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Volume 127 (2017): Edizione 3 (September 2017)

Volume 127 (2017): Edizione 2 (June 2017)

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Volume 124 (2014): Edizione 3 (September 2014)

Volume 124 (2014): Edizione 2 (June 2014)

Volume 124 (2014): Edizione 1 (March 2014)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2083-4829
Pubblicato per la prima volta
23 Apr 2014
Periodo di pubblicazione
1 volta all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 124 (2014): Edizione 3 (September 2014)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2083-4829
Pubblicato per la prima volta
23 Apr 2014
Periodo di pubblicazione
1 volta all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

12 Articoli
Accesso libero

Quality of Life and Sleep Disorders Among Patients Treated with Hemodialysis in Relation to Dialysis Adequacy

Pubblicato online: 10 Dec 2014
Pagine: 111 - 114

Astratto

Abstract

Introduction. Recent studies in this field are insufficient to determine the relationship between life quality and hemodialy-sis adequacy. The problem, which requires further analysis is the issue of verification of these relationships and the problem of the relationship between sleep disorders and hemodialysis indicators.

Aim. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between quality of life and sleep disorders occurring among patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) treated with hemodialysis and the dialysis adequacy parameters.

Material and methods. The survey was based on two standardized international scales: the Quality of Life Scale (SF-36) and the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The study was conducted among 150 patients (67 women and 83 men) treated with hemodialysis at the Fresenius center. All patients participating in the study were undergoing dialysis three times a week. The average value of Kt/V was 1.45 (SD=0.22) and URR ration 71.78 (SD=5.95).

Results. The urea level prior to hemodialysis moderately strongly correlates with life energy deficit (r=-0.34, p=-0.049) and that the values of urea reduction ratio URR weakly correlates with the patient's conviction on restricting life's activity (SF-36) (r=0.18, p=0.046). The level of urea prior to dialysis correlates positively with the time of falling asleep in PSQI scale (r=-0.39, p=0.023).

Conclusions. Patients with lower urea level before hemodialysis have a significantly higher vitality level. Higher fluctuations of urea concentrations before and after hemodialysis (higher urea reduction ratio URR) are associated with restrictions of physical activity in hemodialysis patients.

Parole chiave

  • quality of life
  • sleep disorders
  • end stage renal disease
  • hemodialysis
Accesso libero

Conditions of Attending Prophylactic Gynecological Examinations by Women

Pubblicato online: 10 Dec 2014
Pagine: 115 - 119

Astratto

Abstract

Introduction. Low percentage of women who attend prophylactic examinations and also react early to the first symptoms of a disease is a common problem.

Aim. The aim of the study was to determine demographic and environmental characteristics which had positive effects on having prophylactic gynecological examinations by women as well as to investigate what significance women's practicing of hormonal contraception had in that question.

Material and methods. The study covered 430 women. The conditions of including women into the study group were as follows: age <45 years, commencement of sexual intercourses, maintaining of sexual activity, consent to participate in the study. The method of the study was a diagnostics survey using the questionnaire.

Results. The majority of the surveyed women said that they attended prophylactic gynecological examinations regularly. Having prophylactic gynecological examinations was significantly affected (p<0.05) by mean monthly income per capita in the family, practicing and the type of contraception. The joint effect of the surveyed characteristics proved to be significant (p<0.05).

Conclusions. The model woman who willingly attends prophylactic gynecological examinations is a young person who lives in a big city, has a university education and a very good financial position confirmed by high family income per capita. Practicing of hormonal contraception by women is a factor that has a beneficial effect on women's care of their health understood as having regular prophylactic gynecological examinations.

Parole chiave

  • prophylactic gynecological examinations
  • woman
  • cervical cancer
Accesso libero

The Diagnosis of Excessive Body Mass and Body Fat in 18-Year-Old Youth – Assessment of Comparability of Results Obtained on the Basis of BMI and BIA Methods

Pubblicato online: 10 Dec 2014
Pagine: 120 - 124

Astratto

Abstract

Introduction. A systematic increase in the frequency of excessive body mass in young Poles is an argument supporting the need for identification persons with the increased risk. It is justified to test the level of comparability of the applied screening methods and criteria of diagnosing excessive body mass and body fat in the adolescent group.

Aim. To assess the comparability of the results in terms of frequency of diagnosing of overweight and body fat excessive content depending on the method and assessment criteria in 18-year-olds.

