemical constituents and milk production of dairy goats were evaluated. Forty pregnant goats (46.30±1.6 kg BW) were housed in individual pens in a completely randomized design and fed (ad libitum) a TMR for 75 days period. Goats were assigned to four experimental diets with the forage amounts consisting of either WS as a control diet (1000 g WS/kg DM in the TMR), a 50:50 mixture of both WS and OWS (500 g WS and 500 g OWS/kg DM in the TMR), an orange waste silage (1000 g OWS/kg DM in the TMR) or corn silage as a positive control (1000 g CS/kg DM in the TMR). The DMI increased linearly (P<0.01), while fiber fractions intake decreased linearly (P<0.01) with increasing of OWS in the diet. Ruminal pH was increased quadratically (P<0.01), whereas NH3-N concentration and total protozoa abundance decreased quadratically (P<0.01) with increasing OWS in the diet. Ruminal acetate content was increased linearly (P = 0.012) by diet; whereas linear effects were observed on propionate and butyrate proportions (P<0.01) as OWS amount increased. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), non-esterified free fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) levels decreased linearly (P<0.01) with ascending amounts of OWS. Serum glucose, BUN, NEFA and BHBA levels were lower (P<0.01) for goats fed the OWS diet than those fed the CS diet. Milk yield and milk nitrogen efficiency were linearly increased (P<0.01), whereas quadratic effects (P = 0.049) were observed on milk urea nitrogen content with increasing dietary OWS. In conclusion, the replacement of WS with OWS enhanced rumen fermentation and milk yield of late pregnant and early lactation Barki goats.

Parole chiave

  • orange waste silage
  • ruminal constituents
  • digestibility
  • Barki goat
  • milk production
Accesso libero

The First Insights on Trans-Galactooligosaccharide Effects on Fatty Acids Profile and Microstructure of Muscle in Common Carp

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 305 - 324

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the effects of prebiotic GOS on muscle histomorphometry and the total lipid, total cholesterol content and fatty acids profile in the meat of common carp. The 60-day-long experiment was performed on one-year-old fish. Three diets were used in the experiment: control diet 1 (C) with no microbiota affecting feed additives, diet 2 (B1) with 1% of GOS, and diet 3 (B2) with 2% of GOS. At the end of the trial, 16 individuals from each treatment group were used for the analyses. Fish meat from the B1 group had significantly higher lipid content compared to B2, but neither B1 nor B2 groups were different from the control group. The percentages of SFA, MUFA, PUFA, indexes n-3/n-6, PUFA /SFA, AI and TI, and total cholesterol content were not affected, in contrast to C14:0, C16:1 n-7, C18:0, C18:2 n-6, C20:4 n-6, and total n-6 FA. GOS significantly increased the percentage of normal fibres, while the lower amount of fibre atrophy and splitting was observed. The results confirm that diet supplemented with 2% GOS may be recommended as feed additive in carp nutrition due to positive effects on some fatty acids profiles and muscle microstructure.

Parole chiave

  • cholesterol
  • fatty acids
  • meat quality
  • prebiotics
  • fish
Accesso libero

Protective Effects of Non-Encapsulated and Microencapsulated Lactobacillus Delbrueckii Subsp. Bulgaricus in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) Exposed to Lead (Pb) Via Diet

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 325 - 348

Astratto

Abstract

The present study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary non-encapsulated and microencapsulated Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus on growth performance, intestinal enzymatic activities, antioxidant capacity and hepato-biochemical parameters of rainbow trout before or after exposure to lead via diet. Fingerling fish (16 ± 4 g) were divided into four groups: negative control (NC), positive control (PC), probiotic (PR) and encapsulated probiotic (EN-PR). During the pre-exposure period (days 0–45), fish in the NC and PC groups received the basal diet, whereas fish in the PR and EN-PR groups were fed with basal diet containing 108 CFU g−1 feed of non-encapsulated and microencapsulated probiotic, respectively. During the exposure period (days 46–66), the fish in the probiotic and PC groups were co-treated with 500 μg g−1 feed of lead nitrate. Blood, liver and gut samples were taken at days 0, 45, 52, 59 and 66. The results revealed that growth performance and intestinal enzymatic activities were significantly (P<0.05) improved in the probiotic groups compared to the NC group (day 45). Dietary exposure to lead resulted in the highest levels of liver aspartate aminotransferase (AST), liver alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum malondialdehyde (MDA), and the lowest activities of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the PC group (day 66). The levels of liver ALP were significantly (P<0.05) lower in the probiotic groups compared to the NC and PC groups prior to and after exposure to dietary lead. Serum levels of total protein, albumin, SOD, CAT and glutathione (GSH) were significantly increased in fish fed with both non-encapsulated and microencapsulated probiotics (P<0.05). However, microencapsulated probiotic showed the greatest potential for alleviation of the disturbed activities of intestinal and hepatic enzymes, and improvement of serum biochemical and antioxidant parameters. Our findings suggest that L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, particularly in the microencapsulated form, can be used as a potential probiotic to protect rainbow trout from dietborne lead toxicity.

Parole chiave

  • subsp.
  • growth
  • lead
  • antioxidant
  • serum
  • rainbow trout
Accesso libero

Effects of Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Leaf Extracts on Growth, Immune Response, and Antioxidant Functions in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 349 - 369

Astratto

Abstract

This study evaluates how white mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaf extracts affect the growth, antioxidant activity, and immune response in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Mulberry leaf extracts were obtained through aqueous extraction (AE) and ethanol extraction (EE). Powder of mulberry leaf (PML) was added directly to feed and compared with the effects of feeds supplemented with the different extracts. Fish were divided into eight groups for an 8-week feeding trial where they were fed the basal diet or supplemented with 10% PML, 10% AE, 20% AE, 40% AE, 10% EE, 20% EE, or 40% EE. The inclusion of mulberry leaf extract obtained with either method showed better effects on fish growth performance, antioxidant activities and acid phosphatase activity (ACP) in serum, immune cytokine expression, and intestinal morphology as compared with controls or fish fed the 10% PML diet. The specific growth rate was significantly higher in the 10% AE, 10% EE, and 20% EE groups compared with all other groups (P<0.05). Catalase activity was significantly greater in most groups fed an extract, and in the 10% PML group, when compared with controls. Similarly, ACP, interleukin (IL)-1, and IL-2 expression was significantly increased in groups fed an extract, and in the 10% PML group, when compared with controls (P<0.05). IL- 1, IL-2, IL-10, and Toll-like receptor 2 expression was significantly greater in the 10% EE group than in the 10% PML and 10% AE groups (P<0.05). Villus length in the middle intestine was significantly increased in the 10% AE and 10% EE groups compared with controls and the 10% PML group (P<0.05). Thus, 10% mulberry leaf ethanol extract added to feed is recommended for enhancing the growth rate and health of cultured Nile tilapia.

Parole chiave

  • mulberry leaf
  • Nile tilapia
  • growth
  • immune response
  • antioxidants
Accesso libero

The First Insight Into Full-Fat Superworm (Zophobas morio) Meal in Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) Diets: A Study on Multiple-Choice Feeding Preferences and Growth Performance

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 371 - 384

Astratto

Abstract

Insect meals are sustainable alternative protein sources in animal nutrition. However, the data on their application in petfood and ornamental fish nutrition are scarce. Thus the present study was undertaken to assess their usability in guppy (Poecilia reticulata) diets. The first experiment aimed to investigate the attractiveness of select insect meals for guppies, and the second evaluated superworm (Zophobas morio) meal monodiet effects. The first experiment (free-choice feeding test) lasted five days. Fish were given a choice between four attractants: fish meal, black soldier fly (Hermetia illuces) meal (HI), Madagascar cockroach (Gromphadorhina portentosa) meal (MC), and superworm (Zophobas morio) meal (ZM). The preliminary part of the study showed that the most frequently chosen attractant throughout the entire free-choice feeding test period was ZM. Based on the obtained results, the second part of the study was designed as a growth test with the use of a ZM monodiet compared to commercial feed. The experiment lasted 90 days, and 150 guppy fry were used. The fish were randomly divided into two groups (CON – commercial feed, ZM – Zophobas morio meal). No effects of dietary treatment were found in terms of survival rate, fish body length, or fish body length gain. The present study shows that ZM was the most preferred attractant and that a monodiet based on insect meal can be successfully applied in guppy fry nutrition.

