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Edizione Editors: Magdalena Bielska, Jerzy Pilawski, Katarzyna Skupniewicz

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Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2300-8733
Pubblicato per la prima volta
25 Nov 2011
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 17 (2017): Edizione 4 (October 2017)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2300-8733
Pubblicato per la prima volta
25 Nov 2011
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

21 Articoli

Review

Accesso libero

Efficacy of Phytogenic Feed Additive on Performance, Production and Health Status of Monogastric Animals – A Review

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 929 - 948

Astratto

Abstract

The growing concerns of consumers on the use of antibiotic as a growth promoter in livestock feed have fueled the interest in alternative products. In the recent years a group of natural products known as phytogenics has been a focus of several studies. Phytogenics are a heterogeneous group of feed additives originating from plants and consist of herbs, spices, fruit, and other plant parts. These feed additives are reported to have a wide range of activities including antimicrobial, anthelminthic, antioxidant, growth enhancer, and immune modulator. Besides these properties they are also reported to stimulate feed intake and endogenous secretion and enhance production. They include many different bio-active ingredients such as alkaloids, bitters, flavonoids, glycosides, mucilage, saponins, tannins phenolics, polyphenols, terpenoids, polypeptide, thymol, cineole, linalool, anethole, allicin, capsaicin, allylisothiocyanate, and piperine. These feed additives have been tested in the form of extracts, cold pressed oils, essential oils in a number of animals but the results are variable. Therefore, their application as feed additive has been limited, largely owing to their inconsistent efficacy and lack of full understanding of the modes of action. The future of these feed additives depend on the characteristics of herbs, the knowledge on their major and minor constituents, the in-depth knowledge on their mode of action and their value based on the safety to animal and their products. The aim of this review is to summarize on the current knowledge on the use of phytogenic as a feed additive in monogastric animals.

Parole chiave

  • feed additive
  • monogastric animal
  • phytogenic
Accesso libero

Overview of Prebiotics and Probiotics: Focus on Performance, Gut Health and Immunity – A Review

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 949 - 966

Astratto

Abstract

Due to the threat and emergence of bacterial resistance against antibiotics, the use of in-feed antibiotics at therapeutic and subtherapeutic levels has been limited. Complete withdrawal of antibiotics as growth promoters (AGP) has led to poor gut health signs in chickens that include conditions like wet litter, intestinal bacteria overgrowth, poor growth performance, malabsorption and various diseases. Two of the most common alternatives to AGP are prebiotics and probiotics. Both prebiotics and probiotics have become the potential feed additives that improve the gut health, immune system and microbiota by various mechanisms of action, and enhance growth performance of chickens. The review discusses the modes of action like antibacterial, competitive exclusion (CE), and immunomodulatory properties of prebiotics and probiotics, particularly in poultry. In ovo feeding of prebiotics and probiotics with promising effect on growth performance and reduction of pathogens like Salmonella is also discussed in this review. However, it is necessary to conduct more research with prebiotics and probiotics as well as other feed additives to understand the detailed mechanisms of action and identify better alternatives for poultry production and health.

Parole chiave

  • prebiotics
  • probiotics
  • poultry
  • antibiotics alternatives
Accesso libero

The Use of Medium-Chain Fatty Acids in Piglet Feeding – A Review

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 967 - 977

Astratto

Abstract

The group of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) comprises monocarboxylic fatty acids containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms. These are: caproic (C6), caprylic (C8), capric (C10), and lauric (C12) acids. They can be partly absorbed already through the stomach mucosa. Their triacylglycerols (MCT) can be absorbed intact into intestinal epithelial enterocytes and then hydrolysed by microsomal lipases. Thus they are a readily available source of energy, capable of improving the intestinal epithelial mucosal structure. They are also characterised by strong antibacterial activity due to their ability to penetrate the semi-permeable membranes of bacteria and damage their internal structures. Thanks to these properties, they could be a good supplement to weaned piglet feed. They improve piglet performance and can be used as feed antibiotic replacers.

Parole chiave

  • medium-chain fatty acids
  • antibacterial activity
  • piglet nutrition
Accesso libero

In ovo Feeding – Technology of the Future – A Review

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 979 - 992

Astratto

Abstract

Over the years, due to genetic selection, improvement of the characteristics of laying and meat poultry with less feed consumption per kilogram of body weight gain has been achieved (FCR). As the productivity of poultry increased, the demand of embryos for nutrients changed. However, the chemical composition of an egg has remained practically unchanged, and therefore, it began providing the embryos with suitable substances with the help of in ovo technology. Improvements in hatching were achieved through the administration of fructose, sucrose and grape seed extract (GSE), while the weight of a one-day-old chick is affected by the injection of amino acids with glucose and magnesium. In addition, amino acids and carbohydrates applied to an egg have contributed to an increase in the activity of digestive enzymes and maturation of the intestine. In connection with early stimulation of the intestinal tract of broiler chicks, they obtained higher weight gain. Supplementation with vitamins positively affects the increase of birds’ immunity and body weight at the end of breeding. On the other hand, the injection of an insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) influenced the growth and development of muscle tissue during the first weeks of life.

Parole chiave

  • poultry
  • amino acids
  • carbohydrates
  • hormones

Animal genetics and breeding

Accesso libero

Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase α and Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase Genes Polymorphism and their Influence on Fatty Acid Profile in Milk of Polish Holstein-Friesian Cows

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 993 - 1006

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the study was to analyse the association of ACACA and SCD1 polymorphism with milk composition, fatty acid profile in milk fat and milking performance of Polish Holstein-Friesian cows. The animals were divided according to criteria: lactation – 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th; ACACA polymorphism – CC, CG, GG; SCD1 polymorphism – AA, VA, VV. The presence of A293V polymorphism of SCD1 gene in the population of Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle has been confirmed. In the analysed fragment of ACACA gene presence of a novel SNP has been revealed. The SNP AJ312201.1g.1488C>G consists of a substitution G>C in 1488 position. This ACACA polymorphism influenced C13:0, C14:1, C16:1 and CLA, while the analysed SCD1 polymorphism influenced C14:1. Interestingly, C16:0, C18:0 and C14:1 were influenced by fat content; while C16:1 was influenced by lactation stage; and CLA was influenced by both lactation stage and fat content. Although the novel SNP on ACACA gene and A293V on SCD1 showed only slight influence on fatty acid profile in this study, these genes are still potential candidate genes for fat content and composition in milk, but require further research.

Parole chiave

  • fatty acids
  • milk
  • cattle
Accesso libero

Genetic Parameters for Clinical Mastitis, Fertility and Somatic Cell Score in Czech Holstein Cattle

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 1007 - 1018

Astratto

Abstract

Cases of mastitis (CM) from 38,236 lactations belonging to 16,497 cows were recorded on seven farms in the Czech Republic from 1996 to 2014. Clinical mastitis was analyzed with linear animal model as an all-or-none trait for each recorded lactation (CM305) and separately for each trimester of lactation (CM1, CM2, and CM3). Bivariate linear animal models were used to estimate the genetic correlation between these CM traits and lactation means for somatic cell score (SCS305), the interval between calving and first insemination (INT) and days open (DO). Factors included in the linear model were parity, herd, year of calving, calving season, fixed linear and quadratic regression on age at first calving, fixed linear and quadratic regression on milk production in the corresponding parity, permanent environmental effect of the cow, and additive genetic effect of the cow. Estimated heritabilities of the CM traits ranged from 0.01 to 0.03. Permanent environmental effects accounted for approximately two-thirds of the phenotypic variance. Genetic correlations of SCS305 with CM traits were 0.85±0.029, 0.81±0.086, 0.82±0.087, and 0.67±0.088 for CM305, CM1, CM2, and CM3, respectively. Genetic correlations of INT with CM305, CM1, CM2, and CM3, respectively, were 0.22±0.065, 0.19±0.084, 0.20±0.121 and 0.15±0.121: and genetic correlations of DO and the four CM traits were 0.28±0.079, 0.26±0.101, 0.43±0.134, and 0.15±0.131. For the 140 sires in the dataset, Spearman rank correlations among breeding values for the four CM traits and for SCS305 were uniformly high at 0.99±0.001.