Material and methods. The study comprised 141 secondary school students (100 women and 41 men), with the age median of 17.8 ± 0.5 years. The measurements included height and body mass (to calculate the BMI) and assessment of the percentage of body fat content with two methods of bioelectric impedance in two bipolar versions: Tanita BC-570 and Omron BF-306.

Results. Excessive body mass, as defined by the BMI, was found in 12.1% of students. The incidence of diagnosing excessive contents of body fat in the organism depended on the method of measurement and criteria of results interpretation; 20.6% with the Tanita and 28.3% with the Omron method. The measurements with Tanita BC-570 scales demonstrated stronger correlation with BMI value (p<0.001; r2=0.34) than measurements with the Omron BF-306 (p<0.001; r2=0.16).

Conclusions. In young adults: 1. the diagnosis of excessive body mass by BMI and measurement with use of the bioelectric impedance methods with two bipolar versions (Tanita BC-570, Omron BF-306) provided inconsistent results. 2. The proportion of young people with excessive body fat was greater than indicated by the BMI norms. 3. The measurement with Tanita BC-570 scales demonstrated stronger correlation with BMI values than by the ones with the Omron. 4. Critical approach to the applied methods is indispensable in screening studies of nutrition level among adolescents.

Parole chiave

  • body mass
  • body fat
  • body mass index
  • bioelectric impedance
Accesso libero

Interpersonal Communication in Medical Profession on the Example of Physiotherapists

Pubblicato online: 10 Dec 2014
Pagine: 125 - 129

Astratto

Abstract

Introduction. The article introduces the reader into the problem area, based on interpersonal relationships between physiotherapists and patients.

Aim. The aim of the study is to learn the factors determining the quality of physiotherapeutic services. The research was carried out in relation to verbal and non-verbal aspects of contact between physiotherapists and patients.

Material and method. The method used in the study was a quantitative survey based on a questionnaire.

Results. Ninety-six percent of respondents state that they have no problems with making interpersonal contact with patients. Fifty-three percent of them show interest in patients during the dialogue and the remaining group only initiates the contact and limits it to personal creativity. The research shows that the gender of the respondents does not significantly affect the ways of showing interest in patients. However, the length of service differentiates their approach to patients as well as the age of the patients themselves.

Discussion. Communication in a profession of physiotherapist refers to the personal preferences and interpersonal skills of the respondents, which can be determined by a specific style of their work. In addition, significantly it is determined by the level of education of future physical therapists, which was mentioned not only by the people in this study, but also in the studies cited in the literature included in the discussion.

Conclusions.The quality of physiotherapy services is determined not only by instrumental preparation of a physiotherapist but also by expression that results from the interpersonal contact. Physiotherapists are aware of building relationships during the first contact. Therefore, they try to make a positive impression. In such way, the quality of treatment can be increased.

Parole chiave

  • communication
  • physiotherapist
  • sociological research
Accesso libero

The Structure of a Group of Adult Disabled Patients Treated Dentally Under General Anesthesia

Pubblicato online: 10 Dec 2014
Pagine: 130 - 133

Astratto

Abstract

Introduction. Adult disabled people, including mentally handicapped ones, constitute a very serious medical problem in both general and specialist medical care, including dentistry. Dental treatment under general anesthesia is the most recommended for this group of patients.

Aim. The aim of this study was to analyze the structure of a group of adult disabled patients treated dentally under general anesthesia.

Material and methods. The study was conducted among 147 disabled people, 61 females and 86 males aged 18-56 (the average age − 26.69) from the Lubelskie Voivodeship, qualified for dental treatment under general anesthesia. The survey was basedon interviews with the family members or social workers. The questionnaire included the information concerning general diseases, age, gender, place of residence and the kind of care (family or social welfare institutions). Special attention was paid to the previous dental treatment performed in outpatient clinics or under general anesthesia.

Results. The study involved a group of 147 people, including 58.50% males and 41.50% females. The average age of the patients was 26.69 ± 6.41 years (ranged from18 to 56). The patients from a big city accounted for 40.14%, 23.13% of the subjects came from a small town, and 36.73% of the people came from the village. The largest group of patients included people with mental disabilities − 54.43%. Most people (87.76%) lived with their family, while 12.24% were the residents of social welfare institutions. The analysis of the data reveals that for 89.80% of patients, it was their first dental treatment under general anesthesia, and for 10.20%, a subsequent one. Studies have shown that early treatment in outpatient clinics wasperformed in only 27.21% of treated people, while 72.79% have never been treated in a dental surgery.