Parole chiave

  • guppy ()
  • insect meal
  • feed preferences
  • monodiet
  • free-choice feeding

Behavior, well-being, production technology, and environment

Accesso libero

Weight Gain of Highland Cattle Depending on the Share of Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium Perenne L.) in the Meadow Sward

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 385 - 395

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the influence of the different proportion of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in the meadow sward on its fodder value and daily weight gain of Highland cattle. The research was carried out on meadow sward with natural undergrowth that was cultivated by sowing perennial ryegrass. When preparing the sward for sowing, around 40% of it was damaged with a rotary tiller. The sowing rate for perennial ryegrass seeds was varied and amounted to 5, 10 and 15 kg ha−1. As a result, the following treatments of meadow sward were obtained and distinguished: semi-natural sward without sowing as the control, and three experimental treatments with approximately 18, 36 and 55% share of perennial ryegrass in the meadow sward. The animals were kept in a cowshed. In the nutritional part, the impact of feeding the obtained sward on the daily weight gain of Highland bulls and heifers was assessed. The obtained results showed higher gains in both bulls and heifers fed with sward from grasslands with a greater proportion of perennial ryegrass. The weight gain of the animals resulted from the nutrition, i.e. the quality of the feed obtained from the experimental objects. During the control fattening period, the bulls’ average daily weight gain ranged from 649 g to 714 g, while for heifers 556 g to 598 g. Statistical significance (P≤0.05) in body weight gains in both bulls and heifers was shown already at 36% of perennial ryegrass in the meadow sward.

Parole chiave

  • meadow sward
  • perennial ryegrass ()
  • nutritional value
  • daily weight gain
  • Highland cattle

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Accesso libero

Carcass and Meat Quality of Lambs from Thin-Tailed and Fat-Tailed Breeds at Five Different Slaughter Weights

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 397 - 418

Astratto

Abstract

In lamb production, deciding the optimal slaughter weight (SW) has great importance on product quality. The aim of the study was to determine the optimum SW for lambs from a thin-tailed breed (Kivircik) and a fat-tailed breed (Kangal Akkaraman) in order to get high-quality meat and carcass. Kivircik (n=60) and Kangal Akkaraman (n=59) lambs were allotted to five SW groups (20, 28, 36, 44 and 52 kg). In Kivircik lambs, backfat thickness and fatness score gradually increased in parallel with the increase in SW, while the increase in the tail fat and kidney knob and channel fat (KKCF) proportions were observed by up to 36 kg. In Kangal Akkaraman lambs, evident increases in fatness parameters, except tail fat proportion, were observed when the SW increased from 44 kg to 52 kg. Meat pH, Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and cooking loss values were not influenced by SW in lambs of both breeds. As SW increased in Kivircik lambs, there was a significant decrease in meat lightness and an increase in yellowness. In Kangal Akkaraman breed, lambs slaughtered at 20 kg and 28 kg had higher L* values, and lower a* and C* values than those of other SW groups. In Kivircik lambs, the total PUFA proportion and the ΣPUFA/ ΣSFA ratio were lower in SW-44 and SW-52 groups than those of SW-20 and SW-28 groups. Decreases of these parameters were in SW-52 group in Kangal Akkaraman lambs. In meat samples of both breeds, SW-52 groups had a lower Σn-3 proportion and a higher Σn-6 / Σn-3 ratio than other SW groups. In Kivircik lambs, the panellists evaluated the meat of SW-20 and SW-28 groups as tender compared to those in SW-44 and SW-52 groups. In Kangal Akkaraman breed, flavour intensity in the meat of SW-52 lambs was higher than those of SW-20 and SW-28 groups. Results of the study indicate that slaughtering of lambs at 20 kg and 28 kg in both breeds provided better meat quality but caused lower carcass weight. Therefore, slaughtering Kivircik and Kangal Akkaraman lambs at 20 kg and 28 kg live weight might be recommended especially to farmers, who aim to obtain high-quality lamb meat. In this case, it should not be ignored that the amount of meat produced will be less. On the other hand, slaughtering lambs at about 44 kg weight could be recommended to farmers, who aimed to obtain as much quality lamb carcasses as possible without any negative influence on meat quality.

Parole chiave

  • slaughter weight
  • tail type
  • meat quality
  • fatty acids
  • carcass quality
Accesso libero

Fatty Acid Profile of Intramuscular Fat in the Longissimus Lumborum and Semimembranosus Muscles of Bulls Fed Diets Based on Virginia Fanpetals, Grass and Maize Silages

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 419 - 437

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Virginia fanpetals (Sida hermaphrodita) silage on the fatty acid profile and the content of selected nutrients and vitamins in the Longissimus lumborum (LL) and Semimembranosus (SM) muscles of young bulls. Forty Polish Holstein-Friesian bulls aged 16 months were assigned to four dietary treatments (n=10) and were fed different types of silage during a 7-month fattening period. The proportion (g/kg dry matter) of silage in the diets was as follows: (1) grass silage (GS) (600); (2) Virginia fanpetals silage (VFS) (600); (3) VFS (300) and GS (300); and (4) VFS (300) and maize silage (MS) (300). Silage was supplemented with concentrate at 400 g/kg DM in each diet. The animals were slaughtered at the end of the fattening period. The intramuscular fat (IMF) of bulls fed GS had the highest (P<0.05) concentrations of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and linolenic acid (LNA), whereas the IMF of bulls receiving GS and VFS was characterized by the highest proportion of MUFAs, mostly oleic acid (C18:1 cis 9). In comparison with the LL muscle, the SM muscle contained less IMF (by 40%) with a more nutritionally desirable profile. The SM muscle was characterized by a more desirable mineral composition and a higher concentration of α-tocopherol.

Parole chiave

  • beef
  • diet composition
  • muscle
  • fatty acid composition
  • α-tocopherol
Accesso libero

The Effect of Raw Milk Quality and Starter Cultures on the Yield and Nutritional Value of Polish Acid Curd Cheese (Tvarog)

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 439 - 458

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the study was to characterize variants of traditional acid curd cheese obtained in Poland in artisanal conditions in terms of their yield and nutritional value. The curd cheeses were made from raw milk obtained in various conditions: with and without the use of pasture forage (i.e. in traditional and intensive systems), in two seasons of production (spring/summer and autumn/winter), from two breeds raised in Poland (Polish Holstein-Friesian and Simmental), and on the basis of two types of starter culture (i.e. freeze-dried and traditional cultures). The basic chemical composition and content of selected fat-soluble vitamins, i.e. A, D3 and E, were determined in samples of bulk milk and cheese. The cheese yield was calculated as the number of litres of milk used to produce 1 kg of curd cheese. The nutritional value of the experimental curd cheeses was determined by calculating the calorific value and the Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ). All analysed factors except for the bacterial cultures significantly affected the chemical composition of the cheese. Curd cheese made from the milk of Simmental cows had higher content of protein and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D3 and E) than cheese from the milk of Holstein-Friesian cows. However, curd cheeses produced in a traditional system and/or in the spring and summer were a richer source of vitamins, mostly vitamin E. The high INQ values obtained indicate that curd cheese is a rich source of protein and vitamin A.

Parole chiave

  • cow milk
  • cheese
  • cheese yield
  • lipophilic vitamins
  • INQ
Accesso libero

The Effect of Storage Duration on Some Quality Traits and Composition of Eggs from Different Housing Systems

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 459 - 475

Astratto

Abstract

The effect of storage time at a temperature of 8°C on the direction and dynamics of changes in quality traits of eggs was investigated in shelled table eggs obtained from different egg production systems (cage system – CS, barn system – BS, free-range system – FRS). After 7, 14 and 28 d of storage, eggs from each housing system were tested for physical characteristics and for cholesterol content and fatty acid profile in the yolk. The weight of eggs from all studied housing systems declined with storage duration. The rate of weight loss was smallest in eggs from CS (P<0.05). Storage duration influenced eggshell traits but the rate and direction of these changes did not differ among the studied housing systems. Albumen height and Haugh unit score for eggs from rearing systems under study declined during storage (P<0.05). The greatest reduction of albumen height (18.85%) after the storage period was observed for CS eggs and the lowest (13.24%) for FRS eggs (P<0.05). No effect of storage duration on yolk colour intensity was observed for eggs from all the studied housing systems (P>0.05). Albumen pH increased with storage duration in eggs from all the egg production systems (P<0.05). The increase in the yolk pH during storage was the highest in FRS eggs and the lowest in the CS eggs. The storage duration of eggs from the different housing systems did not significantly influence albumen foaming capacity but adversely affected foam stability. There was no impact of storage duration of eggs from different housing systems on cholesterol content in the yolk. Eggs obtained from the different housing systems showed diverse fatty acid profiles in the yolk but this parameter did not significantly change during storage (P>0.05).