Parole chiave

  • mastitis
  • somatic cell score
  • fertility
  • genetic parameters
  • Holstein cattle
Accesso libero

Mycological Profile of the Integumentary System in Felin Ponies

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 1019 - 1028

Astratto

Abstract

Yeast-like microorganisms are frequently isolated from horses. There is a serious interpretation problem with assessment of the health status in the diagnostics of infectious diseases, which is associated with the insufficient knowledge of the composition of the natural flora in the horses’ integumentary system. The aim of the investigations was to analyse the yeast-like flora isolated from healthy Felin ponies. The study involved 44 horses aged from 2 to 12 years. The analysed group comprised 28 mares and 16 stallions. The animals were kept in an outdoor rearing system with a possibility of periodic use of a wooden/brick shed. The investigations were conducted in an annual cycle divided into 4 periods corresponding to the seasons of the year. Smears were sampled from horses’ nostrils, mouth, ear, back, groin, vagina or foreskin, and collateral groove. Microbiological analysis of the yeast-like strains was performed after plating 1015 samples of material taken from healthy horses. The identification of fungal species was based on their culture characteristics and biochemical profile. Fourteen yeast species were isolated and identified from the sampled material. Candida guilliermondii and Candida albicans 1 were the most prevalent fungi. The study has shown seasonal variability of the composition of the integumentary system microflora in Felin ponies. The greatest number of isolates was obtained from the material sampled from the mouth.

Parole chiave

  • horses
  • welfare
  • yeast-like fungi
  • yeasts
  • Felin ponies
Accesso libero

Endogenous Nitric Oxide and Dopamine Regulate Feeding Behavior in Neonatal Layer-type Chickens

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 1029 - 1042

Astratto

Abstract

Evidence from animal studies suggests that endogenous nitric oxide and dopamine (DA) have a regulatory role in the rewarding system, but their interaction(s) have not been studied in avian species. In this study, 4 experiments were performed to determine the effects of central administration of L-arginine (nitric oxide precursor; 200 nmol), NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor; 100 nmol), amphetamine (an indirect DA agonist; 125 pmol) and DA (40 pmol) on feeding behavior in neonatal layer-type chickens (each experiment included 4 groups, n=12 birds in each group). Prior to the initiation of the treatments, birds were fasted for 3 hours (FD3). In experiment 1, chickens received intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of saline, L-NAME (100 nmol), amphetamine (125 pmol), and combination of L-NAME + amphetamine. In experiment 2, chickens received the ICV injection of saline, L-arginine (200 nmol), amphetamine (125 pmol) and their combination. In experiment 3, chickens received ICV injection of saline, L-arginine (200 nmol), DA (40 pmol) and L-arginine + DA. In experiment 4, chickens received ICV injection of saline, L-NAME (100 nmol), DA (40 pmol) and L-NAME + DA. Thereafter, the cumulative food intake (on the basis of metabolic body weight) was recorded until 2-h post injection. The results showed that ICV injection of amphetamine or DA significantly decreased food intake (P<0.05). Also, co-administration of L-NAME + amphetamine attenuated the hypophagic effect of amphetamine (P<0.05), while combined administration of L-NAME and DA had no effect on DA-induced hypophagia. Additionally, the hypophagic effect of amphetamine was significantly amplified by L-arginine (P<0.05), but the combination of L-arginine and DA did not alter feeding behavior which was induced by DA. These results suggest an interaction between DAergic and nitrergic systems via a presynaptic mechanism on food intake regulation in layer-type chicken.

Parole chiave

  • endogenous nitric oxide
  • dopamine
  • food intake
  • layer-type chicken
Accesso libero

Association of Ejaculate Sperm Counts with their Morphological and Morphometric Characteristics in Hypor Boars

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 1043 - 1052

Astratto

Abstract

Reproductive efficiency in pigs is largely dependent on the fertility of the boar. Boars used at insemination stations should produce a large amount of semen with high fertilization capacity. The sperm count influences the conception rate and the number of insemination doses produced. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological and morphometric characteristics of boars of the Hypor breed in relation to the total sperm count in the ejaculate. An analysis was performed of 120 ejaculates collected from 12 Hypor boars used at three insemination stations. The ejaculate sperm count was found to affect the morphometric characteristics of spermatozoa from boars. In the ejaculates with the lowest sperm count the spermatozoa heads were significantly shorter and narrower and had a smaller surface area. The sperm from ejaculates with the lowest sperm count had relatively small head dimensions in relation to the tail length and total sperm length. In the ejaculates with the most sperm cells, the proportion of spermatozoa with major defects was significantly greater than in the ejaculates from other groups. In the ejaculates with the lowest sperm count the frequency of sperm with progressive motility was significantly lower. The fewest insemination doses can be prepared from these ejaculates.

Parole chiave

  • boar
  • ejaculate
  • sperm count
  • sperm morphology
Accesso libero

Investigation of Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone, Growth Hormone and Prolactin Hormone Gene Polymorphism in Anatolian Water Buffalo

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 1053 - 1062

Astratto

Abstract

The purpose of this work was to identify GHRH, GH and PRL gene polymorphisms in Anatolian water buffalo by means of the PCR-RFLP method. A total of 126 buffalo were included in this study. PCR amplification gave a 451 bp band for the GHRH gene, a 221 bp band for the GH gene and a 156 bp band for the PRL gene. The PCR products were digested by HaeIII for the GHRH gene, AluI for the GH gene and RsaI for the PRL gene. The GH/AluI and PRL/RsaI polymorphisms were found to be polymorphic, while the GHRH/HaeIII polymorphism was not found in Anatolian water buffalo. The frequencies of GH-L (0.87) and PRL-A (0.55) alleles were found to be high in the examined Anatolian water buffalo. The chi-square test showed that the Anatolian water buffalo were in Hardy-Weinberg (HW) equilibrium for the GH gene while significant deviation was observed from HW equilibrium for the PRL gene. The present study is the first to examine GHRH/HaeIII, GH/AluI and PRL/RsaI polymorphisms in Anatolian water buffalo.

Parole chiave

  • Anatolian water buffalo
  • growth hormone
  • growth hormone releasing hormone
  • prolactin hormone
  • RFLP
Accesso libero

Expression of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α and Association with Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase in the Reproductive Tract Tissues of Adult Male Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) During the Reproduction Season

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 1063 - 1074

Astratto

Abstract

This study aimed to determine the mRNA and protein expressions of HIF-1α and SOD-1 in testes and epididymis of adult male roe deer during the periods of reproductive season. The mRNA expression levels of investigated factors were examined using RT-PCR, while protein expression levels were evaluated using Western blot analysis. Differences between tissues within this period and between periods were evaluated. Testicular tissue exhibited lower HIF-1α and SOD-1 mRNA expression levels during all periods as compared to epididymal tissues. Among the epididymal tissues, cauda epididymis showed higher HIF-1α mRNA expression levels in comparison with caput and corpus tissues in the pre-rut period, and not much lower SOD-1 mRNA expression levels in comparison with caput in all periods. Protein expression of HIF-1α was higher in the epididymis than in the testicular tissues in the pre-rut and rut periods. Its expression was the highest in caput epididymal tissue compared with either the testicular, corpus and cauda epididymal tissue during rut and higher than corpus and testis in pre- and post-rut periods. Testicular tissue was characterized by lower SOD-1 protein expression levels than in epididymis in pre-rut and rut periods. This study indicates that the reproductive tract of male roe deer possesses a tissue-specific defense system which protects the tissues from oxygen deficiency damage, which is important during cyclic changes occurring in the reproductive tissues during the reproductive season.

Parole chiave

  • HIF-1α
  • SOD-1
  • roe deer
  • reproductive tract tissues
  • reproductive season

The biology, physiology, reproduction, and health

Accesso libero

The Effect of a Probiotic Containing Enterococcus faecium DSM 7134 on Redox and Biochemical Parameters in Chicken Blood

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 1075 - 1088

Astratto

Abstract

It was postulated that administration of a probiotic to chickens can stimulate their antioxidant status while at the same time inhibiting oxidation processes. The objective of the study was to determine whether and how different levels and durations of application of a probiotic preparation containing live cultures of Enterococcus faecium and enriched with cholecalciferol and ascorbic acid influences indicators of lipid status and the redox reaction in the blood of broiler chickens. Four hundred day-old Ross 308 chickens were raised until their 42nd day of age. The animals were assigned to five experimental groups of 80 broilers each: a control group that did not receive the probiotic, T1 groups, which received the probiotic at 0.25 (E-0.25) or 0.1 g/l (E-0.1) throughout the rearing period, and T2 groups, which received the probiotic at the same levels, but during days 1–7, 15–21 and 29–35 of life. The probiotic preparation reduced the level of peroxides (LOH), malondialdehyde (MDA), cholesterol (TC), low density (LDL) cholesterol, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and the activity of catalase (CAT), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), acid phosphatase (AC), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH), while ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and glutathione (GSH + GSSG) levels were increased in the blood plasma of the chickens. The results obtained indicate that administration of this probiotic to chickens, especially in the amount of 0.25 g/l for the entire rearing period, stimulates synthesis of low-molecular-weight antioxidants responsible for maintaining redox homeostasis, without exerting a negative effect on liver metabolism in chickens.