Conclusions. Mentally handicapped people were the largest group of patients treated dentally under general anesthesia. Patients living in the urban areas and under the care of families were more often treated dentally under general anesthesia. Because of the lack of cooperation between disabled patients and the dentist, the complete dental treatment under general anesthesia is the most effective therapy. Adult disabled patients require special dental care.

Parole chiave

  • The adult disabled patients
  • dental treatment
  • general anesthesia
Accesso libero

Survey-Based Research on Patients' Knowledge About Endodontic Treatment

Pubblicato online: 10 Dec 2014
Pagine: 134 - 137

Astratto

Abstract

Introduction. Patients' awareness and knowledge of the endodontic treatment is a very important issue in everyday practice of a dentist. It influences significantly the course and effects of treatment.

Aim. The paper presents an analysis of data collected from the patients about their concerns, expectations and perceptions about root canal treatment.

Material and methods. Questionnaire surveys were conducted in a group of 203 patients consisting questions characterizing their knowledge about endodontic treatment – their expectations, experiences, possible complications and treatment costs.

Results. Analyzing the experiences of patients regarding endodontic treatment, it was found that 69% of people in the past had experienced the procedure of root canal treatment. Most respondents define their state of knowledge of root canal treatment as an average. Fifty-seven percent of respondents admitted to knowing the price of endodontic treatment, 67% of them said that the cost was adequate to the complexity of the procedure. The study shows that most patients still choose specialists (38%).

Conclusion. An improvement of knowledge and awareness of patients about the endodontic treatment has been observed.

Parole chiave

  • endodontic treatment
  • pain in dentistry
  • pro-health awareness
Accesso libero

Comparison of Knowledge and Attitudes Towards the Use of Scientific Research in Clinical Practice Among Departmental and Charge Nurses

Pubblicato online: 10 Dec 2014
Pagine: 138 - 144

Astratto

Abstract

Introduction. The awareness of benefits arising from the use of the latest results of scientific research (EBNP – Evidence-Based Nursing Practice) among departmental and charge nurses is a necessary condition to ensure effective and safe health services and nursing care meeting the highest standards of patient care.

Aim. The comparison of knowledge of and attitudes towards EBNP among nurses depending on their position.

Material and methods. Twenty one departmental nurses (PO) (mean age 50.38 years, min. 37, max. 62, SD=7.35) and 20 Bachelor's degree students of a bridge programme (SSP) (mean age 43 years, min. 34, max. 55, SD=6.37). Qualitative study and analysis of the results, structured interview, extended focus.

Results. PO and SSP were not able to define the acronyms EBM and EBP correctly and did not have detailed knowledge of the criteria for assessment of reliability of scientific literature. A majority of DN was familiar with the available journals for nurses and was aware of benefits resulting from using EBNP. The use of EBNP in everyday clinical practice in SSP group was limited by a lack of time, insufficient knowledge of English and access to the Internet, as well as working at the position that makes taking decisions on developing procedures and standards for nursing care impossible.

Conclusions.

1. The level of knowledge about EBNP in both groups was inadequate and needs urgent supplementation of knowledge and skills of nurses with reference to this subject area.

2. The attitudes of nurses towards EBNP were different depending on their work position. Departmental nurses were aware of benefits resulting from using the most recent study results in everyday clinical practice and being up-to-date with medical knowledge.

3. The boundaries limiting the use of EBNP in everyday clinical practice by the study participants were objective and they require system changes with reference to the organization of work and the system of continuing education.

Parole chiave

  • nursing
  • evidence-based practice
  • quality of health care
  • work
  • position
Accesso libero

Health Education as an Important Tool in the Healthcare System

Pubblicato online: 10 Dec 2014
Pagine: 145 - 147

Astratto

Abstract

Health education is the main, and at the same time, integral part of complementary health promotion. The main assumption underlying the essence of health education is an assertion that the health of individuals and, consequently, of communities they belong to is significantly conditioned by the behaviour of inter-subject variability, which can be pro-healthily shaped by the educational impact. Thanks to transferred knowledge, shaping attitudes and the acquisition of certain skills, patients receive help in coping with health problems which improves their well-being, satisfaction, and the process of recovery. The education of a patient has advantages either in the clinical or social field, hence, it is perceived as an inseparable part of a high-quality healthcare. The importance of health education has been also recognized as one of the main factors that determine the long-term health policy, which indirectly may be reflected in the reduction of costs in the healthcare. In the recent years, more and more emphasis has been placed on preventive and educational aspects of the healthcare. Family medicine, as the source of the initiation of shaping health-oriented attitudes, has a prominent place in the system organized in such a way. In patients' opinion, medical staff is the best and most reliable source of knowledge on health. Such expectations increase the importance of primary care physicians in preventing diseases and shaping health-oriented attitudes in a given society. The main task of a modern health education is primarily to support the creation of conditions for change, the growth competence of individuals and groups in the sphere of independent action for health at different levels of the organization of social life.