Parole chiave

  • egg storage duration
  • production system
  • egg quality
Accesso libero

Effect of Breed and Diet on Carcass Parameters and Meat Quality of Spent Hens

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 477 - 500

Astratto

Abstract

Two spent hen breeds (Mos and Isa Brown) fed with three different diets [commercial feeding (CF); corn, pea, and triticale (CPT); and corn and wheat (CW)] were studied to assess their laying performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality parameters (breast and drumstick). A total of 48 hens reared in a traditional free-range system were used. Birds were slaughtered at 72 weeks of age after the moulting in an accredited abattoir, and measurements (for each bird) of carcass and meat started at 24 h post-mortem. The results demonstrated a breed and diet effect (P<0.05) on laying performance, carcass, and meat quality. The Mos breed showed lower laying performance, higher live weight (P<0.001), carcass weight (P<0.001), dressing percentage (P<0.001), and carcass fat (P<0.001) than Isa Brown. The breed also affected physicochemical parameters of drumstick and breast (P<0.05). Concerning the diet effect, spent hens fed with commercial feeding showed heavier live weight (P<0.01) and carcass weight (P<0.01). Diet significantly affected most of meat quality parameters, CPT being the formulation that most affected (P<0.05) drumstick composition, while in the breast was CF (P<0.001). Significant (P≤0.005) effects on breast colour, cooking loss and hardness were observed in animals fed with alternative diets to CF. Regarding nutritional quality, no breed or diet effect (P<0.05) was observed in MUFA s, PUFA s and n-6 contents of meat. Overall, both breeds showed a high protein and low-fat content in the breast, showing these hens as an opportunity for the development of meat products as well as an economic purpose for spent hens that reach the end of their productive lives.

Parole chiave

  • physicochemical composition
  • nutritional value
  • fatty acid profile
  • local breed
  • free range
27 Articoli

Review

Accesso libero

Enhancing in vitro oocyte maturation competence and embryo development in farm animals: roles of vitamin-based antioxidants – A review

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 3 - 19

Astratto

Abstract

Oocyte/embryo in vitro culture is one of the most important assisted reproductive technologies used as a tool for maintaining genetic resources biodiversity and the inheritance of valuable genetic resources through generations. The success of such processes affects the final goal of the in vitro culture, getting viable and healthy offspring. In common in vitro oocyte maturation and/or embryo development techniques, the development of oocytes/embryos is carried out at 5% carbon dioxide and roughly 20% atmosphere-borne oxygen ratios in cell culture incubators due to their reduced cost in comparison with low atmospheric oxygen-tension incubators. These conditions are usually accompanied by the emergence of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can extremely damage cell membrane integrity and other vital cellular organelles, as well as genetic material. The present review mainly focuses on the antioxidant roles of different vitamins on in vitro oocyte maturation competence and embryo development in farm animals. The use of antioxidant agents may prevent the extreme augmentation of ROS generation and enhance in vitro matured oocyte competence and embryo development. Therefore, this review aimed to provide an updated outline of the impact of antioxidant vitamin (Vit) supplementations during in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) on oocyte maturation and consequent embryo development, in various domestic animal species. Thus, the enrichment of the culture media with antioxidant agents may prevent and neutralize the extreme augmentation of ROS generation and enhance the in vitro embryo production (IVEP) outcomes.

Parole chiave

  • antioxidant
  • maturation
  • oocyte competence
  • embryo growth
  • animals
Accesso libero

A Review on the Use of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) in Aquaculture Feeds

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 21 - 42

Astratto

Abstract

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) to replace fishmeal (FM) or other plant protein sources and its effects on an aquatic animal’s growth performance and health system is rarely discussed. In recent times FM use in aquafeed has been a problem for the aquaculture industry because of the depletion of fish resources in the ocean and the high cost of FM. For that reason, researchers are focusing on reducing the cost of aquafeed production by lowering the inclusion of FM in aquafeed. One of the low-cost alternative protein sources to replace FM is DDGS. The present review discusses the compilation of available literature review and other works on the use of DDGS to replace FM in aquafeed and how it improves the growth performance, immune health system, and disease resistance in an aquatic animal. It focuses on the production of DDGS, the nutritional composition of DDGS, the chemical and physical characteristics of DDGS, and the effects of the DDGS inclusion in aquafeed on the aquatic animal. Apart from improving the growth performance of the aquatic animal when included in aquafeed, it also helps improve the immune health system of the animal. It also helps boost the immune system of the aquatic animal to fight diseases and increase disease resistance when included in aquafeed. Furthermore, DDGS also contains some constituents like carotenoids that help improve the meat quality of the animal when included in aquafeed. The current review also discusses the management and use of technology to improve the aquaculture industry, educate farmers on reducing diseases during the culturing periods, and increase productivity and profit in a friendly environment.

Parole chiave

  • aquafeed
  • aquatic animals
  • distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)
  • growth performance
  • immune health system
  • mycotoxins
Accesso libero

Harnessing the Value of Rumen Protected Amino Acids to Enhance Animal Performance – A Review

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 43 - 62

Astratto

Abstract

In general, higher mammals need nine amino acids (AA) in their diets as building blocks to synthesize proteins while ruminants can produce some of them through the synthesis of microbial proteins. Diet is utilized by ruminal microorganisms to synthesize microbial protein (MCP) which is digested in the small intestine (SI). Although protein and amino acid requirements in ruminants are subject to microbial protein synthesis, it is not enough for optimal daily production. Therefore, there is a current trend towards supplementing amino acids in ruminant diets. In the rumen, free amino acids can be degraded by rumen bacteria, therefore, the AAs need to be supplemented in a protected form to be stable in the rumen and absorbable post-ruminal for metabolic purposes. The main site of amino acid absorption is the small intestine (SI), and there is a need to keep AA from ruminal degradation and direct them to absorption sites. Several approaches have been suggested by feed scientists to decrease this problem such as defaunation and debacterization of the rumen against amino acid-fermenting fungi and bacteria, inhibitors or antagonists of vitamin B6 enzymes, diet composition and also protecting AA from rumen degradation. A number of studies have evaluated the roles of amino acids concerning their effects on milk yield, growth, digestibility, feed intake and efficiency of nitrogen utilization of ruminants. The focus of this review was on experimental and research studies about AAs in feedstuff, metabolism, supplementing amino acids for ruminants and the current trends of using rumen protected amino acids.

Parole chiave

  • essential amino acids
  • methionine
  • lysine
  • rumen protected amino acid
  • ruminants
Accesso libero

Technical, Biological and Molecular Aspects of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer – A Review

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 63 - 87

Astratto

Abstract

Since the announcement of the birth of the first cloned mammal in 1997, Dolly the sheep, 24 animal species including laboratory, farm, and wild animals have been cloned. The technique for somatic cloning involves transfer of the donor nucleus of a somatic cell into an enucleated oocyte at the metaphase II (MII) stage for the generation of a new individual, genetically identical to the somatic cell donor. There is increasing interest in animal cloning for different purposes such as rescue of endangered animals, replication of superior farm animals, production of genetically engineered animals, creation of biomedical models, and basic research. However, the efficiency of cloning remains relatively low. High abortion, embryonic, and fetal mortality rates are frequently observed. Moreover, aberrant developmental patterns during or after birth are reported. Researchers attribute these abnormal phenotypes mainly to incomplete nuclear remodeling, resulting in incomplete reprogramming. Nevertheless, multiple factors influence the success of each step of the somatic cloning process. Various strategies have been used to improve the efficiency of nuclear transfer and most of the phenotypically normal born clones can survive, grow, and reproduce. This paper will present some technical, biological, and molecular aspects of somatic cloning, along with remarkable achievements and current improvements.