Parole chiave

  • chicken
  • blood
  • lipid redox reaction
Accesso libero

Dose-Dependent Influence of Dietary Cu-Glycine Complex on Bone and Hyaline Cartilage Development in Adolescent Rats

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 1089 - 1105

Astratto

Abstract

Administration of the amino acid copper (Cu) complex ensures higher Cu bioavailability through enhanced absorption from intestine and decreases the dietary Cu level, compared to the recommended Cu dose. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Cu-low diet on the bone development in adolescent rats. Male rats at the age of 6 weeks were used in the 12-week experiment. The control diet provided the required Cu level from sulfate (S-Cu) and other diets were supplemented with Cu as a glycine complex (Cu-Gly) at 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of daily requirement. After the 12-week treatment, rats from the Cu-Gly100 group were heavier, compared to the other groups. The copper and calcium plasma and bone concentrations of the rats in the groups treated with the organic form of Cu (irrespective of its dose) was similar to the control values noted in the rats administered with S-Cu. A decrease in the femur weight and length was observed in the Cu-Gly75 and Cu-Gly50 groups. Cu-Gly increased the cross section area, mean relative wall thickness, and cortical index only in the Cu-Gly75 group. A decrease in the ultimate strength, elastic stress, and ultimate stress was noted in the Cu-Gly100 and Cu-Gly75 groups. In the Cu-Gly50 group, a decrease in the ultimate stress and an increase in the maximal elastic strength and bending moment were noted. Adolescent rats treated with Cu-Gly at a Cu-deficient level exhibited a dose-dependent strongly osteoporotic cancellous bone. Lower proteoglycan content was found in groups fed the Cu-low diet. In the control rats supplemented with S-Cu, there was no evident gradient in safranin O staining. It is difficult to indicate which dose of the Cu-Gly complex among the investigated Cu-poor diet exerted a positive effect on bone metabolism. It appears that the use of this Cu-Gly complex at a significantly reduced dose than S-Cu at the recommended dose did not inhibit the development of bone and hyaline cartilage in adolescent rats.

Parole chiave

  • copper
  • copper-glycine complex
  • bone histomorphometry
  • mechanical testing
  • adolescent rat
Accesso libero

Effects of Different Dietary Levels of Whey Lactose as a Prebiotic Disaccharide on the Productive Performances and Selected Indices of the Caecal Micro-Environment in Broiler Chickens

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 1107 - 1122

Astratto

Abstract

The primary aim of this study was to investigate the impact of three dietary levels of lactose (LAC) originating from conventional dried whey (DW) and the duration of these treatments (from 8 to 21 or to 42 days of age) on growth performance, basic post-slaughter traits and excreta quality of broiler chickens kept in cages. A secondary purpose was to investigate the effect of LAC level on some parameters of the caecal micro-environment and gross morphology in these birds. A total of 560 Ross 308 chickens (sex ratio 1:1) were assigned to 7 dietary combinations with 10 replicate cages of 8 birds per cage. The control group was fed basal diets consisting of maize, wheat and soybean meal. The other 6 groups received the same basal diets with DW added in amounts equivalent to a LAC dietary levels of 1, 2 or 3%. Only continuous feeding (day 8 to 42) with 1% and 2% levels of LAC was found to yield the overall body weight gain (BWG) during the whole 42-day rearing period, which was significantly higher than that on the control diet, with a larger share of breast meat in carcass at a 2% LAC. However, these effects were associated with greater faecal score values indicating more watery excreta compared with the control. Increasing levels of LAC augmented the relative caecal weight and length. A reduction in the caecal pH was confirmed at day 21 for birds fed 1% and 2% of dietary LAC. The lower pH values were correlated to an increased sum of total volatile fatty acids (VFA), causing large increases in the concentration of undissociated forms of individual VFA. The decline in plate counts of coliform bacteria was observed with 2% and 3% LAC, whereas the counts of lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB) were higher at these two LAC levels. The present findings lead to the conclusion that the dietary level of 2% LAC originated from DW is the most effective in enhancing the productivity of broilers, with moderate occurrence of undesirable side effects.

Parole chiave

  • broilers
  • lactose
  • dried whey
  • performance
  • caecal pH
  • volatile fatty acids
  • lactic acid-producing bacteria
  • coliforms
Accesso libero

Feed Intake and Live Weight Gain of Hereford Bulls Offered Diets Based on Whole-Crop Barley and Whole-Crop Wheat Silages Relative to Moderately Digestible Grass Silage with or without Protein Supplementation

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 1123 - 1134

Astratto

Abstract

The present experiment was conducted to study the performance of Hereford bulls offered diets based on whole-crop barley (WCB) and whole-crop wheat (WCW) silages relative to a moderately digestible grass silage (GS)-based diet with or without rapeseed meal (RSM) supplementation. The experiment comprised 30 bulls and a 3×2 factorial design was used. The bulls were offered silages ad libitum. In all forage diets (WCB, WCW, GS) the concentrate used was either rolled barley alone or rolled barley plus RSM. The amount of the concentrate supplementation was 37 g/metabolic live weight/animal/day for all treatments. The crude protein (CP) content of barley was 126 g/kg dry matter (DM) and the CP content of the concentrate increased 23% with RSM supplementation. Average live weight gains (LWG) for the GS, WCB and WCW feedings were 1411, 1331 and 1181 g/d, respectively. Differences in diet digestibility and energy intake probably explain the differences in LWG among the forage types. RSM supplementation increased both silage and total DM intake in the WCB and WCW feedings but not in the GS feeding. Furthermore, RSM supplementation increased LWG 7 and 17% in the WCB and WCW feedings, respectively, but only 2% in the GS feeding.

Parole chiave

  • beef production
  • bulls
  • growth
  • rapeseed meal
  • whole-crop silages
Accesso libero

Effect of Dietary Fish Oil Replacement with Plant Oils on Growth Performance and Gene Expression in Juvenile Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 1135 - 1153

Astratto

Abstract

An eight-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of total (100%) replacement of dietary fish oil with alternative lipid sources in juvenile rainbow trout. Six iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipidic experimental diets were formulated: CO (14%) – cod liver oil; SSO (14%) – safflower seed oil; SBO (14%) – soybean oil; LO (14%) – linseed oil; SBO (7%) + LO (7%) – a blend of soybean oil and linseed oil; and SSO (7%) + LO (7%) – a blend of safflower seed oil and linseed oil. Growth performance [specific growth rate (SGR), weight gain (WG), food conversion ratio (FCR) and survival rate (SR)], growth hormones [growth hormone (GH-I), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II)], immune transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and antioxidant [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST)] response, and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA levels were determined in muscle and liver. Our data indicated that final weight, weight gain, FCR and SGR showed significant difference among the six dietary treatments (P<0.05) while there were no significant differences in survival rate between the rainbow trout from supplement fed groups and control group. HSP70 mRNA level expression in muscle was higher in fish fed SSO (P<0.05) while highest level in liver was obtained from fish fed SBO compared to the other treatments (P<0.05). There were no significant differences among treatments for TGF-β mRNA expression level in muscle and liver. In conclusion, growth performance and expression levels of growth hormones, antioxidants, HSP70, except TGF-β were affected by five separate lipid sources. In addition, LO positively increased growth performance of juvenile rainbow trout by means of preventing oxidative stress and HSP70 and, enhanced expression of growth hormone related gene.

Parole chiave

  • dietary lipid
  • gene expression
  • oxidative stress
  • HSP70
Accesso libero

Enhancing Tolerance of Broiler Chickens to Heat Stress by Supplementation with Vitamin E, Vitamin C and/or Probiotics

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 1155 - 1169

Astratto

Abstract

Heat stress is one of the major challenges which the poultry industry faces during summer in tropical and subtropical regions. This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of Vitamin (Vit) E, C and/or probiotics on improving tolerance of broiler chickens to chronic heat stress (CHS). A total of 294, 1-day-old Cobb-500 broiler chicks were allocated into seven treatment groups; Thermoneutral group was raised under a thermoneutral condition during 25–42 d of age. The other six groups were raised for three successive days per week at 36±2ºC and 75–85% relative humidity for 7 h daily: heat stressed group, Vit E (100 mg/kg diet), Vit C (200 mg/kg diet), Vit C+Vit E, probiotics (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus acidophilus at 2 g/kg diet) and Vit C+Vit E+probiotics. Exposure to CHS decreased body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), and abdominal fat. It had adverse impact on feed conversion ratio (FCR), packed cell volume (PCV), monocyte, basophil, total protein, and phagocytic activity while increased plasma cholesterol and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) compared to the thermoneutral group. Vit E, Vit C or probiotics alone decreased the adverse effects of CHS on growth rate throughout the experimental period. Vit C and E were equally potent during the experimental period, but were less effective than the combination of both vitamins. Vit E increased the dressing percentage and abdominal fat as compared to the thermoneutral group, but decreased AST while increasing basophil, monocyte and globulin compared to the heat stressed group. In addition, serum albumin and AST of Vit E were lower compared to Vit C, but cholesterol was higher. Vit E increased red blood cells and white blood cells, but plasma cholesterol was increased compared with the heat stressed group. Vit C increased PCV, lymphocytes, monocyte, basophil and albumin and decreased neutrophil. Both vitamins without/with probiotic induced a further increase in basophil, serum total protein, and albumin. It could be concluded that supplementation of Vit E, Vit C, probiotics, and different combinations reduced some of the adverse effects of CHS, and Vit E+Vit C+probiotics was the most effective for economic traits followed by Vit E+Vit C or probiotics.

