- Dettagli della rivista
- Pubblicato per la prima volta
- 25 Nov 2011
- Periodo di pubblicazione
- 2 volte all'anno
- Accesso libero
The Effect of Different Extracts of Beetroots as Antioxidant and Anti-Anaemia On Phenylhydrazine-Induced Rats
Pagine: 1 - 7
evaluate antioxidant and anti-anaemia activity of dichloromethane, hydroethanolic, and alkaloids-free hydroethanolic extracts of beetroot (
Male rats were divided into five groups: normal control group, negative control group, dichloromethane extract group, hydroethanolic extract group, and alkaloids-free hydroethanolic extract group. All groups were induced with phenylhydrazine (30 mg.Kg−1 BW) for three days, except for the normal control group. After induction, each treatment group received each extract (200 mg.Kg−1 BW) for 21 days. The haematology parameters (haemoglobin levels, the number of erythrocytes, and haematocrit levels) were measured using Haematology Analyzer, and the antioxidant activity was measured through MDA level parameters in rats. Data were analysed using one-way ANOVA and then continued with the Tukey test.
The results showed that the hydroethanolic extract of beetroot increased the percentage of erythrocytes (33.5%), haemoglobin (25%), and haematocrit (24.4%) to the negative control group, which was comparable to the normal control group (p > 0.05). In addition, the best antioxidant activity was shown in the hydroethanolic extract of beetroot, which is comparable to the normal group (p > 0.05).
The beetroot hydroethanolic crude extract could be potentially produced in a natural pharmaceutical product as a beneficial resource within anti-anaemia and antioxidant activities.
- Beta vulgaris
- Accesso libero
Pagine: 8 - 15
Gentamicin sulphate is an antibiotic belonging to the aminoglycosides and to class III of the Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS). Gentamicin sulphate is highly water soluble, but has very low intestinal permeability. The wide use is because of its broad spectrum of activity. In the current study, the suitability of administering gentamicin sulphate orally for local action against susceptible gastrointestinal tract (GIT) bacteria was investigated. The possibility of the drug escaping into the systemic circulation even in the presence of some permeation enhancers was ascertained. Representatives of potential GIT bacteria pathogens were evaluated for their susceptibility to the drug at concentrations obtainable in the GIT using standard microbiological methods. Dose levels that will inhibit these potential bacteria pathogens were also established, as well as the frequency of their administration. Different batches of oral capsules of 250 mg gentamicin sulphate were formulated and their release profiles ascertained using standard methods. The results showed that the selected representatives of the GIT potential pathogenic bacteria were all susceptible to gentamicin sulphate. The drug at its plausible dosage levels of 14.28 mg/kg (1,000 mg/70 kg), 10.71 mg/kg (750 mg/70 kg) and 7.14 mg/kg (500 mg/70 kg) did not cross the mucosal barrier into the systemic circulation even in the presence of some permeation enhancers. The drug's frequency of administration were found to be on 8-hourly bases. Gentamicin sulphate (250 mg) granules formulated with polyethylene glycol (PEG 4000) as granulating aid were quick drying because the granules were not hygroscopic. The formulated gentamicin sulphate capsule batch released enough concentration of the drug that inhibits the test organism within 2 min of dissolution. The above stated doses are acceptable in the dosage form design; it is possible to formulate non-absorbable oral gentamicin sulphate dosage form for local activity in the GIT using existing conventional solid dosage formulating equipment.
- Oral dosage form
- gentamicin sulphate
- permeation enhancers
- mucosal barrier
- systemic circulation
- Accesso libero
Amelioration of the Abnormalities Associated with Metabolic Syndrome by L-Norvaline in Hyperlipidemic Diabetic Rats
Pagine: 16 - 26
The present study was designed to assess the treatment effect of arginase inhibitor, L-Norvaline in abnormalities associated with high fat diet (HFD) and fructose-induced metabolic syndrome. The HFD and fructose was fed to the rats for a period of 45 days. Animals having body weight of 350 g and fasting blood sugar level of more than 250 mg/dl were considered as hyperlipidemic diabetic rats (HDR) and selected for the study. The HDR were divided into three groups having six animals each. The HDR received L–Norvaline (10 mg/kg/day, i.p.) and standard drug, gemfibrozil (60 mg/kg/day, p.o.), for a period of 30 days. Various hormonal, biochemical and tissue parameters were evaluated at the end of the study. Both treatments significantly decreased body weight, BMI, fasting blood sugar and insulin level and improved insulin resistance in HDR as compared to the toxicant control group. A significant improvement was observed in the lipid profile, levels of nitrate, leptin, C-reactive protein and adiponectin in HDR. L-Norvaline also caused slight decrease in the malondialdehyde level, though, no prominent effect was observed on the level of superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione in the pancreas of HDR, as compared to the toxicant control group. L-Norvaline treatment also improved the histo-architecture of pancreatic cells. Results of the present study concludes that L-Norvaline caused significant alleviation of the abnormalities of MetS indicating that it can be used as potential treatment strategy for managing the symptoms of metabolic syndrome.