Parole chiave

  • nuclear transfer
  • animal cloning
  • nuclear reprogramming
  • telomeres
  • donor cells
Accesso libero

Emissions of Gaseous Pollutants from Pig Farms and Methods for their Reduction – A Review

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 89 - 107

Astratto

Abstract

Agriculture contributes significantly to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Livestock production, including pig production, is associated with several gaseous pollutants released into the atmosphere, including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including alcohols, aldehydes, and aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, as well as typically odorous pollutants, are an inseparable element of raising and breeding farm animals. These emissions can degrade local and regional air quality, contribute to surface water eutrophication and acid rain, and increase the greenhouse gas footprint of the production sector. The paper is organized as follows. First, the sources and factors influencing the level of emissions from pig houses are described. Next, the effects of dietary methods (optimization of animal diets), hygienic methods (including microclimate optimization) and technological methods (application of technological solutions) for mitigating emissions from pigs are discussed.

Parole chiave

  • carbon dioxide
  • methane
  • ammonia
  • VOCs
  • pig

Animal genetics and breeding

Accesso libero

Association Between Natriuretic Peptide Receptor 2 (NPR2) RS208158047 Polymorphism and Fattening Performance of Young Bulls

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 109 - 119

Astratto

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine fattening performance data for Charolais, Limousin and Blonde d’Aquitaine beef cattle and associate these data with NPR2 gene 8:g.59961937 T>C (rs208158047) mutation. Experiments were conducted with 176 beef cattle (77 Charolais, 66 Limousin and 33 Blonde d’Aquitaine) at nine months of age. Experiments lasted for 9 months and animals were slaughtered at the age of 18 months. Cattle body weights were determined at four different periods: beginning of fattening (d0), 60th day of fattening (d60), 120th day of fattening (d120) and at the end of fattening (sw). In terms of rs208158047 mutation of Charolais, Limousin and Blonde d’Aquitaine breeds, TT and CT genotypes were identified, and CC genotype was not encountered. The association of average daily gain (ADG) in d0-d60, d0-d120 and d0-sw periods with the genotypes of rs208158047 mutation was found to be significant (P<0.05). Greater ADGs were observed in rs208158047-CT genotypes compared to rs208158047-TT genotypes. These results indicate that the selection of bovine NPR2 gene could be used to ensure the breeding direction for growth related traits of the beef cattle.

Parole chiave

  • bovine
  • SNP
  • live weight gain
  • selection signature
Accesso libero

Association of SNPs in AKIRIN2, TTN, EDG1 and MYBPC1 Genes with Growth and Carcass Traits in Qinchuan Cattle

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 121 - 139

Astratto

Abstract

Growth and carcass traits are the main breeding objectives in beef cattle. The aim of this study was to confirm genetic effects of the c.*188G>A SNP of AKIRIN2, the g.231054C>T SNP of TTN, the g.1471620G>T SNP of EDG1 and the g.70014208A>G SNP of MYBPC1 on growth and carcass traits in Chinese Qinchuan (QC) cattle, as well as to compare the frequencies of the well-characterized alleles of these SNPs among six Chinese cattle populations, three Japanese cattle populations, two European cattle populations and one Korean cattle population. In this study, a total of 665 cattle samples were genotyped using MassARRAY and PCR-RFLP. Association analysis explored effects of four SNPs on growth and carcass traits including body length, wither height, hip height, hip width, rump length, chest depth, chest circumference, back fat thickness, ultrasound longissimus muscle area and ultrasound longissimus muscle depth in QC (P<0.05 to P<0.001). The well-characterized A (c.*188G>A), T (g.231054C>T) and T (g.1471620G>T) alleles in Japanese Black cattle were significantly higher than Chinese cattle breeds; on the contrary, the G allele (g.70014208A>G) was markedly higher in Chinese cattle breeds than other cattle breeds. These results suggest that the four SNPs might be useful as a molecular marker for growth-related traits in Chinese QC cattle.

Parole chiave

  • association
  • candidate genes
  • economic traits
  • SNPs
  • Qinchuan cattle

The biology, physiology, reproduction, and health

Accesso libero

Effects of Sex Steroid Receptor Agonists and Antagonists on the Expression of the FOXL2 Transcription Factor and its Target Genes AMH and CYP19A1 in the Neonatal Porcine Ovary

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 141 - 153

Astratto

Abstract

Recently, we have demonstrated that neonatal exposure to androgen and estrogen agonists or antagonists influenced the number of ovarian follicles in piglets. Since the FOXL2 transcription factor is required for proper ovarian follicle formation and activation, the objective of the study was to examine effects of exposure of the neonatal porcine ovary to testosterone propionate (TP; an androgen), flutamide (FLU; an antiandrogen), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP; compound with estrogenic activity), ICI 182,780 (ICI; an antiestrogen), and methoxychlor (MXC; compound with estrogenic, antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic properties) on FOXL2 expression and expression of its target genes, AMH and CYP19A1. Piglets were injected subcutaneously with TP, FLU, OP, ICI, MXC, or corn oil (control) between postnatal days 1 and 10 (n = 4/each group). Ovaries were excised from the 11-day-old piglets and the expression of FOXL2, AMH and CYP19A1 was examined using immunohistochemistry and/or real-time PCR and Western blot. FOXL2 was localized in stroma cells surrounding egg nests and in granulosa cells. TP, OP and MXC increased both FOXL2 and AMH mRNAs, while FLU and ICI decreased CYP19A1 mRNA. The increased FOXL2 protein abundance was found in all examined groups. In addition, TP, OP, ICI and MXC increased AMH protein abundance, while TP, FLU and OP decreased CYP19A1 protein abundance. In conclusion, neonatal exposure to sex steroid receptor agonists and antagonists increased FOXL2 expression at mRNA and/or protein levels and affected FOXL2 target genes in the ovaries of 11-day-old piglets. Therefore, it seems that impaired ovarian folliculogenesis induced by altered steroid milieu during the neonatal development period in pigs may, at least in part, involve FOXL2.

Parole chiave

  • pig
  • ovary
  • endocrine-active chemicals
  • FOXL2
Accesso libero

The Effect of Hesperidin, Chrysin, and Naringenin on Somatic Cell Count in Mastitis Dairy Cows After Multiple Intramammary Administration

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 155 - 172

Astratto

Abstract

Hesperidin (HE), chrysin (CH) and naringenin (NA) are flavonoids, being the most important group of polyphenols, and show anti-inflammatory properties which have been demonstrated on various models. Polyphenols have a lot of biological properties, such as antioxidative, antiviral, immunomodulatory and anticancer activities. However, the effect on mastitis has not been yet described. This research aimed to analyse the tolerability of selected polyphenols after multiple intramammary administrations (IMM) as well as to investigate their potential impact on somatic cell count (SCC) in mastitis dairy cows. The study was performed on 12 Polish Holstein Blackand- White cows in their 4th to 6th lactation. Only animals with inflammation in one-quarter of the udder were selected. The selection was based on SCC and clinical assessment. The experiment was performed with multiple intramammary administrations with each of these polyphenols in dairy cows affected with mastitis. Polyphenols were administered at a dose of 30 mg/quarter/day. Milk samples for SCC, blood plasma samples for pharmacokinetics and blood haematology and biochemistry (selected blood parameters were tested) were collected at baseline, treatment period and within the recovery period. Positive effects concerning the SCC in milk of mastitic cows were confirmed for all tested polyphenols.