Parole chiave

  • vitamin E
  • vitamin C
  • probiotics
  • heat stress
  • hematology
  • broilers

Animal nutrition, and feedstuffs

Accesso libero

Longevity of Cows Depending on their First Lactation Yield and Herd Production Level

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 1171 - 1183

Astratto

Abstract

The effect of first lactation yield and herd production level on longevity was studied using data from the SYMLEK database on 12045 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows in 1371 farms from the active population in Pomerania and Kujawy. The cows first calved in 2008 and were used or disposed from the herds by the end of 2015. FREQ, GLM and CORR procedures from the SAS package were used in the statistical calculations. The optimum level of first lactation milk from the viewpoint of longevity varies according to herd production level, which serves as a measure of the quality of rearing conditions. If the living conditions are not adapted to the high milk production of first calvers, there is a possibility that their productive life will be shortened and number of calvings decreased. The percentage of voluntary culling decisions by the breeder, which included the sale for further breeding, low milk yield and old age, averaged 9% and decreased with increasing herd production level from 16% to around 6%. The main reason for culling was infertility (around 40% on average). Culling due to infertility was particularly common among the cows which produced more than 11000 kg milk as first calvers.

Parole chiave

  • cow
  • longevity
  • first lactation
  • production level
Accesso libero

The Effect of Origin, Sex and Feeding on Sensory Evaluation and Some Quality Characteristics of Goose Meat from Polish Native Flocks

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 1185 - 1196

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the study was to characterize the sensory quality and physical traits of raw and heattreated meat depending on the origin, sex and feeding of geese. The experiment used meat from domestic geese of southern varieties: Lubelska (Lu), Kielecka (Ki) and Subcarpatian (Sb), included in the conservation programme. The experiment was carried out on a total of 192 birds divided according to origin (Lu, Ki and Sb), sex (M and F) and dietary treatment (DI – conventional feeding and DI – oat fattening). To evaluate the quality characteristics of meat, 16 birds from each group were selected. Sensory evaluation of raw goose muscles was at a good level of consumer acceptability and exceeded 4.0 points, ranging from 4.18 pts (appearance/Ki) to 4.59 pts (aroma/Sb) for breast muscles (BM), and from 4.17 pts (fatness/Lu) to 4.53 pts (aroma/Sb) for leg muscles (LM). In the case of heat-treated muscles the tenderness of the muscles of Lu geese was characterized by high number grade (P≤0.05) for both the BM (4.87 pts) and LM (4.76 pts). Lighter colour (L*) (P≤0.05) was characteristic of the muscles of oat-fattened birds (44.25 for BM and 49.86 for LM) compared to the muscles of conventionally fed birds (39.77 for BM and 46.89 for LM). In addition, a significant (P≤0.05) effect of diet was also found on the value of the parameter a* (redness) and b* (yellowness). Parameter a* ranged from 10.45 (Lu) to 11.96 (Ki) for BM and from 13.28 (Ki) to 14.21 (Sb) for LM. In turn, the highest share (P≤0.05) of yellow colour (parameter b*) was demonstrated in the muscles of Ki geese – 4.87 for BM and 10.92 for LM. Male muscles were characterized by higher (26.34 mg% – BM and 24.37 mg% – LM) water holding capacity (WHC) than female muscles (27.23 mg% for BM and 25.28 mg% for LM respectively). Furthermore for BM of oat-fattened geese cooking loss was at the level of 10.50%. The present study indicated that most of the sensory characteristics of meat (BM and LM) from geese of different breeds were affected (significantly at P≤0.05) by the diet. This concerned both raw and heat-treated meat. For raw breast muscles, a significant (P≤0.05) effect of sex was also found (with the exception of aroma). In turn, the quality characteristics of raw leg muscles (except for colour) were influenced (P≤0.05) by all the treatment factors. Analysis of the physical properties of meat showed that these parameters are mainly affected (P≤0.05) by the diet.

Parole chiave

  • goose
  • genotype
  • diet
  • meat
  • sensory analysis
  • physical properties
Accesso libero

Effect of Organic Production System on the Performance and Meat Quality of Two Purebred Slow-Growing Chicken Breeds

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 1197 - 1213

Astratto

Abstract

The objective of the study was to compare the effect of organic and conventional rearing systems on the productivity and meat quality of Yellowleg Partridge (Ż-33) and Rhode Island Red (R-11) chickens. A total of 492 sexed experimental birds (Gallus domesticus) were assigned to four groups. In groups I-C and III-C, the Ż-33 and R-11 chickens were reared under intensive conditions following conventional farming principles. In groups II-O and IV-O, the Ż-33 and R-11 chickens were kept according to organic farming principles. Body weight, feed conversion (kg/kg gain) and mortality were recorded throughout the study. On day 140 of rearing, the native breed chickens were subjected to simplified slaughter analysis, and meat pH, muscle colour, water holding capacity and chilling loss were determined. The meat samples were analysed for the chemical composition and profile of fatty acids, and the peroxidizability index (PI), thrombogenic index (TI) and atherogenicity index (AI) were calculated. The organically raised chickens were characterised by higher body weight (P≤0.01), better feed conversion (P≤0.01) and more favourable fatty acid profile of the muscles compared to the conventionally reared birds. Under organic conditions, the R-11 chickens showed better productivity but slightly poorer fatty acid profile of the muscles compared to the Ż-11 chickens.

Parole chiave

  • chickens
  • native breeds
  • organic production system
  • performance
  • meat quality
  • fatty acid profile
Accesso libero

Meat Quality and Fatty Acid Profile of Pork and Backfat from an Indigenous Breed and A Commercial Hybrid of Pigs

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 1215 - 1227

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that carcass traits, quality and oxidative stability of meat, and fatty acids profile in intramuscular fat (IMF) of M. longissimus lumborum et thoracis (MLLT) and backfat (BF) are different between the observed genotypes of pigs. A total of 64 animals were included in the experiment, 32 pigs of native breed Prestice Black-Pied breed (PBP) and 32 pigs of hybrid combination Large White × Landrace sows × Duroc × Pietrain boars (LWLDP). PBP pigs showed higher values of IMF (P≤0.01) and BF, lower lean meat content and drip loss value (P≤0.001) than the LWLDP hybrid. The value of pH45,24 was higher (P≤0.05) in PBP pigs. The analysis of fatty acid profile in MLLT showed higher content of C8:0 (P≤0.01), C10:0 (P≤0.01), C15:0 (P≤0.01), C22:0 (P≤0.05), C18:1 n-9 (P≤0.01), C18:3 n-6 (P≤0.001), C20:3 n-3 (P≤0.05), C20:4 n-6 (P≤0.01), C22:4 n-6 (P≤0.05), C22:5 n-3 (P≤0.01) and C22:6 n-3 (P≤0.01) in LWLDP than in PBP pigs. The opposite trend was observed in C18:1 n-9 (P≤0.01) and C20:5 n-3 (P≤0.01). Higher content of MUFA as well as the MUFA/SFA ratio were found in PBP breed (P≤0.01). Higher levels of C10:0 (P≤0.01), C12:0 (P≤0.01), C14:0 (P≤0.001), C16:0 (P≤0.001), C14:1 n-5 (P≤0.01), C16:1 n-7 (P≤0.05), C18:1 n-7 (P≤0.001), C20:5 n-3 (P≤0.01) and C22:6 n-3 (P≤0.05) in BF were found in LWLDP pigs, however the content of C24:1 n-9 (P≤0.01), C18:2 n-6 (P≤0.05), C18: n-3 (P≤0.05), C20:4 n-6 (P≤0.01) and C22:5 n-3 (P≤0.01) was higher in PBP pigs. SFA content was higher (P≤0.001) in LWLDP hybrid, but PUFA (P≤0.01), n-6 PUFA (P≤0.05) and mainly n-3 PUFA (P≤0.01) were higher in PBP pigs. In BF, the MUFA/SFA (P≤0.05) and PUFA/SFA (P≤0.001) ratios were higher in PBP pigs; on the contrary the MUFA/PUFA (P≤0.05) ratio was higher in LWLDP pigs.