Parole chiave

  • health education
  • health system
  • family medicine
Accesso libero

Evaluation of the Quality of Life of Children in Terms of Health as an Interdisciplinary Problem

Pubblicato online: 10 Dec 2014
Pagine: 148 - 151

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the paper was to present the basic methodological approaches to studying the quality of life of patients with regard to interdisciplinary character of the concept, its interrelation with standard of living, specificity in children and teenagers. Studying the quality of life of children and teenagers has specific character. According to modern recommendations, it is the basis of complex estimation of state of health of the child. Two basic methodological approaches are used: the first consists in selection and analysis of factors, significant for health of teenagers from adult people point of view; the second provides research of factors, significant from the point of view of teenagers. Techniques unite two types of criteria: 1. the objective: physical activity, social functioning; 2. the subjective: factors of emotional status, self-estimation of state of health, satisfaction by factors related with health, – that is perception by teenagers how their requirements for health are satisfied and how much possibilities necessary for it are given.

Parole chiave

  • health
  • quality of life
  • factors
  • child
  • child care
Accesso libero

Modern Factors of Health and Their Peculiarities for Teenagers

Pubblicato online: 10 Dec 2014
Pagine: 152 - 155

Astratto

Abstract

The work aimed at specifying modern features of civilizational factors influence on the health, revealing peculiarities of young age, establishing reflexion of modern factors of health in methodological approaches to health studying. Changes in understanding health are reflected in its studying methodology. The analysis of sociological research data shows, that the social stress became the main reason of medical-demographic situation deterioration in days of reforms. The mechanism of its influence was the loss of effective labor motivation, social envy, and deterioration of spiritual condition of a society. Material well-being decrease was not a determinative factor. The problem of inequalities in health gets the increasing urgency. It is connected with physical and social living environment; availability of qualitative medical aid; specific features of behavior of people. At a medical aid guarantee, and at teenage age, factors of social living environment, which influence behavior in health sphere by means of stigmatization are especially significant.

Parole chiave

  • health
  • risk factors
  • adolescents
  • developmental age
Accesso libero

Mechanism and Effects of Cyanobacterial Hepatotoxin Action on Human Organism

Pubblicato online: 10 Dec 2014
Pagine: 156 - 159

Astratto

Abstract

Eutrophication of waters and climate warming have created in the last decades favourable conditions for cyanobacteria colonization. The presence of cyanobacteria toxins in heavily polluted lake waters and fish ponds has become a current problem. These toxins belong to cyanobacteria secondary metabolites and are active in various fields of harmfulness to animals and humans. This group includes neurotoxins, dermatotoxins and hepatotoxins having a destructive influence on liver's cells. The group of hepatotoxins comprises microcystins and nodularin. The symptoms of hepatotoxin poisoning include stomach, intestine and liver disorders, intra-liver bleeding and physiological insufficiency of this organ.

These compounds can induce apoptosis of liver cells and tumor promoters. From the above facts, it follows that hepatotox-ins can pose a very serious health problem on a global scale. This work presents the characteristic of cyanobacterial hepato-toxins, their chemical structure, properties, and mechanism of their action on human organism. The harmful influence caused by consuming products used in diet supplements, which contain microcystins was also pointed out.

Parole chiave

  • cyanobacteria
  • cyanobacterial hepatotoxins
  • toxic action mechanism
Accesso libero

The Biomedical Role of Zinc in the Functioning of the Human Organism

Pubblicato online: 10 Dec 2014
Pagine: 160 - 163

Astratto

Abstract

Zinc is one of the most important microelements that can be found in the human organism. It is a component or an activator of various enzymes and takes part in more than 300 enzymatic reactions. It is present in all types of human tissue. About 90% of the general amount of zinc can be found in bones and muscles, 11% in liver and skin. Zn2+ ions are stable ions in biological environment and they do not participate in redox reactions that occur inside an organism. Assimilability of this element by living organisms is varied. It depends largely on the sort of food and interactions occurring between zinc and other elements. Zinc is an essential element for normal development and maintenance of human health.