Parole chiave

  • dairy cows
  • inflammation
  • immunomodulator
  • mastitis
  • flavonoids

Animal nutrition, and feedstuffs

Accesso libero

The Effect of Silybum Marianum Seed, Thymus Vulgaris, and Rosmarinus Officinalis Powders in Alleviating the Risks of Aflatoxin B1 in Young Broiler Chicks

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 173 - 187

Astratto

Abstract

This investigation was aimed to evaluate the effects of Silybum marianum seed, Thymus vulgaris, and Rosmarinus officinalis powders and their combination in alleviating the risks of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in young broiler chicks. One-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chickens were allocated to 6 experimental groups from d 1 to 21. The experimental dietary groups included: Negative control (NC) received the basal diet, Positive control (PC) containing 2 mg AFB1/kg diet; Positive control + 10 g/kg diet of Silybum marianum seed (SMS); Positive control + 10 g/kg diet of Thymus vulgaris (TV); Positive control + 5 g/kg diet of Rosmarinus officinalis (RO); Positive control + 10 g/kg diet of SMS + 10 g/kg diet of TV + 5 g/kg diet of RO as a blend of herbs (BH). There was no difference between feed intake and body weight gain among the experimental groups (P>0.05). In contrast, the feed conversion rate (FCR) in NC and SMS groups was lower than in other groups (P<0.05). Calcium levels and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) were lower in serum samples, but the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were higher in PC chickens (P<0.05). Increase in the thigh muscle malondialdehyde (MDA) in chickens fed AFB1 was significantly reduced in the NC, SMS, and BH chickens (P<0.05). Chickens of NC and SMS groups showed the highest response to respiratory burst of heterophil (NBT assay) and lymphocyte proliferation assays (MTT assay) (P<0.05). In conclusion, the addition of studied herbs, especially SMS, to the AFB1 contaminated diet could have a protective effect against aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens.

Parole chiave

  • antioxidant
  • broiler immune system
  • herbal medicine
  • mycotoxin
  • performance
Accesso libero

The Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Encapsulated Thyme Essential Oil on Growth, Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines, and Serum Amino Acid Profiles of Broiler Chicks Challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 189 - 200

Astratto

Abstract

Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) causes inflammation and has adverse effects on the growth of broiler chicks. Meanwhile, plant derivations improve the growth performance and decrease inflammation, but they do not have enough stability. Encapsulation of essential oils is a new strategy for decreasing their instability. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of encapsulated thyme essential oil (ETEO) on growth, inflammatory cytokines, and amino acid profiles of broiler chicks challenged with S. Typhimurium. Three hundred one-d-old broiler chicks were assigned into 6 groups, and 5 replications per group. The broiler chicks (3 groups) were challenged with S. Typhimurium on day 21 and birds received basal diet (positive control), encapsulated thyme (P-ETEO), and non-capsulated thyme (P-NETEO), while other groups received the same diets, but under normal as a negative control, encapsulated thyme (N-ETEO) and non-capsulated thyme (N-NETEO). Growth performance, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and serum amino acid profiles were assessed on day 42. The challenged birds in positive control showed lower growth performance, higher concentration for inflammatory cytokines, and disturbed blood serum concentrations for amino acid profiles compared to the negative control (P<0.05). The result showed that dietary supplementation of the ETEO could improve growth performance and amino acid profiles, and also decrease inflammatory responses (P<0.05). In sum, S. Typhimurium had negative effects on growth, immunity, and inflammation, but dietary inclusion of the ETEO could decrease its negative effects.

Parole chiave

  • broiler chicks
  • encapsulation
  • pro-inflammatory cytokines
  • infection
  • serum amino acids
Accesso libero

Effect pf Fermented Rapeseed Meal as a Feed Component on the Redox and Immune System of Pregnant Sows and their Offspring

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 201 - 219

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the study was to assess the effect of dried fermented rapeseed meal (FRSM) in diets for sows on blood redox and immunological parameters, taking into account the physiological period (pregnancy or lactation) and age (primiparous vs multiparous sows). The experiment also aimed to determine how FRSM administered to pregnant sows, affects the antioxidant and immune systems of piglets. The animals were divided into 4 groups of 15 animals each. Control groups of primiparous (CG) and multiparous sows (CS) received a standard diet for pregnant or lactating sows. Experimental groups of primiparous (EG) and multiparous sows (ES) received feed with a 4% share of FRSM in place of soybean meal up to day 100 of gestation, 9% share of FRSM from day 100 of gestation to day 7 of lactation, and then again 4% share of FRSM until the end of lactation. In the blood plasma of pregnant sows fed diet with FRSM addition, higher FRAP value and vitamin C, uric acid (UA), immunoglobulin IgG content, lymphocytes (LYM) count and a lower content of malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid hydroperoxides (LOH), immunoglobulin IgM was noted than in the blood plasma of control sows. Both primiparous and multiparous lactation sows whose feed included FRSM had higher catalase (CAT) activity, higher FRAP, vitamin C, immunoglobulin IgG and IL-6 content, and lower UA content than the control sows. Piglets born to sows fed diet with FRSM addition had significantly higher FRAP values, vitamin C, IgG, and IL-6 content and white blood cells (WBC) count and lower MDA and UA content in the blood plasma than piglets born to sows from control group. Multiparous sows compared to primiparous sows had higher CAT activity, and higher vitamin C, LOH, creatinine (CREAT), and IgM content. Elevated FRAP, and CREAT levels and reduced MDA content were also observed in the plasma of the multiparous sows compared to primiparous sows during lactation. Multiparous lactation sows compared to primiparous sows had lower WBC count, and IgG and IgM content. Piglets born to multiparous sows had higher FRAP values, LOH content and IgA content while lower MDA content compared to piglets born to primiparous sows. The inclusion of dried fermented rapeseed meal in feed for sows significantly stimulates antioxidant processes in primiparous and multiparous sows and in their piglets. The inclusion of dried fermented rapeseed meal in the diet of sows stimulates antioxidant processes in primiparous and multiparous sows and in their piglets. This is responsible for stimulation of the immune system (increased LYM counts and IgG titres in the blood plasma). The improved antioxidant status in the plasma suggests that dried fermented rapeseed meal stimulated the immune system of pregnant and lactating sows and their newborn offspring.

Parole chiave

  • fermented rapeseed meal
  • sows
  • piglets
  • antioxidant
  • immune system
Accesso libero

Effect of Diet Supplementation with Enterococcus Durans ED26E/7 and its Durancin ED26E/7 on Growth Performance, Caecal Enzymatic Activity, Jejunal Morphology and Meat Properties of Broiler Rabbits

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 221 - 235

Astratto

Abstract

The present study investigates the effects of Enterococcus durans ED26E/7 beneficial strain and its enterocin – durancin (Ent) ED26E/7 on selected parameters in rabbits: growth performance, caecal enzymatic activity, jejunal morphometry and meat physico-chemical characteristics. Seventytwo rabbits (aged five weeks, M91 meat line, both sexes) were divided into experimental groups E1 (E. durans ED26E/7 strain; dose 500 μL/animal/day, concentration 109 CFU/mL) and E2 (durancin EntED26E/7; dose 50 μL/animal/day, with activity 12 800 AU/mL) and control group (C). The additives were administered in drinking water for a period of 21 days. All animals remained in good health during the experiment. The highest body weight gain (increase by 1.5% compared to C) was noted in E1 group during ED26E/7 strain application (P<0.001). Both bioactive compounds positively influenced (reduced) the feed conversion ratio (P<0.001). The ED26E/7 strain and its EntED26E/7 application stimulated the activity of most enzymes tested in the caecum; only the amylolytic and inulolytic activity in E2 group decreased during durancin ED26E/7 addition. Both additives, but mainly the ED26E/7 strain, showed a tendency to improve the jejunal morhological parameters till the end of the experiment (day 42). The meat physico-chemical parameters were not negatively influenced by the application of E. durans ED26E/7 strain and its durancin ED26E/7. The diet supplementation with bacteriocinogenic and probiotic E. durans ED26E/7 strain and its EntED26E/7 may improve the growth performance, caecal enzymatic activity and jejunal morphometry of rabbits, without any negative effect on rabbit meat quality.