Parole chiave

  • pig
  • Prestice Black-Pied breed
  • four-breed hybrid
  • meat quality
  • fatty acids
21 Articoli

Review

Accesso libero

Efficacy of Phytogenic Feed Additive on Performance, Production and Health Status of Monogastric Animals – A Review

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 929 - 948

Astratto

Abstract

The growing concerns of consumers on the use of antibiotic as a growth promoter in livestock feed have fueled the interest in alternative products. In the recent years a group of natural products known as phytogenics has been a focus of several studies. Phytogenics are a heterogeneous group of feed additives originating from plants and consist of herbs, spices, fruit, and other plant parts. These feed additives are reported to have a wide range of activities including antimicrobial, anthelminthic, antioxidant, growth enhancer, and immune modulator. Besides these properties they are also reported to stimulate feed intake and endogenous secretion and enhance production. They include many different bio-active ingredients such as alkaloids, bitters, flavonoids, glycosides, mucilage, saponins, tannins phenolics, polyphenols, terpenoids, polypeptide, thymol, cineole, linalool, anethole, allicin, capsaicin, allylisothiocyanate, and piperine. These feed additives have been tested in the form of extracts, cold pressed oils, essential oils in a number of animals but the results are variable. Therefore, their application as feed additive has been limited, largely owing to their inconsistent efficacy and lack of full understanding of the modes of action. The future of these feed additives depend on the characteristics of herbs, the knowledge on their major and minor constituents, the in-depth knowledge on their mode of action and their value based on the safety to animal and their products. The aim of this review is to summarize on the current knowledge on the use of phytogenic as a feed additive in monogastric animals.

Parole chiave

  • feed additive
  • monogastric animal
  • phytogenic
Accesso libero

Overview of Prebiotics and Probiotics: Focus on Performance, Gut Health and Immunity – A Review

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 949 - 966

Astratto

Abstract

Due to the threat and emergence of bacterial resistance against antibiotics, the use of in-feed antibiotics at therapeutic and subtherapeutic levels has been limited. Complete withdrawal of antibiotics as growth promoters (AGP) has led to poor gut health signs in chickens that include conditions like wet litter, intestinal bacteria overgrowth, poor growth performance, malabsorption and various diseases. Two of the most common alternatives to AGP are prebiotics and probiotics. Both prebiotics and probiotics have become the potential feed additives that improve the gut health, immune system and microbiota by various mechanisms of action, and enhance growth performance of chickens. The review discusses the modes of action like antibacterial, competitive exclusion (CE), and immunomodulatory properties of prebiotics and probiotics, particularly in poultry. In ovo feeding of prebiotics and probiotics with promising effect on growth performance and reduction of pathogens like Salmonella is also discussed in this review. However, it is necessary to conduct more research with prebiotics and probiotics as well as other feed additives to understand the detailed mechanisms of action and identify better alternatives for poultry production and health.

Parole chiave

  • prebiotics
  • probiotics
  • poultry
  • antibiotics alternatives
Accesso libero

The Use of Medium-Chain Fatty Acids in Piglet Feeding – A Review

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 967 - 977

Astratto

Abstract

The group of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) comprises monocarboxylic fatty acids containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms. These are: caproic (C6), caprylic (C8), capric (C10), and lauric (C12) acids. They can be partly absorbed already through the stomach mucosa. Their triacylglycerols (MCT) can be absorbed intact into intestinal epithelial enterocytes and then hydrolysed by microsomal lipases. Thus they are a readily available source of energy, capable of improving the intestinal epithelial mucosal structure. They are also characterised by strong antibacterial activity due to their ability to penetrate the semi-permeable membranes of bacteria and damage their internal structures. Thanks to these properties, they could be a good supplement to weaned piglet feed. They improve piglet performance and can be used as feed antibiotic replacers.

Parole chiave

  • medium-chain fatty acids
  • antibacterial activity
  • piglet nutrition
Accesso libero

In ovo Feeding – Technology of the Future – A Review

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 979 - 992

Astratto

Abstract

Over the years, due to genetic selection, improvement of the characteristics of laying and meat poultry with less feed consumption per kilogram of body weight gain has been achieved (FCR). As the productivity of poultry increased, the demand of embryos for nutrients changed. However, the chemical composition of an egg has remained practically unchanged, and therefore, it began providing the embryos with suitable substances with the help of in ovo technology. Improvements in hatching were achieved through the administration of fructose, sucrose and grape seed extract (GSE), while the weight of a one-day-old chick is affected by the injection of amino acids with glucose and magnesium. In addition, amino acids and carbohydrates applied to an egg have contributed to an increase in the activity of digestive enzymes and maturation of the intestine. In connection with early stimulation of the intestinal tract of broiler chicks, they obtained higher weight gain. Supplementation with vitamins positively affects the increase of birds’ immunity and body weight at the end of breeding. On the other hand, the injection of an insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) influenced the growth and development of muscle tissue during the first weeks of life.

Parole chiave

  • poultry
  • amino acids
  • carbohydrates
  • hormones

Animal genetics and breeding

Accesso libero

Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase α and Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase Genes Polymorphism and their Influence on Fatty Acid Profile in Milk of Polish Holstein-Friesian Cows

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 993 - 1006

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the study was to analyse the association of ACACA and SCD1 polymorphism with milk composition, fatty acid profile in milk fat and milking performance of Polish Holstein-Friesian cows. The animals were divided according to criteria: lactation – 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th; ACACA polymorphism – CC, CG, GG; SCD1 polymorphism – AA, VA, VV. The presence of A293V polymorphism of SCD1 gene in the population of Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle has been confirmed. In the analysed fragment of ACACA gene presence of a novel SNP has been revealed. The SNP AJ312201.1g.1488C>G consists of a substitution G>C in 1488 position. This ACACA polymorphism influenced C13:0, C14:1, C16:1 and CLA, while the analysed SCD1 polymorphism influenced C14:1. Interestingly, C16:0, C18:0 and C14:1 were influenced by fat content; while C16:1 was influenced by lactation stage; and CLA was influenced by both lactation stage and fat content. Although the novel SNP on ACACA gene and A293V on SCD1 showed only slight influence on fatty acid profile in this study, these genes are still potential candidate genes for fat content and composition in milk, but require further research.

Parole chiave

  • fatty acids
  • milk
  • cattle
Accesso libero

Genetic Parameters for Clinical Mastitis, Fertility and Somatic Cell Score in Czech Holstein Cattle

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 1007 - 1018

Astratto

Abstract

Cases of mastitis (CM) from 38,236 lactations belonging to 16,497 cows were recorded on seven farms in the Czech Republic from 1996 to 2014. Clinical mastitis was analyzed with linear animal model as an all-or-none trait for each recorded lactation (CM305) and separately for each trimester of lactation (CM1, CM2, and CM3). Bivariate linear animal models were used to estimate the genetic correlation between these CM traits and lactation means for somatic cell score (SCS305), the interval between calving and first insemination (INT) and days open (DO). Factors included in the linear model were parity, herd, year of calving, calving season, fixed linear and quadratic regression on age at first calving, fixed linear and quadratic regression on milk production in the corresponding parity, permanent environmental effect of the cow, and additive genetic effect of the cow. Estimated heritabilities of the CM traits ranged from 0.01 to 0.03. Permanent environmental effects accounted for approximately two-thirds of the phenotypic variance. Genetic correlations of SCS305 with CM traits were 0.85±0.029, 0.81±0.086, 0.82±0.087, and 0.67±0.088 for CM305, CM1, CM2, and CM3, respectively. Genetic correlations of INT with CM305, CM1, CM2, and CM3, respectively, were 0.22±0.065, 0.19±0.084, 0.20±0.121 and 0.15±0.121: and genetic correlations of DO and the four CM traits were 0.28±0.079, 0.26±0.101, 0.43±0.134, and 0.15±0.131. For the 140 sires in the dataset, Spearman rank correlations among breeding values for the four CM traits and for SCS305 were uniformly high at 0.99±0.001.

Parole chiave

  • mastitis
  • somatic cell score
  • fertility
  • genetic parameters
  • Holstein cattle
Accesso libero

Mycological Profile of the Integumentary System in Felin Ponies

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 1019 - 1028

Astratto

Abstract

Yeast-like microorganisms are frequently isolated from horses. There is a serious interpretation problem with assessment of the health status in the diagnostics of infectious diseases, which is associated with the insufficient knowledge of the composition of the natural flora in the horses’ integumentary system. The aim of the investigations was to analyse the yeast-like flora isolated from healthy Felin ponies. The study involved 44 horses aged from 2 to 12 years. The analysed group comprised 28 mares and 16 stallions. The animals were kept in an outdoor rearing system with a possibility of periodic use of a wooden/brick shed. The investigations were conducted in an annual cycle divided into 4 periods corresponding to the seasons of the year. Smears were sampled from horses’ nostrils, mouth, ear, back, groin, vagina or foreskin, and collateral groove. Microbiological analysis of the yeast-like strains was performed after plating 1015 samples of material taken from healthy horses. The identification of fungal species was based on their culture characteristics and biochemical profile. Fourteen yeast species were isolated and identified from the sampled material. Candida guilliermondii and Candida albicans 1 were the most prevalent fungi. The study has shown seasonal variability of the composition of the integumentary system microflora in Felin ponies. The greatest number of isolates was obtained from the material sampled from the mouth.