The data presented in this article result from an overview of studies presented in literature published in the last five years concerning zinc transport mechanisms, the role of zinc in functioning of the human body, and also pathophysiological states caused by too low or excessive concentration of zinc in an organism.

Parole chiave

  • trace elements
  • zinc
  • functioning of the human organism
12 Articoli
Accesso libero

Quality of Life and Sleep Disorders Among Patients Treated with Hemodialysis in Relation to Dialysis Adequacy

Pubblicato online: 10 Dec 2014
Pagine: 111 - 114

Astratto

Abstract

Introduction. Recent studies in this field are insufficient to determine the relationship between life quality and hemodialy-sis adequacy. The problem, which requires further analysis is the issue of verification of these relationships and the problem of the relationship between sleep disorders and hemodialysis indicators.

Aim. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between quality of life and sleep disorders occurring among patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) treated with hemodialysis and the dialysis adequacy parameters.

Material and methods. The survey was based on two standardized international scales: the Quality of Life Scale (SF-36) and the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The study was conducted among 150 patients (67 women and 83 men) treated with hemodialysis at the Fresenius center. All patients participating in the study were undergoing dialysis three times a week. The average value of Kt/V was 1.45 (SD=0.22) and URR ration 71.78 (SD=5.95).

Results. The urea level prior to hemodialysis moderately strongly correlates with life energy deficit (r=-0.34, p=-0.049) and that the values of urea reduction ratio URR weakly correlates with the patient's conviction on restricting life's activity (SF-36) (r=0.18, p=0.046). The level of urea prior to dialysis correlates positively with the time of falling asleep in PSQI scale (r=-0.39, p=0.023).

Conclusions. Patients with lower urea level before hemodialysis have a significantly higher vitality level. Higher fluctuations of urea concentrations before and after hemodialysis (higher urea reduction ratio URR) are associated with restrictions of physical activity in hemodialysis patients.

Parole chiave

  • quality of life
  • sleep disorders
  • end stage renal disease
  • hemodialysis
Accesso libero

Conditions of Attending Prophylactic Gynecological Examinations by Women

Pubblicato online: 10 Dec 2014
Pagine: 115 - 119

Astratto

Abstract

Introduction. Low percentage of women who attend prophylactic examinations and also react early to the first symptoms of a disease is a common problem.

Aim. The aim of the study was to determine demographic and environmental characteristics which had positive effects on having prophylactic gynecological examinations by women as well as to investigate what significance women's practicing of hormonal contraception had in that question.

Material and methods. The study covered 430 women. The conditions of including women into the study group were as follows: age <45 years, commencement of sexual intercourses, maintaining of sexual activity, consent to participate in the study. The method of the study was a diagnostics survey using the questionnaire.

Results. The majority of the surveyed women said that they attended prophylactic gynecological examinations regularly. Having prophylactic gynecological examinations was significantly affected (p<0.05) by mean monthly income per capita in the family, practicing and the type of contraception. The joint effect of the surveyed characteristics proved to be significant (p<0.05).

Conclusions. The model woman who willingly attends prophylactic gynecological examinations is a young person who lives in a big city, has a university education and a very good financial position confirmed by high family income per capita. Practicing of hormonal contraception by women is a factor that has a beneficial effect on women's care of their health understood as having regular prophylactic gynecological examinations.

Parole chiave

  • prophylactic gynecological examinations
  • woman
  • cervical cancer
Accesso libero

The Diagnosis of Excessive Body Mass and Body Fat in 18-Year-Old Youth – Assessment of Comparability of Results Obtained on the Basis of BMI and BIA Methods

Pubblicato online: 10 Dec 2014
Pagine: 120 - 124

Astratto

Abstract

Introduction. A systematic increase in the frequency of excessive body mass in young Poles is an argument supporting the need for identification persons with the increased risk. It is justified to test the level of comparability of the applied screening methods and criteria of diagnosing excessive body mass and body fat in the adolescent group.

Aim. To assess the comparability of the results in terms of frequency of diagnosing of overweight and body fat excessive content depending on the method and assessment criteria in 18-year-olds.

Material and methods. The study comprised 141 secondary school students (100 women and 41 men), with the age median of 17.8 ± 0.5 years. The measurements included height and body mass (to calculate the BMI) and assessment of the percentage of body fat content with two methods of bioelectric impedance in two bipolar versions: Tanita BC-570 and Omron BF-306.