Parole chiave

  • durancin
  • rabbit
  • morphometry
  • meat quality
Accesso libero

Effect of Replacing Maize Grain by Hybrid Rye Grain in the TMR on Performance of Mid-Lactating Dairy Cows

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 237 - 254

Astratto

Abstract

Grain from traditional varieties of rye is not commonly used in dairy cattle nutrition. However, new hybrid varieties of rye currently available are characterized by some nutritional and agrotechnical benefits. This paper deals with the hypothesis that rye grain derived from a hybrid variety may be an alternative for maize grain in diets for dairy cattle. Sixteen lactating Polish Holstein- Friesian cows were divided into two groups according to their parity (8 primi- and 8 multiparous), stage of lactation (106 ± 30 days after calving) and milk yield (34 ± 4 kg/day). Cows were fed a total mixed ration (TMR) containing grass silage and whole crop maize silage and 29.2% of the concentrate (in dry matter). The latter contained approximately 48% (as fed) of either maize grain (M) or hybrid rye grain (HR) as a main source of cereal grain. Experimental diets were fed for 9 weeks. The use of HR as a substitute for M did not affect (P>0.05) dry matter intake and milk yield. There were no differences between treatments in the content of milk solids, amino acids, and fatty acid profile. However, substituting M by HR positively influenced composition of milk protein fractions by increasing the proportion of α-casein (37.0 vs 39.7%; P<0.01) and к-casein (6.5 vs 7.3%; P=0.02) as well as decreasing the proportion of β-casein (28.8 vs 27.8%; P=0.02) and sensory characteristics of the milk (body and texture, and taste; P<0.05). In turn, the composition of the diet did not affect the technological suitability for processing of milk fat (acid and peroxide number, melting and solidification temperature), rennet coagulation time, heat stability or titratable acidity. This study has shown that hybrid rye grain may be an alternative for maize grain in a TMR based on grass and whole maize silage for mid-lactation dairy cows. Further studies are needed with higher proportion of hybrid rye grain in TMR or with other roughages used in a basal diet to fully determine efficiency of hybrid rye grain use in diets for dairy cows.

Parole chiave

  • hybrid rye grain
  • dairy cows
  • feed intake
  • milk yield and composition
Accesso libero

Fennel and Ginger Improved Nutrient Digestibility and Milk Yield and Quality in Early Lactating Egyptian Buffaloes

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 255 - 270

Astratto

Abstract

The supplementation with herbal and medicinal plants to animals showed positive effects on feed digestion, performance and animal’s health. Fifteen multiparous Egyptian buffaloes (537 ± 18.1 kg body weight), 7 days after parturition, were randomly assigned to 3 treatments in a quintupled 3 × 3 Latin square design in a 63-day experiment. Each experimental period lasted 21 days (15 days of adaptation + 7 days for measurements and samples collection). Buffaloes were assigned according to their previous milk production, weight and parity to study the effect of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) or ginger (Zingiber officinale) supplementation on feed utilization and lactational performance. Buffaloes were fed a basal diet of concentrates, berseem clover and rice straw in a ratio of 60:30:10 dry matter (DM) basis. The first group was fed the basal diet with no additive as the control treatment, while other buffaloes were fed on the basal diet supplemented with 75 g fennel or ginger/buffalo daily. Additives supplementation did not affect feed intake; however, fennel followed by ginger improved (P<0.05) dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber digestibilities compared to the control. Without affecting blood chemistry, fennel and ginger supplementation improved (P<0.05) production of milk and energy corrected milk, fat concentration and milk energy content and output. Fennel followed by ginger decreased the somatic cell count (P=0.035) compared with the control. Fennel and ginger improved feed efficiency (P<0.05) compared with the control. Fennel increased the proportion of milk trans-10, cis-12 C18:2 (P=0.028), total conjugated linoleic acid without affecting other fatty acids. It is concluded that fennel or ginger at 75 g/buffalo/d improved nutrient digestibility and milk production of lactating buffaloes. Fennel improved milk nutritive value more than ginger.

Parole chiave

  • feed utilization
  • fennel
  • ginger
  • ionophores
  • milk fatty acids
  • milk production
Accesso libero

Inhibition of in Vitro Rumen Methane Production by Three Statins

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 271 - 282

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing concentrations of three pure statins on in vitro methane production and rumen fermentation. The effects of atorvastatin, rosuvastatin and simvastatin at three concentrations (1, 10, and 100 mg/L of culture fluid) were evaluated using in vitro 24 h batch incubation of buffered rumen fluid with a 70:30 forage:concentrate substrate. All statins tested demonstrated the ability to reduce methanogenesis. Methane inhibition potential was decreasing in the following order: simvastatin>atorvastatin>rosuvastatin. Methane production was reduced (P<0.05) by simvastatin at 10 mg/L (by 9.3%) and by atorvastatin at 100 mg/L (by 13.2%) without compromising fermentation and feed digestibility. Simvastatin at 100 mg/L decreased methane production by 26.2%, however, net production of volatile fatty acids (nVFA) was also reduced (P<0.05). The only effect of rosuvastatin was a slight reduction (P<0.05) of methane proportion at 10 and 100 mg/L. Simvastatin and atorvastatin at 100 mg/L increased (P<0.05) relative proportion of propionate at the expense of acetate and butyrate. Ammonia-N concentrations were not affected (P>0.05) by statins. The current study demonstrated that selected statins could selectively decrease methane production. The effects of statins on methanogenesis and overall rumen fermentation vary depending on statin type and concentration. Hydrophobic statins, such as simvastatin and atorvastatin, seem to be more effective compared to the hydrophilic statins, such as rosuvastatin.

Parole chiave

  • rumen fermentation
  • methane
  • digestibility
  • statin
Accesso libero

Influence of Replacement Levels of Orange Waste Silage on Intake, Nutrient Digestion, Ruminal Fermentation and Milk Yield in Barki Goats

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 283 - 303

Astratto

Abstract

Exploring new alternative sources of feedstuffs can contribute to animal production sustainability in some Mediterranean regions in order to overcome the rising food demand. The influence of dietary replacement of wheat straw (WS) with orange waste silage (OWS) on nutrient intakes, apparent digestibility, ruminal fermentation and blood biochemical constituents and milk production of dairy goats were evaluated. Forty pregnant goats (46.30±1.6 kg BW) were housed in individual pens in a completely randomized design and fed (ad libitum) a TMR for 75 days period. Goats were assigned to four experimental diets with the forage amounts consisting of either WS as a control diet (1000 g WS/kg DM in the TMR), a 50:50 mixture of both WS and OWS (500 g WS and 500 g OWS/kg DM in the TMR), an orange waste silage (1000 g OWS/kg DM in the TMR) or corn silage as a positive control (1000 g CS/kg DM in the TMR). The DMI increased linearly (P<0.01), while fiber fractions intake decreased linearly (P<0.01) with increasing of OWS in the diet. Ruminal pH was increased quadratically (P<0.01), whereas NH3-N concentration and total protozoa abundance decreased quadratically (P<0.01) with increasing OWS in the diet. Ruminal acetate content was increased linearly (P = 0.012) by diet; whereas linear effects were observed on propionate and butyrate proportions (P<0.01) as OWS amount increased. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), non-esterified free fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) levels decreased linearly (P<0.01) with ascending amounts of OWS. Serum glucose, BUN, NEFA and BHBA levels were lower (P<0.01) for goats fed the OWS diet than those fed the CS diet. Milk yield and milk nitrogen efficiency were linearly increased (P<0.01), whereas quadratic effects (P = 0.049) were observed on milk urea nitrogen content with increasing dietary OWS. In conclusion, the replacement of WS with OWS enhanced rumen fermentation and milk yield of late pregnant and early lactation Barki goats.

Parole chiave

  • orange waste silage
  • ruminal constituents
  • digestibility
  • Barki goat
  • milk production
Accesso libero

The First Insights on Trans-Galactooligosaccharide Effects on Fatty Acids Profile and Microstructure of Muscle in Common Carp

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 305 - 324

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the effects of prebiotic GOS on muscle histomorphometry and the total lipid, total cholesterol content and fatty acids profile in the meat of common carp. The 60-day-long experiment was performed on one-year-old fish. Three diets were used in the experiment: control diet 1 (C) with no microbiota affecting feed additives, diet 2 (B1) with 1% of GOS, and diet 3 (B2) with 2% of GOS. At the end of the trial, 16 individuals from each treatment group were used for the analyses. Fish meat from the B1 group had significantly higher lipid content compared to B2, but neither B1 nor B2 groups were different from the control group. The percentages of SFA, MUFA, PUFA, indexes n-3/n-6, PUFA /SFA, AI and TI, and total cholesterol content were not affected, in contrast to C14:0, C16:1 n-7, C18:0, C18:2 n-6, C20:4 n-6, and total n-6 FA. GOS significantly increased the percentage of normal fibres, while the lower amount of fibre atrophy and splitting was observed. The results confirm that diet supplemented with 2% GOS may be recommended as feed additive in carp nutrition due to positive effects on some fatty acids profiles and muscle microstructure.