Parole chiave

  • horses
  • welfare
  • yeast-like fungi
  • yeasts
  • Felin ponies
Accesso libero

Endogenous Nitric Oxide and Dopamine Regulate Feeding Behavior in Neonatal Layer-type Chickens

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 1029 - 1042

Astratto

Abstract

Evidence from animal studies suggests that endogenous nitric oxide and dopamine (DA) have a regulatory role in the rewarding system, but their interaction(s) have not been studied in avian species. In this study, 4 experiments were performed to determine the effects of central administration of L-arginine (nitric oxide precursor; 200 nmol), NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor; 100 nmol), amphetamine (an indirect DA agonist; 125 pmol) and DA (40 pmol) on feeding behavior in neonatal layer-type chickens (each experiment included 4 groups, n=12 birds in each group). Prior to the initiation of the treatments, birds were fasted for 3 hours (FD3). In experiment 1, chickens received intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of saline, L-NAME (100 nmol), amphetamine (125 pmol), and combination of L-NAME + amphetamine. In experiment 2, chickens received the ICV injection of saline, L-arginine (200 nmol), amphetamine (125 pmol) and their combination. In experiment 3, chickens received ICV injection of saline, L-arginine (200 nmol), DA (40 pmol) and L-arginine + DA. In experiment 4, chickens received ICV injection of saline, L-NAME (100 nmol), DA (40 pmol) and L-NAME + DA. Thereafter, the cumulative food intake (on the basis of metabolic body weight) was recorded until 2-h post injection. The results showed that ICV injection of amphetamine or DA significantly decreased food intake (P<0.05). Also, co-administration of L-NAME + amphetamine attenuated the hypophagic effect of amphetamine (P<0.05), while combined administration of L-NAME and DA had no effect on DA-induced hypophagia. Additionally, the hypophagic effect of amphetamine was significantly amplified by L-arginine (P<0.05), but the combination of L-arginine and DA did not alter feeding behavior which was induced by DA. These results suggest an interaction between DAergic and nitrergic systems via a presynaptic mechanism on food intake regulation in layer-type chicken.

Parole chiave

  • endogenous nitric oxide
  • dopamine
  • food intake
  • layer-type chicken
Accesso libero

Association of Ejaculate Sperm Counts with their Morphological and Morphometric Characteristics in Hypor Boars

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 1043 - 1052

Astratto

Abstract

Reproductive efficiency in pigs is largely dependent on the fertility of the boar. Boars used at insemination stations should produce a large amount of semen with high fertilization capacity. The sperm count influences the conception rate and the number of insemination doses produced. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological and morphometric characteristics of boars of the Hypor breed in relation to the total sperm count in the ejaculate. An analysis was performed of 120 ejaculates collected from 12 Hypor boars used at three insemination stations. The ejaculate sperm count was found to affect the morphometric characteristics of spermatozoa from boars. In the ejaculates with the lowest sperm count the spermatozoa heads were significantly shorter and narrower and had a smaller surface area. The sperm from ejaculates with the lowest sperm count had relatively small head dimensions in relation to the tail length and total sperm length. In the ejaculates with the most sperm cells, the proportion of spermatozoa with major defects was significantly greater than in the ejaculates from other groups. In the ejaculates with the lowest sperm count the frequency of sperm with progressive motility was significantly lower. The fewest insemination doses can be prepared from these ejaculates.

Parole chiave

  • boar
  • ejaculate
  • sperm count
  • sperm morphology
Accesso libero

Investigation of Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone, Growth Hormone and Prolactin Hormone Gene Polymorphism in Anatolian Water Buffalo

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 1053 - 1062

Astratto

Abstract

The purpose of this work was to identify GHRH, GH and PRL gene polymorphisms in Anatolian water buffalo by means of the PCR-RFLP method. A total of 126 buffalo were included in this study. PCR amplification gave a 451 bp band for the GHRH gene, a 221 bp band for the GH gene and a 156 bp band for the PRL gene. The PCR products were digested by HaeIII for the GHRH gene, AluI for the GH gene and RsaI for the PRL gene. The GH/AluI and PRL/RsaI polymorphisms were found to be polymorphic, while the GHRH/HaeIII polymorphism was not found in Anatolian water buffalo. The frequencies of GH-L (0.87) and PRL-A (0.55) alleles were found to be high in the examined Anatolian water buffalo. The chi-square test showed that the Anatolian water buffalo were in Hardy-Weinberg (HW) equilibrium for the GH gene while significant deviation was observed from HW equilibrium for the PRL gene. The present study is the first to examine GHRH/HaeIII, GH/AluI and PRL/RsaI polymorphisms in Anatolian water buffalo.

Parole chiave

  • Anatolian water buffalo
  • growth hormone
  • growth hormone releasing hormone
  • prolactin hormone
  • RFLP
Accesso libero

Expression of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α and Association with Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase in the Reproductive Tract Tissues of Adult Male Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) During the Reproduction Season

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 1063 - 1074

Astratto

Abstract

This study aimed to determine the mRNA and protein expressions of HIF-1α and SOD-1 in testes and epididymis of adult male roe deer during the periods of reproductive season. The mRNA expression levels of investigated factors were examined using RT-PCR, while protein expression levels were evaluated using Western blot analysis. Differences between tissues within this period and between periods were evaluated. Testicular tissue exhibited lower HIF-1α and SOD-1 mRNA expression levels during all periods as compared to epididymal tissues. Among the epididymal tissues, cauda epididymis showed higher HIF-1α mRNA expression levels in comparison with caput and corpus tissues in the pre-rut period, and not much lower SOD-1 mRNA expression levels in comparison with caput in all periods. Protein expression of HIF-1α was higher in the epididymis than in the testicular tissues in the pre-rut and rut periods. Its expression was the highest in caput epididymal tissue compared with either the testicular, corpus and cauda epididymal tissue during rut and higher than corpus and testis in pre- and post-rut periods. Testicular tissue was characterized by lower SOD-1 protein expression levels than in epididymis in pre-rut and rut periods. This study indicates that the reproductive tract of male roe deer possesses a tissue-specific defense system which protects the tissues from oxygen deficiency damage, which is important during cyclic changes occurring in the reproductive tissues during the reproductive season.

Parole chiave

  • HIF-1α
  • SOD-1
  • roe deer
  • reproductive tract tissues
  • reproductive season

The biology, physiology, reproduction, and health

Accesso libero

The Effect of a Probiotic Containing Enterococcus faecium DSM 7134 on Redox and Biochemical Parameters in Chicken Blood

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 1075 - 1088

Astratto

Abstract

It was postulated that administration of a probiotic to chickens can stimulate their antioxidant status while at the same time inhibiting oxidation processes. The objective of the study was to determine whether and how different levels and durations of application of a probiotic preparation containing live cultures of Enterococcus faecium and enriched with cholecalciferol and ascorbic acid influences indicators of lipid status and the redox reaction in the blood of broiler chickens. Four hundred day-old Ross 308 chickens were raised until their 42nd day of age. The animals were assigned to five experimental groups of 80 broilers each: a control group that did not receive the probiotic, T1 groups, which received the probiotic at 0.25 (E-0.25) or 0.1 g/l (E-0.1) throughout the rearing period, and T2 groups, which received the probiotic at the same levels, but during days 1–7, 15–21 and 29–35 of life. The probiotic preparation reduced the level of peroxides (LOH), malondialdehyde (MDA), cholesterol (TC), low density (LDL) cholesterol, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and the activity of catalase (CAT), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), acid phosphatase (AC), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH), while ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and glutathione (GSH + GSSG) levels were increased in the blood plasma of the chickens. The results obtained indicate that administration of this probiotic to chickens, especially in the amount of 0.25 g/l for the entire rearing period, stimulates synthesis of low-molecular-weight antioxidants responsible for maintaining redox homeostasis, without exerting a negative effect on liver metabolism in chickens.