Results. Excessive body mass, as defined by the BMI, was found in 12.1% of students. The incidence of diagnosing excessive contents of body fat in the organism depended on the method of measurement and criteria of results interpretation; 20.6% with the Tanita and 28.3% with the Omron method. The measurements with Tanita BC-570 scales demonstrated stronger correlation with BMI value (p<0.001; r2=0.34) than measurements with the Omron BF-306 (p<0.001; r2=0.16).

Conclusions. In young adults: 1. the diagnosis of excessive body mass by BMI and measurement with use of the bioelectric impedance methods with two bipolar versions (Tanita BC-570, Omron BF-306) provided inconsistent results. 2. The proportion of young people with excessive body fat was greater than indicated by the BMI norms. 3. The measurement with Tanita BC-570 scales demonstrated stronger correlation with BMI values than by the ones with the Omron. 4. Critical approach to the applied methods is indispensable in screening studies of nutrition level among adolescents.

Parole chiave

  • body mass
  • body fat
  • body mass index
  • bioelectric impedance
Accesso libero

Interpersonal Communication in Medical Profession on the Example of Physiotherapists

Pubblicato online: 10 Dec 2014
Pagine: 125 - 129

Astratto

Abstract

Introduction. The article introduces the reader into the problem area, based on interpersonal relationships between physiotherapists and patients.

Aim. The aim of the study is to learn the factors determining the quality of physiotherapeutic services. The research was carried out in relation to verbal and non-verbal aspects of contact between physiotherapists and patients.

Material and method. The method used in the study was a quantitative survey based on a questionnaire.

Results. Ninety-six percent of respondents state that they have no problems with making interpersonal contact with patients. Fifty-three percent of them show interest in patients during the dialogue and the remaining group only initiates the contact and limits it to personal creativity. The research shows that the gender of the respondents does not significantly affect the ways of showing interest in patients. However, the length of service differentiates their approach to patients as well as the age of the patients themselves.

Discussion. Communication in a profession of physiotherapist refers to the personal preferences and interpersonal skills of the respondents, which can be determined by a specific style of their work. In addition, significantly it is determined by the level of education of future physical therapists, which was mentioned not only by the people in this study, but also in the studies cited in the literature included in the discussion.

Conclusions.The quality of physiotherapy services is determined not only by instrumental preparation of a physiotherapist but also by expression that results from the interpersonal contact. Physiotherapists are aware of building relationships during the first contact. Therefore, they try to make a positive impression. In such way, the quality of treatment can be increased.

Parole chiave

  • communication
  • physiotherapist
  • sociological research
Accesso libero

The Structure of a Group of Adult Disabled Patients Treated Dentally Under General Anesthesia

Pubblicato online: 10 Dec 2014
Pagine: 130 - 133

Astratto

Abstract

Introduction. Adult disabled people, including mentally handicapped ones, constitute a very serious medical problem in both general and specialist medical care, including dentistry. Dental treatment under general anesthesia is the most recommended for this group of patients.

Aim. The aim of this study was to analyze the structure of a group of adult disabled patients treated dentally under general anesthesia.

Material and methods. The study was conducted among 147 disabled people, 61 females and 86 males aged 18-56 (the average age − 26.69) from the Lubelskie Voivodeship, qualified for dental treatment under general anesthesia. The survey was basedon interviews with the family members or social workers. The questionnaire included the information concerning general diseases, age, gender, place of residence and the kind of care (family or social welfare institutions). Special attention was paid to the previous dental treatment performed in outpatient clinics or under general anesthesia.

Results. The study involved a group of 147 people, including 58.50% males and 41.50% females. The average age of the patients was 26.69 ± 6.41 years (ranged from18 to 56). The patients from a big city accounted for 40.14%, 23.13% of the subjects came from a small town, and 36.73% of the people came from the village. The largest group of patients included people with mental disabilities − 54.43%. Most people (87.76%) lived with their family, while 12.24% were the residents of social welfare institutions. The analysis of the data reveals that for 89.80% of patients, it was their first dental treatment under general anesthesia, and for 10.20%, a subsequent one. Studies have shown that early treatment in outpatient clinics wasperformed in only 27.21% of treated people, while 72.79% have never been treated in a dental surgery.

Conclusions. Mentally handicapped people were the largest group of patients treated dentally under general anesthesia. Patients living in the urban areas and under the care of families were more often treated dentally under general anesthesia. Because of the lack of cooperation between disabled patients and the dentist, the complete dental treatment under general anesthesia is the most effective therapy. Adult disabled patients require special dental care.