- Insulin resistance
- Metabolic syndrome
- Accesso libero
Effects of Demographic Characteristics and Consumer Behavior in the selection of Retail Pharmacies and Over-the-Counter Medicine
Pagine: 27 - 40
The study aimed to provide new insights into consumer behaviour by identifying the key demographic factors that influence the choice of pharmacy and over-the-counter (OTC) medicine.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban area (Thessaloniki, Greece), surveying a convenience sample of 314 consumers with a structured questionnaire. Data analysis was conducted using the chi-square test, one-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) and Spearman's rho correlation coefficient.
Respondents with a lower educational level and retired consumers tended to make their purchases in a single pharmacy (
The educational level, occupation and age of consumers have a marked effect in their selection of pharmacy, and along with gender and personal income, in their choice of OTC medicine. Our findings yield implications for the management of community pharmacies.
- community pharmacy
- demographic factors
- marketing strategy
- Accesso libero
Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the EORTC QLQ-BR45 to Assess Health-Related Quality of Life of Breast Cancer Patients
Pagine: 41 - 48
The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-BR23 is considered a premier module for breast cancer patients that is utilised synchronously with the core questionnaire. However, new and scalable treatments on breast cancer patients’ quality of life (QoL) need a more accurate and comprehensive tool to be assessed. Therefore, the EORTC introduced the newly updated module EORTC QLQ-BR45. Hence, the current study aims to perform cultural adaptation, pilot testing and assessment of the psychometric properties of the Egyptian Arabic translation of the EORTC QLQ-BR45 module on Egyptian breast cancer patients.
First, a review of the existing Arabic translation and the modified preliminary translation was sent to a professional proofreader. Then, comprehensibility of the Egyptian Arabic translation was pilot tested on a sample of 13 breast cancer patients. Afterwards, 74 patients with proven locally advanced breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy at Beni-Suef University Hospital, Beni-Suef, Egypt were interviewed. A second interview was conducted post-surgery for patients receiving target therapy, endocrine therapy or radiotherapy. The psychometric properties of the EORTC QLQ-BR45 were assessed in terms of reliability, convergent and divergent validity.
Adequate internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s α coefficients >0.7) was demonstrated for the questionnaire, except for body image scale (α = 0.51) and systemic therapy side effects scale (α = 0.63). Multi-trait scaling analysis exhibited acceptable convergent and divergent validity, and scaling success was observed for all questionnaire items.
The Egyptian Arabic version of the EORTC QLQ-BR45 module is valid and adequately reliable. These results support using the EORTC QLQ-BR45 in future breast cancer clinical trials.
- Breast cancer
- Quality of life
- Module development
- EORTC QLQ-BR45
- Accesso libero
Development and Validation of Bioanalytical Method for Determination of Nebivolol and Valsartan in Human Plasma by Using RP-HPLC
Pagine: 49 - 58
Nebivolol and valsartan are used in the treatment of hypertension. So, this study was conducted for the purpose of determining bioavailability/bioequivalence of nebivolol and valsartan in human plasma.
The chromatographic separation was performed on Symmetry C18 (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column using 0.01 N potassium dihydrogen phosphate (pH 3.0):acetonitrile (60:40) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and a detector wavelength of 280 nm. The retention times of nebivolol and valsartan in plasma were found to be 3.1 and 4.3 min, respectively.
The method was validated statistically and by recovery studies. The linearity concentration was acceptable in the range of 0.5–10 ng/mL for nebivolol and 400–8000 ng/mL for valsartan. The lower limits of quantification were 0.5 ng/mL for nebivolol and 400 ng/mL for valsartan, which reached the levels of both drugs possibly found in human plasma. Per cent recoveries were obtained as 97.78% and 98.11% for nebivolol and valsartan, respectively.
The proposed method is simple, rapid, accurate, precise and gives us knowledge about the pharmacokinetics and therapeutic drug monitoring in clinical laboratories.
- Method development
- ICH Guidelines (ICH M10)