Parole chiave

  • chicken
  • blood
  • lipid redox reaction
Accesso libero

Dose-Dependent Influence of Dietary Cu-Glycine Complex on Bone and Hyaline Cartilage Development in Adolescent Rats

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 1089 - 1105

Astratto

Abstract

Administration of the amino acid copper (Cu) complex ensures higher Cu bioavailability through enhanced absorption from intestine and decreases the dietary Cu level, compared to the recommended Cu dose. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Cu-low diet on the bone development in adolescent rats. Male rats at the age of 6 weeks were used in the 12-week experiment. The control diet provided the required Cu level from sulfate (S-Cu) and other diets were supplemented with Cu as a glycine complex (Cu-Gly) at 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of daily requirement. After the 12-week treatment, rats from the Cu-Gly100 group were heavier, compared to the other groups. The copper and calcium plasma and bone concentrations of the rats in the groups treated with the organic form of Cu (irrespective of its dose) was similar to the control values noted in the rats administered with S-Cu. A decrease in the femur weight and length was observed in the Cu-Gly75 and Cu-Gly50 groups. Cu-Gly increased the cross section area, mean relative wall thickness, and cortical index only in the Cu-Gly75 group. A decrease in the ultimate strength, elastic stress, and ultimate stress was noted in the Cu-Gly100 and Cu-Gly75 groups. In the Cu-Gly50 group, a decrease in the ultimate stress and an increase in the maximal elastic strength and bending moment were noted. Adolescent rats treated with Cu-Gly at a Cu-deficient level exhibited a dose-dependent strongly osteoporotic cancellous bone. Lower proteoglycan content was found in groups fed the Cu-low diet. In the control rats supplemented with S-Cu, there was no evident gradient in safranin O staining. It is difficult to indicate which dose of the Cu-Gly complex among the investigated Cu-poor diet exerted a positive effect on bone metabolism. It appears that the use of this Cu-Gly complex at a significantly reduced dose than S-Cu at the recommended dose did not inhibit the development of bone and hyaline cartilage in adolescent rats.

Parole chiave

  • copper
  • copper-glycine complex
  • bone histomorphometry
  • mechanical testing
  • adolescent rat
Accesso libero

Effects of Different Dietary Levels of Whey Lactose as a Prebiotic Disaccharide on the Productive Performances and Selected Indices of the Caecal Micro-Environment in Broiler Chickens

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 1107 - 1122

Astratto

Abstract

The primary aim of this study was to investigate the impact of three dietary levels of lactose (LAC) originating from conventional dried whey (DW) and the duration of these treatments (from 8 to 21 or to 42 days of age) on growth performance, basic post-slaughter traits and excreta quality of broiler chickens kept in cages. A secondary purpose was to investigate the effect of LAC level on some parameters of the caecal micro-environment and gross morphology in these birds. A total of 560 Ross 308 chickens (sex ratio 1:1) were assigned to 7 dietary combinations with 10 replicate cages of 8 birds per cage. The control group was fed basal diets consisting of maize, wheat and soybean meal. The other 6 groups received the same basal diets with DW added in amounts equivalent to a LAC dietary levels of 1, 2 or 3%. Only continuous feeding (day 8 to 42) with 1% and 2% levels of LAC was found to yield the overall body weight gain (BWG) during the whole 42-day rearing period, which was significantly higher than that on the control diet, with a larger share of breast meat in carcass at a 2% LAC. However, these effects were associated with greater faecal score values indicating more watery excreta compared with the control. Increasing levels of LAC augmented the relative caecal weight and length. A reduction in the caecal pH was confirmed at day 21 for birds fed 1% and 2% of dietary LAC. The lower pH values were correlated to an increased sum of total volatile fatty acids (VFA), causing large increases in the concentration of undissociated forms of individual VFA. The decline in plate counts of coliform bacteria was observed with 2% and 3% LAC, whereas the counts of lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB) were higher at these two LAC levels. The present findings lead to the conclusion that the dietary level of 2% LAC originated from DW is the most effective in enhancing the productivity of broilers, with moderate occurrence of undesirable side effects.

Parole chiave

  • broilers
  • lactose
  • dried whey
  • performance
  • caecal pH
  • volatile fatty acids
  • lactic acid-producing bacteria
  • coliforms
Accesso libero

Feed Intake and Live Weight Gain of Hereford Bulls Offered Diets Based on Whole-Crop Barley and Whole-Crop Wheat Silages Relative to Moderately Digestible Grass Silage with or without Protein Supplementation

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 1123 - 1134

Astratto

Abstract

The present experiment was conducted to study the performance of Hereford bulls offered diets based on whole-crop barley (WCB) and whole-crop wheat (WCW) silages relative to a moderately digestible grass silage (GS)-based diet with or without rapeseed meal (RSM) supplementation. The experiment comprised 30 bulls and a 3×2 factorial design was used. The bulls were offered silages ad libitum. In all forage diets (WCB, WCW, GS) the concentrate used was either rolled barley alone or rolled barley plus RSM. The amount of the concentrate supplementation was 37 g/metabolic live weight/animal/day for all treatments. The crude protein (CP) content of barley was 126 g/kg dry matter (DM) and the CP content of the concentrate increased 23% with RSM supplementation. Average live weight gains (LWG) for the GS, WCB and WCW feedings were 1411, 1331 and 1181 g/d, respectively. Differences in diet digestibility and energy intake probably explain the differences in LWG among the forage types. RSM supplementation increased both silage and total DM intake in the WCB and WCW feedings but not in the GS feeding. Furthermore, RSM supplementation increased LWG 7 and 17% in the WCB and WCW feedings, respectively, but only 2% in the GS feeding.

Parole chiave

  • beef production
  • bulls
  • growth
  • rapeseed meal
  • whole-crop silages
Accesso libero

Effect of Dietary Fish Oil Replacement with Plant Oils on Growth Performance and Gene Expression in Juvenile Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 1135 - 1153

Astratto

Abstract

An eight-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of total (100%) replacement of dietary fish oil with alternative lipid sources in juvenile rainbow trout. Six iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipidic experimental diets were formulated: CO (14%) – cod liver oil; SSO (14%) – safflower seed oil; SBO (14%) – soybean oil; LO (14%) – linseed oil; SBO (7%) + LO (7%) – a blend of soybean oil and linseed oil; and SSO (7%) + LO (7%) – a blend of safflower seed oil and linseed oil. Growth performance [specific growth rate (SGR), weight gain (WG), food conversion ratio (FCR) and survival rate (SR)], growth hormones [growth hormone (GH-I), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II)], immune transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and antioxidant [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST)] response, and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA levels were determined in muscle and liver. Our data indicated that final weight, weight gain, FCR and SGR showed significant difference among the six dietary treatments (P<0.05) while there were no significant differences in survival rate between the rainbow trout from supplement fed groups and control group. HSP70 mRNA level expression in muscle was higher in fish fed SSO (P<0.05) while highest level in liver was obtained from fish fed SBO compared to the other treatments (P<0.05). There were no significant differences among treatments for TGF-β mRNA expression level in muscle and liver. In conclusion, growth performance and expression levels of growth hormones, antioxidants, HSP70, except TGF-β were affected by five separate lipid sources. In addition, LO positively increased growth performance of juvenile rainbow trout by means of preventing oxidative stress and HSP70 and, enhanced expression of growth hormone related gene.

Parole chiave

  • dietary lipid
  • gene expression
  • oxidative stress
  • HSP70
Accesso libero

Enhancing Tolerance of Broiler Chickens to Heat Stress by Supplementation with Vitamin E, Vitamin C and/or Probiotics

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 1155 - 1169

Astratto

Abstract

Heat stress is one of the major challenges which the poultry industry faces during summer in tropical and subtropical regions. This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of Vitamin (Vit) E, C and/or probiotics on improving tolerance of broiler chickens to chronic heat stress (CHS). A total of 294, 1-day-old Cobb-500 broiler chicks were allocated into seven treatment groups; Thermoneutral group was raised under a thermoneutral condition during 25–42 d of age. The other six groups were raised for three successive days per week at 36±2ºC and 75–85% relative humidity for 7 h daily: heat stressed group, Vit E (100 mg/kg diet), Vit C (200 mg/kg diet), Vit C+Vit E, probiotics (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus acidophilus at 2 g/kg diet) and Vit C+Vit E+probiotics. Exposure to CHS decreased body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), and abdominal fat. It had adverse impact on feed conversion ratio (FCR), packed cell volume (PCV), monocyte, basophil, total protein, and phagocytic activity while increased plasma cholesterol and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) compared to the thermoneutral group. Vit E, Vit C or probiotics alone decreased the adverse effects of CHS on growth rate throughout the experimental period. Vit C and E were equally potent during the experimental period, but were less effective than the combination of both vitamins. Vit E increased the dressing percentage and abdominal fat as compared to the thermoneutral group, but decreased AST while increasing basophil, monocyte and globulin compared to the heat stressed group. In addition, serum albumin and AST of Vit E were lower compared to Vit C, but cholesterol was higher. Vit E increased red blood cells and white blood cells, but plasma cholesterol was increased compared with the heat stressed group. Vit C increased PCV, lymphocytes, monocyte, basophil and albumin and decreased neutrophil. Both vitamins without/with probiotic induced a further increase in basophil, serum total protein, and albumin. It could be concluded that supplementation of Vit E, Vit C, probiotics, and different combinations reduced some of the adverse effects of CHS, and Vit E+Vit C+probiotics was the most effective for economic traits followed by Vit E+Vit C or probiotics.