Parole chiave

  • The adult disabled patients
  • dental treatment
  • general anesthesia
Accesso libero

Survey-Based Research on Patients' Knowledge About Endodontic Treatment

Pubblicato online: 10 Dec 2014
Pagine: 134 - 137

Astratto

Abstract

Introduction. Patients' awareness and knowledge of the endodontic treatment is a very important issue in everyday practice of a dentist. It influences significantly the course and effects of treatment.

Aim. The paper presents an analysis of data collected from the patients about their concerns, expectations and perceptions about root canal treatment.

Material and methods. Questionnaire surveys were conducted in a group of 203 patients consisting questions characterizing their knowledge about endodontic treatment – their expectations, experiences, possible complications and treatment costs.

Results. Analyzing the experiences of patients regarding endodontic treatment, it was found that 69% of people in the past had experienced the procedure of root canal treatment. Most respondents define their state of knowledge of root canal treatment as an average. Fifty-seven percent of respondents admitted to knowing the price of endodontic treatment, 67% of them said that the cost was adequate to the complexity of the procedure. The study shows that most patients still choose specialists (38%).

Conclusion. An improvement of knowledge and awareness of patients about the endodontic treatment has been observed.

Parole chiave

  • endodontic treatment
  • pain in dentistry
  • pro-health awareness
Accesso libero

Comparison of Knowledge and Attitudes Towards the Use of Scientific Research in Clinical Practice Among Departmental and Charge Nurses

Pubblicato online: 10 Dec 2014
Pagine: 138 - 144

Astratto

Abstract

Introduction. The awareness of benefits arising from the use of the latest results of scientific research (EBNP – Evidence-Based Nursing Practice) among departmental and charge nurses is a necessary condition to ensure effective and safe health services and nursing care meeting the highest standards of patient care.

Aim. The comparison of knowledge of and attitudes towards EBNP among nurses depending on their position.

Material and methods. Twenty one departmental nurses (PO) (mean age 50.38 years, min. 37, max. 62, SD=7.35) and 20 Bachelor's degree students of a bridge programme (SSP) (mean age 43 years, min. 34, max. 55, SD=6.37). Qualitative study and analysis of the results, structured interview, extended focus.

Results. PO and SSP were not able to define the acronyms EBM and EBP correctly and did not have detailed knowledge of the criteria for assessment of reliability of scientific literature. A majority of DN was familiar with the available journals for nurses and was aware of benefits resulting from using EBNP. The use of EBNP in everyday clinical practice in SSP group was limited by a lack of time, insufficient knowledge of English and access to the Internet, as well as working at the position that makes taking decisions on developing procedures and standards for nursing care impossible.

Conclusions.

1. The level of knowledge about EBNP in both groups was inadequate and needs urgent supplementation of knowledge and skills of nurses with reference to this subject area.

2. The attitudes of nurses towards EBNP were different depending on their work position. Departmental nurses were aware of benefits resulting from using the most recent study results in everyday clinical practice and being up-to-date with medical knowledge.

3. The boundaries limiting the use of EBNP in everyday clinical practice by the study participants were objective and they require system changes with reference to the organization of work and the system of continuing education.

Parole chiave

  • nursing
  • evidence-based practice
  • quality of health care
  • work
  • position
Accesso libero

Health Education as an Important Tool in the Healthcare System

Pubblicato online: 10 Dec 2014
Pagine: 145 - 147

Astratto

Abstract

Health education is the main, and at the same time, integral part of complementary health promotion. The main assumption underlying the essence of health education is an assertion that the health of individuals and, consequently, of communities they belong to is significantly conditioned by the behaviour of inter-subject variability, which can be pro-healthily shaped by the educational impact. Thanks to transferred knowledge, shaping attitudes and the acquisition of certain skills, patients receive help in coping with health problems which improves their well-being, satisfaction, and the process of recovery. The education of a patient has advantages either in the clinical or social field, hence, it is perceived as an inseparable part of a high-quality healthcare. The importance of health education has been also recognized as one of the main factors that determine the long-term health policy, which indirectly may be reflected in the reduction of costs in the healthcare. In the recent years, more and more emphasis has been placed on preventive and educational aspects of the healthcare. Family medicine, as the source of the initiation of shaping health-oriented attitudes, has a prominent place in the system organized in such a way. In patients' opinion, medical staff is the best and most reliable source of knowledge on health. Such expectations increase the importance of primary care physicians in preventing diseases and shaping health-oriented attitudes in a given society. The main task of a modern health education is primarily to support the creation of conditions for change, the growth competence of individuals and groups in the sphere of independent action for health at different levels of the organization of social life.