Parole chiave

  • cholesterol
  • fatty acids
  • meat quality
  • prebiotics
  • fish
Accesso libero

Protective Effects of Non-Encapsulated and Microencapsulated Lactobacillus Delbrueckii Subsp. Bulgaricus in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) Exposed to Lead (Pb) Via Diet

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 325 - 348

Astratto

Abstract

The present study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary non-encapsulated and microencapsulated Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus on growth performance, intestinal enzymatic activities, antioxidant capacity and hepato-biochemical parameters of rainbow trout before or after exposure to lead via diet. Fingerling fish (16 ± 4 g) were divided into four groups: negative control (NC), positive control (PC), probiotic (PR) and encapsulated probiotic (EN-PR). During the pre-exposure period (days 0–45), fish in the NC and PC groups received the basal diet, whereas fish in the PR and EN-PR groups were fed with basal diet containing 108 CFU g−1 feed of non-encapsulated and microencapsulated probiotic, respectively. During the exposure period (days 46–66), the fish in the probiotic and PC groups were co-treated with 500 μg g−1 feed of lead nitrate. Blood, liver and gut samples were taken at days 0, 45, 52, 59 and 66. The results revealed that growth performance and intestinal enzymatic activities were significantly (P<0.05) improved in the probiotic groups compared to the NC group (day 45). Dietary exposure to lead resulted in the highest levels of liver aspartate aminotransferase (AST), liver alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum malondialdehyde (MDA), and the lowest activities of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the PC group (day 66). The levels of liver ALP were significantly (P<0.05) lower in the probiotic groups compared to the NC and PC groups prior to and after exposure to dietary lead. Serum levels of total protein, albumin, SOD, CAT and glutathione (GSH) were significantly increased in fish fed with both non-encapsulated and microencapsulated probiotics (P<0.05). However, microencapsulated probiotic showed the greatest potential for alleviation of the disturbed activities of intestinal and hepatic enzymes, and improvement of serum biochemical and antioxidant parameters. Our findings suggest that L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, particularly in the microencapsulated form, can be used as a potential probiotic to protect rainbow trout from dietborne lead toxicity.

Parole chiave

  • subsp.
  • growth
  • lead
  • antioxidant
  • serum
  • rainbow trout
Accesso libero

Effects of Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Leaf Extracts on Growth, Immune Response, and Antioxidant Functions in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 349 - 369

Astratto

Abstract

This study evaluates how white mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaf extracts affect the growth, antioxidant activity, and immune response in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Mulberry leaf extracts were obtained through aqueous extraction (AE) and ethanol extraction (EE). Powder of mulberry leaf (PML) was added directly to feed and compared with the effects of feeds supplemented with the different extracts. Fish were divided into eight groups for an 8-week feeding trial where they were fed the basal diet or supplemented with 10% PML, 10% AE, 20% AE, 40% AE, 10% EE, 20% EE, or 40% EE. The inclusion of mulberry leaf extract obtained with either method showed better effects on fish growth performance, antioxidant activities and acid phosphatase activity (ACP) in serum, immune cytokine expression, and intestinal morphology as compared with controls or fish fed the 10% PML diet. The specific growth rate was significantly higher in the 10% AE, 10% EE, and 20% EE groups compared with all other groups (P<0.05). Catalase activity was significantly greater in most groups fed an extract, and in the 10% PML group, when compared with controls. Similarly, ACP, interleukin (IL)-1, and IL-2 expression was significantly increased in groups fed an extract, and in the 10% PML group, when compared with controls (P<0.05). IL- 1, IL-2, IL-10, and Toll-like receptor 2 expression was significantly greater in the 10% EE group than in the 10% PML and 10% AE groups (P<0.05). Villus length in the middle intestine was significantly increased in the 10% AE and 10% EE groups compared with controls and the 10% PML group (P<0.05). Thus, 10% mulberry leaf ethanol extract added to feed is recommended for enhancing the growth rate and health of cultured Nile tilapia.

Parole chiave

  • mulberry leaf
  • Nile tilapia
  • growth
  • immune response
  • antioxidants
Accesso libero

The First Insight Into Full-Fat Superworm (Zophobas morio) Meal in Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) Diets: A Study on Multiple-Choice Feeding Preferences and Growth Performance

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 371 - 384

Astratto

Abstract

Insect meals are sustainable alternative protein sources in animal nutrition. However, the data on their application in petfood and ornamental fish nutrition are scarce. Thus the present study was undertaken to assess their usability in guppy (Poecilia reticulata) diets. The first experiment aimed to investigate the attractiveness of select insect meals for guppies, and the second evaluated superworm (Zophobas morio) meal monodiet effects. The first experiment (free-choice feeding test) lasted five days. Fish were given a choice between four attractants: fish meal, black soldier fly (Hermetia illuces) meal (HI), Madagascar cockroach (Gromphadorhina portentosa) meal (MC), and superworm (Zophobas morio) meal (ZM). The preliminary part of the study showed that the most frequently chosen attractant throughout the entire free-choice feeding test period was ZM. Based on the obtained results, the second part of the study was designed as a growth test with the use of a ZM monodiet compared to commercial feed. The experiment lasted 90 days, and 150 guppy fry were used. The fish were randomly divided into two groups (CON – commercial feed, ZM – Zophobas morio meal). No effects of dietary treatment were found in terms of survival rate, fish body length, or fish body length gain. The present study shows that ZM was the most preferred attractant and that a monodiet based on insect meal can be successfully applied in guppy fry nutrition.

Parole chiave

  • guppy ()
  • insect meal
  • feed preferences
  • monodiet
  • free-choice feeding

Behavior, well-being, production technology, and environment

Accesso libero

Weight Gain of Highland Cattle Depending on the Share of Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium Perenne L.) in the Meadow Sward

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 385 - 395

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the influence of the different proportion of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in the meadow sward on its fodder value and daily weight gain of Highland cattle. The research was carried out on meadow sward with natural undergrowth that was cultivated by sowing perennial ryegrass. When preparing the sward for sowing, around 40% of it was damaged with a rotary tiller. The sowing rate for perennial ryegrass seeds was varied and amounted to 5, 10 and 15 kg ha−1. As a result, the following treatments of meadow sward were obtained and distinguished: semi-natural sward without sowing as the control, and three experimental treatments with approximately 18, 36 and 55% share of perennial ryegrass in the meadow sward. The animals were kept in a cowshed. In the nutritional part, the impact of feeding the obtained sward on the daily weight gain of Highland bulls and heifers was assessed. The obtained results showed higher gains in both bulls and heifers fed with sward from grasslands with a greater proportion of perennial ryegrass. The weight gain of the animals resulted from the nutrition, i.e. the quality of the feed obtained from the experimental objects. During the control fattening period, the bulls’ average daily weight gain ranged from 649 g to 714 g, while for heifers 556 g to 598 g. Statistical significance (P≤0.05) in body weight gains in both bulls and heifers was shown already at 36% of perennial ryegrass in the meadow sward.