Parole chiave

  • vitamin E
  • vitamin C
  • probiotics
  • heat stress
  • hematology
  • broilers

Animal nutrition, and feedstuffs

Accesso libero

Longevity of Cows Depending on their First Lactation Yield and Herd Production Level

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 1171 - 1183

Astratto

Abstract

The effect of first lactation yield and herd production level on longevity was studied using data from the SYMLEK database on 12045 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows in 1371 farms from the active population in Pomerania and Kujawy. The cows first calved in 2008 and were used or disposed from the herds by the end of 2015. FREQ, GLM and CORR procedures from the SAS package were used in the statistical calculations. The optimum level of first lactation milk from the viewpoint of longevity varies according to herd production level, which serves as a measure of the quality of rearing conditions. If the living conditions are not adapted to the high milk production of first calvers, there is a possibility that their productive life will be shortened and number of calvings decreased. The percentage of voluntary culling decisions by the breeder, which included the sale for further breeding, low milk yield and old age, averaged 9% and decreased with increasing herd production level from 16% to around 6%. The main reason for culling was infertility (around 40% on average). Culling due to infertility was particularly common among the cows which produced more than 11000 kg milk as first calvers.

Parole chiave

  • cow
  • longevity
  • first lactation
  • production level
Accesso libero

The Effect of Origin, Sex and Feeding on Sensory Evaluation and Some Quality Characteristics of Goose Meat from Polish Native Flocks

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 1185 - 1196

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the study was to characterize the sensory quality and physical traits of raw and heattreated meat depending on the origin, sex and feeding of geese. The experiment used meat from domestic geese of southern varieties: Lubelska (Lu), Kielecka (Ki) and Subcarpatian (Sb), included in the conservation programme. The experiment was carried out on a total of 192 birds divided according to origin (Lu, Ki and Sb), sex (M and F) and dietary treatment (DI – conventional feeding and DI – oat fattening). To evaluate the quality characteristics of meat, 16 birds from each group were selected. Sensory evaluation of raw goose muscles was at a good level of consumer acceptability and exceeded 4.0 points, ranging from 4.18 pts (appearance/Ki) to 4.59 pts (aroma/Sb) for breast muscles (BM), and from 4.17 pts (fatness/Lu) to 4.53 pts (aroma/Sb) for leg muscles (LM). In the case of heat-treated muscles the tenderness of the muscles of Lu geese was characterized by high number grade (P≤0.05) for both the BM (4.87 pts) and LM (4.76 pts). Lighter colour (L*) (P≤0.05) was characteristic of the muscles of oat-fattened birds (44.25 for BM and 49.86 for LM) compared to the muscles of conventionally fed birds (39.77 for BM and 46.89 for LM). In addition, a significant (P≤0.05) effect of diet was also found on the value of the parameter a* (redness) and b* (yellowness). Parameter a* ranged from 10.45 (Lu) to 11.96 (Ki) for BM and from 13.28 (Ki) to 14.21 (Sb) for LM. In turn, the highest share (P≤0.05) of yellow colour (parameter b*) was demonstrated in the muscles of Ki geese – 4.87 for BM and 10.92 for LM. Male muscles were characterized by higher (26.34 mg% – BM and 24.37 mg% – LM) water holding capacity (WHC) than female muscles (27.23 mg% for BM and 25.28 mg% for LM respectively). Furthermore for BM of oat-fattened geese cooking loss was at the level of 10.50%. The present study indicated that most of the sensory characteristics of meat (BM and LM) from geese of different breeds were affected (significantly at P≤0.05) by the diet. This concerned both raw and heat-treated meat. For raw breast muscles, a significant (P≤0.05) effect of sex was also found (with the exception of aroma). In turn, the quality characteristics of raw leg muscles (except for colour) were influenced (P≤0.05) by all the treatment factors. Analysis of the physical properties of meat showed that these parameters are mainly affected (P≤0.05) by the diet.

Parole chiave

  • goose
  • genotype
  • diet
  • meat
  • sensory analysis
  • physical properties
Accesso libero

Effect of Organic Production System on the Performance and Meat Quality of Two Purebred Slow-Growing Chicken Breeds

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 1197 - 1213

Astratto

Abstract

The objective of the study was to compare the effect of organic and conventional rearing systems on the productivity and meat quality of Yellowleg Partridge (Ż-33) and Rhode Island Red (R-11) chickens. A total of 492 sexed experimental birds (Gallus domesticus) were assigned to four groups. In groups I-C and III-C, the Ż-33 and R-11 chickens were reared under intensive conditions following conventional farming principles. In groups II-O and IV-O, the Ż-33 and R-11 chickens were kept according to organic farming principles. Body weight, feed conversion (kg/kg gain) and mortality were recorded throughout the study. On day 140 of rearing, the native breed chickens were subjected to simplified slaughter analysis, and meat pH, muscle colour, water holding capacity and chilling loss were determined. The meat samples were analysed for the chemical composition and profile of fatty acids, and the peroxidizability index (PI), thrombogenic index (TI) and atherogenicity index (AI) were calculated. The organically raised chickens were characterised by higher body weight (P≤0.01), better feed conversion (P≤0.01) and more favourable fatty acid profile of the muscles compared to the conventionally reared birds. Under organic conditions, the R-11 chickens showed better productivity but slightly poorer fatty acid profile of the muscles compared to the Ż-11 chickens.

Parole chiave

  • chickens
  • native breeds
  • organic production system
  • performance
  • meat quality
  • fatty acid profile
Accesso libero

Meat Quality and Fatty Acid Profile of Pork and Backfat from an Indigenous Breed and A Commercial Hybrid of Pigs

Pubblicato online: 27 Oct 2017
Pagine: 1215 - 1227

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that carcass traits, quality and oxidative stability of meat, and fatty acids profile in intramuscular fat (IMF) of M. longissimus lumborum et thoracis (MLLT) and backfat (BF) are different between the observed genotypes of pigs. A total of 64 animals were included in the experiment, 32 pigs of native breed Prestice Black-Pied breed (PBP) and 32 pigs of hybrid combination Large White × Landrace sows × Duroc × Pietrain boars (LWLDP). PBP pigs showed higher values of IMF (P≤0.01) and BF, lower lean meat content and drip loss value (P≤0.001) than the LWLDP hybrid. The value of pH45,24 was higher (P≤0.05) in PBP pigs. The analysis of fatty acid profile in MLLT showed higher content of C8:0 (P≤0.01), C10:0 (P≤0.01), C15:0 (P≤0.01), C22:0 (P≤0.05), C18:1 n-9 (P≤0.01), C18:3 n-6 (P≤0.001), C20:3 n-3 (P≤0.05), C20:4 n-6 (P≤0.01), C22:4 n-6 (P≤0.05), C22:5 n-3 (P≤0.01) and C22:6 n-3 (P≤0.01) in LWLDP than in PBP pigs. The opposite trend was observed in C18:1 n-9 (P≤0.01) and C20:5 n-3 (P≤0.01). Higher content of MUFA as well as the MUFA/SFA ratio were found in PBP breed (P≤0.01). Higher levels of C10:0 (P≤0.01), C12:0 (P≤0.01), C14:0 (P≤0.001), C16:0 (P≤0.001), C14:1 n-5 (P≤0.01), C16:1 n-7 (P≤0.05), C18:1 n-7 (P≤0.001), C20:5 n-3 (P≤0.01) and C22:6 n-3 (P≤0.05) in BF were found in LWLDP pigs, however the content of C24:1 n-9 (P≤0.01), C18:2 n-6 (P≤0.05), C18: n-3 (P≤0.05), C20:4 n-6 (P≤0.01) and C22:5 n-3 (P≤0.01) was higher in PBP pigs. SFA content was higher (P≤0.001) in LWLDP hybrid, but PUFA (P≤0.01), n-6 PUFA (P≤0.05) and mainly n-3 PUFA (P≤0.01) were higher in PBP pigs. In BF, the MUFA/SFA (P≤0.05) and PUFA/SFA (P≤0.001) ratios were higher in PBP pigs; on the contrary the MUFA/PUFA (P≤0.05) ratio was higher in LWLDP pigs.

Parole chiave

  • pig
  • Prestice Black-Pied breed
  • four-breed hybrid
  • meat quality
  • fatty acids

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