Parole chiave

  • health education
  • health system
  • family medicine
Accesso libero

Evaluation of the Quality of Life of Children in Terms of Health as an Interdisciplinary Problem

Pubblicato online: 10 Dec 2014
Pagine: 148 - 151

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the paper was to present the basic methodological approaches to studying the quality of life of patients with regard to interdisciplinary character of the concept, its interrelation with standard of living, specificity in children and teenagers. Studying the quality of life of children and teenagers has specific character. According to modern recommendations, it is the basis of complex estimation of state of health of the child. Two basic methodological approaches are used: the first consists in selection and analysis of factors, significant for health of teenagers from adult people point of view; the second provides research of factors, significant from the point of view of teenagers. Techniques unite two types of criteria: 1. the objective: physical activity, social functioning; 2. the subjective: factors of emotional status, self-estimation of state of health, satisfaction by factors related with health, – that is perception by teenagers how their requirements for health are satisfied and how much possibilities necessary for it are given.

Parole chiave

  • health
  • quality of life
  • factors
  • child
  • child care
Accesso libero

Modern Factors of Health and Their Peculiarities for Teenagers

Pubblicato online: 10 Dec 2014
Pagine: 152 - 155

Astratto

Abstract

The work aimed at specifying modern features of civilizational factors influence on the health, revealing peculiarities of young age, establishing reflexion of modern factors of health in methodological approaches to health studying. Changes in understanding health are reflected in its studying methodology. The analysis of sociological research data shows, that the social stress became the main reason of medical-demographic situation deterioration in days of reforms. The mechanism of its influence was the loss of effective labor motivation, social envy, and deterioration of spiritual condition of a society. Material well-being decrease was not a determinative factor. The problem of inequalities in health gets the increasing urgency. It is connected with physical and social living environment; availability of qualitative medical aid; specific features of behavior of people. At a medical aid guarantee, and at teenage age, factors of social living environment, which influence behavior in health sphere by means of stigmatization are especially significant.

Parole chiave

  • health
  • risk factors
  • adolescents
  • developmental age
Accesso libero

Mechanism and Effects of Cyanobacterial Hepatotoxin Action on Human Organism

Pubblicato online: 10 Dec 2014
Pagine: 156 - 159

Astratto

Abstract

Eutrophication of waters and climate warming have created in the last decades favourable conditions for cyanobacteria colonization. The presence of cyanobacteria toxins in heavily polluted lake waters and fish ponds has become a current problem. These toxins belong to cyanobacteria secondary metabolites and are active in various fields of harmfulness to animals and humans. This group includes neurotoxins, dermatotoxins and hepatotoxins having a destructive influence on liver's cells. The group of hepatotoxins comprises microcystins and nodularin. The symptoms of hepatotoxin poisoning include stomach, intestine and liver disorders, intra-liver bleeding and physiological insufficiency of this organ.

These compounds can induce apoptosis of liver cells and tumor promoters. From the above facts, it follows that hepatotox-ins can pose a very serious health problem on a global scale. This work presents the characteristic of cyanobacterial hepato-toxins, their chemical structure, properties, and mechanism of their action on human organism. The harmful influence caused by consuming products used in diet supplements, which contain microcystins was also pointed out.

Parole chiave

  • cyanobacteria
  • cyanobacterial hepatotoxins
  • toxic action mechanism
Accesso libero

The Biomedical Role of Zinc in the Functioning of the Human Organism

Pubblicato online: 10 Dec 2014
Pagine: 160 - 163

Astratto

Abstract

Zinc is one of the most important microelements that can be found in the human organism. It is a component or an activator of various enzymes and takes part in more than 300 enzymatic reactions. It is present in all types of human tissue. About 90% of the general amount of zinc can be found in bones and muscles, 11% in liver and skin. Zn2+ ions are stable ions in biological environment and they do not participate in redox reactions that occur inside an organism. Assimilability of this element by living organisms is varied. It depends largely on the sort of food and interactions occurring between zinc and other elements. Zinc is an essential element for normal development and maintenance of human health.

The data presented in this article result from an overview of studies presented in literature published in the last five years concerning zinc transport mechanisms, the role of zinc in functioning of the human body, and also pathophysiological states caused by too low or excessive concentration of zinc in an organism.

Parole chiave

  • trace elements
  • zinc
  • functioning of the human organism

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