Parole chiave

  • meadow sward
  • perennial ryegrass ()
  • nutritional value
  • daily weight gain
  • Highland cattle

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Accesso libero

Carcass and Meat Quality of Lambs from Thin-Tailed and Fat-Tailed Breeds at Five Different Slaughter Weights

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 397 - 418

Astratto

Abstract

In lamb production, deciding the optimal slaughter weight (SW) has great importance on product quality. The aim of the study was to determine the optimum SW for lambs from a thin-tailed breed (Kivircik) and a fat-tailed breed (Kangal Akkaraman) in order to get high-quality meat and carcass. Kivircik (n=60) and Kangal Akkaraman (n=59) lambs were allotted to five SW groups (20, 28, 36, 44 and 52 kg). In Kivircik lambs, backfat thickness and fatness score gradually increased in parallel with the increase in SW, while the increase in the tail fat and kidney knob and channel fat (KKCF) proportions were observed by up to 36 kg. In Kangal Akkaraman lambs, evident increases in fatness parameters, except tail fat proportion, were observed when the SW increased from 44 kg to 52 kg. Meat pH, Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and cooking loss values were not influenced by SW in lambs of both breeds. As SW increased in Kivircik lambs, there was a significant decrease in meat lightness and an increase in yellowness. In Kangal Akkaraman breed, lambs slaughtered at 20 kg and 28 kg had higher L* values, and lower a* and C* values than those of other SW groups. In Kivircik lambs, the total PUFA proportion and the ΣPUFA/ ΣSFA ratio were lower in SW-44 and SW-52 groups than those of SW-20 and SW-28 groups. Decreases of these parameters were in SW-52 group in Kangal Akkaraman lambs. In meat samples of both breeds, SW-52 groups had a lower Σn-3 proportion and a higher Σn-6 / Σn-3 ratio than other SW groups. In Kivircik lambs, the panellists evaluated the meat of SW-20 and SW-28 groups as tender compared to those in SW-44 and SW-52 groups. In Kangal Akkaraman breed, flavour intensity in the meat of SW-52 lambs was higher than those of SW-20 and SW-28 groups. Results of the study indicate that slaughtering of lambs at 20 kg and 28 kg in both breeds provided better meat quality but caused lower carcass weight. Therefore, slaughtering Kivircik and Kangal Akkaraman lambs at 20 kg and 28 kg live weight might be recommended especially to farmers, who aim to obtain high-quality lamb meat. In this case, it should not be ignored that the amount of meat produced will be less. On the other hand, slaughtering lambs at about 44 kg weight could be recommended to farmers, who aimed to obtain as much quality lamb carcasses as possible without any negative influence on meat quality.

Parole chiave

  • slaughter weight
  • tail type
  • meat quality
  • fatty acids
  • carcass quality
Accesso libero

Fatty Acid Profile of Intramuscular Fat in the Longissimus Lumborum and Semimembranosus Muscles of Bulls Fed Diets Based on Virginia Fanpetals, Grass and Maize Silages

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 419 - 437

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Virginia fanpetals (Sida hermaphrodita) silage on the fatty acid profile and the content of selected nutrients and vitamins in the Longissimus lumborum (LL) and Semimembranosus (SM) muscles of young bulls. Forty Polish Holstein-Friesian bulls aged 16 months were assigned to four dietary treatments (n=10) and were fed different types of silage during a 7-month fattening period. The proportion (g/kg dry matter) of silage in the diets was as follows: (1) grass silage (GS) (600); (2) Virginia fanpetals silage (VFS) (600); (3) VFS (300) and GS (300); and (4) VFS (300) and maize silage (MS) (300). Silage was supplemented with concentrate at 400 g/kg DM in each diet. The animals were slaughtered at the end of the fattening period. The intramuscular fat (IMF) of bulls fed GS had the highest (P<0.05) concentrations of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and linolenic acid (LNA), whereas the IMF of bulls receiving GS and VFS was characterized by the highest proportion of MUFAs, mostly oleic acid (C18:1 cis 9). In comparison with the LL muscle, the SM muscle contained less IMF (by 40%) with a more nutritionally desirable profile. The SM muscle was characterized by a more desirable mineral composition and a higher concentration of α-tocopherol.

Parole chiave

  • beef
  • diet composition
  • muscle
  • fatty acid composition
  • α-tocopherol
Accesso libero

The Effect of Raw Milk Quality and Starter Cultures on the Yield and Nutritional Value of Polish Acid Curd Cheese (Tvarog)

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 439 - 458

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the study was to characterize variants of traditional acid curd cheese obtained in Poland in artisanal conditions in terms of their yield and nutritional value. The curd cheeses were made from raw milk obtained in various conditions: with and without the use of pasture forage (i.e. in traditional and intensive systems), in two seasons of production (spring/summer and autumn/winter), from two breeds raised in Poland (Polish Holstein-Friesian and Simmental), and on the basis of two types of starter culture (i.e. freeze-dried and traditional cultures). The basic chemical composition and content of selected fat-soluble vitamins, i.e. A, D3 and E, were determined in samples of bulk milk and cheese. The cheese yield was calculated as the number of litres of milk used to produce 1 kg of curd cheese. The nutritional value of the experimental curd cheeses was determined by calculating the calorific value and the Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ). All analysed factors except for the bacterial cultures significantly affected the chemical composition of the cheese. Curd cheese made from the milk of Simmental cows had higher content of protein and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D3 and E) than cheese from the milk of Holstein-Friesian cows. However, curd cheeses produced in a traditional system and/or in the spring and summer were a richer source of vitamins, mostly vitamin E. The high INQ values obtained indicate that curd cheese is a rich source of protein and vitamin A.

Parole chiave

  • cow milk
  • cheese
  • cheese yield
  • lipophilic vitamins
  • INQ
Accesso libero

The Effect of Storage Duration on Some Quality Traits and Composition of Eggs from Different Housing Systems

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 459 - 475

Astratto

Abstract

The effect of storage time at a temperature of 8°C on the direction and dynamics of changes in quality traits of eggs was investigated in shelled table eggs obtained from different egg production systems (cage system – CS, barn system – BS, free-range system – FRS). After 7, 14 and 28 d of storage, eggs from each housing system were tested for physical characteristics and for cholesterol content and fatty acid profile in the yolk. The weight of eggs from all studied housing systems declined with storage duration. The rate of weight loss was smallest in eggs from CS (P<0.05). Storage duration influenced eggshell traits but the rate and direction of these changes did not differ among the studied housing systems. Albumen height and Haugh unit score for eggs from rearing systems under study declined during storage (P<0.05). The greatest reduction of albumen height (18.85%) after the storage period was observed for CS eggs and the lowest (13.24%) for FRS eggs (P<0.05). No effect of storage duration on yolk colour intensity was observed for eggs from all the studied housing systems (P>0.05). Albumen pH increased with storage duration in eggs from all the egg production systems (P<0.05). The increase in the yolk pH during storage was the highest in FRS eggs and the lowest in the CS eggs. The storage duration of eggs from the different housing systems did not significantly influence albumen foaming capacity but adversely affected foam stability. There was no impact of storage duration of eggs from different housing systems on cholesterol content in the yolk. Eggs obtained from the different housing systems showed diverse fatty acid profiles in the yolk but this parameter did not significantly change during storage (P>0.05).

Parole chiave

  • egg storage duration
  • production system
  • egg quality
Accesso libero

Effect of Breed and Diet on Carcass Parameters and Meat Quality of Spent Hens

Pubblicato online: 04 Feb 2022
Pagine: 477 - 500

Astratto

Abstract

Two spent hen breeds (Mos and Isa Brown) fed with three different diets [commercial feeding (CF); corn, pea, and triticale (CPT); and corn and wheat (CW)] were studied to assess their laying performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality parameters (breast and drumstick). A total of 48 hens reared in a traditional free-range system were used. Birds were slaughtered at 72 weeks of age after the moulting in an accredited abattoir, and measurements (for each bird) of carcass and meat started at 24 h post-mortem. The results demonstrated a breed and diet effect (P<0.05) on laying performance, carcass, and meat quality. The Mos breed showed lower laying performance, higher live weight (P<0.001), carcass weight (P<0.001), dressing percentage (P<0.001), and carcass fat (P<0.001) than Isa Brown. The breed also affected physicochemical parameters of drumstick and breast (P<0.05). Concerning the diet effect, spent hens fed with commercial feeding showed heavier live weight (P<0.01) and carcass weight (P<0.01). Diet significantly affected most of meat quality parameters, CPT being the formulation that most affected (P<0.05) drumstick composition, while in the breast was CF (P<0.001). Significant (P≤0.005) effects on breast colour, cooking loss and hardness were observed in animals fed with alternative diets to CF. Regarding nutritional quality, no breed or diet effect (P<0.05) was observed in MUFA s, PUFA s and n-6 contents of meat. Overall, both breeds showed a high protein and low-fat content in the breast, showing these hens as an opportunity for the development of meat products as well as an economic purpose for spent hens that reach the end of their productive lives.

Parole chiave

  • physicochemical composition
  • nutritional value
  • fatty acid profile
  • local breed
  • free range

Pianifica la tua conferenza remota con Sciendo