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Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1899-7562
Pubblicato per la prima volta
13 Jan 2009
Periodo di pubblicazione
5 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 59 (2017): Edizione 1 (October 2017)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1899-7562
Pubblicato per la prima volta
13 Jan 2009
Periodo di pubblicazione
5 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

13 Articoli

Motivation in Physical Education, Sport and Physical Activity and Health

Accesso libero

Influence of Goal Contents on Exercise Addiction: Analysing the Mediating Effect of Passion for Exercise

Pubblicato online: 20 Oct 2017
Pagine: 143 - 153

Astratto

Abstract

Based on the self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985, 2000), the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercise goal contents on exercise addiction, taking into account the mediating effects of passion for exercise. A total of 384 university students (284 men and 100 women; Mage = 20.31, SD = 3.10) completed a questionnaire that measured exercise frequency and intensity, exercise goal contents (e.g. intrinsic: social affiliation, health management, skill development; extrinsic: image and social recognition), passion for exercise (e.g. harmonious and obsessive), and exercise addiction. After controlling the exercise frequency and intensity effects, results showed that goal contents did not directly predict exercise addiction. However, mediation analysis showed that goal contents predicted addiction through passion for exercise. These results support a motivational sequence in which extrinsic versus intrinsic goals influence exercise addiction because such goals are positively associated with obsessive passion for exercise and negatively associated with harmonious passion.

Key words

  • exercise
  • motivation
  • self-determination theory
  • dualistic model of passion
  • university students
Accesso libero

Application of Two Intervention Programs in Order to Optimize Motivation and to Improve Eating Habits in Adult and Elderly Women

Pubblicato online: 20 Oct 2017
Pagine: 131 - 142

Astratto

Abstract

The objective of this study was to analyse the effectiveness of two intervention programs: a physical exercise program with strategies to support the three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence and relatedness); and a physical exercise program with nutritional education in order to improve the lifestyles of adult and elderly women who practiced functional maintenance. The Self-Determination Theory was applied as the theoretical framework. A sample of 135 women aged between 40 and 88 years (59.66 ± 10.76) who enrolled in a 12-week functional maintenance program and attended 24 exercise classes took part in the study. A quasi-experimental study was performed where strategies to support the three basic psychological needs were applied to one group and strategies for the improvement of eating habits were applied to the other group. No strategy was applied to the control group. The main results showed an improvement in experimental groups I and II when compared to the control group regarding the variables of autonomy, competence, intrinsic regulation, identified regulation, introjected regulation, external regulation and eating habits, after the application of the intervention programs. The conclusion is that both intervention programs were successful with this project’s participants and that it is crucial to promote such intervention programs in functional maintenance classes, as they foster healthy lifestyles among participants.

Key words

  • self-determination theory
  • nutritional education
  • physical activity
  • healthy lifestyle
Accesso libero

Motivational Antecedents of Well-Being and Health Related Behaviors in Adolescents

Pubblicato online: 20 Oct 2017
Pagine: 121 - 130

Astratto

Abstract

Grounded in the Achievement Goal Theory framework of motivation and optimal functioning, there were two objectives of this study: (a) to test a model hypothesizing links between personal theories of school achievement, indices of the quality of academic engagement, wellbeing, and health-related behaviors, and (b) to explore whether the hypothesized model was invariant across gender groups. A multisection questionnaire pack tapping the targeted variables was administered to 967 teenagers (475 boys and 492 girls) aged between 11 to 16 years old. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that Task theory of achievement predicted positively satisfaction in school and negatively boredom in school. An Ego theory of achievement was linked to higher levels of boredom in school. Satisfaction in school corresponded to higher life satisfaction, while boredom was negatively related. Higher life satisfaction was associated with lower tobacco, alcohol and marijuana consumption, more healthy food intake and greater levels of physical activity. The results revealed partial invariance of the model by gender. The quality of adolescents’ involvement in the classroom holds important implications for adolescent’s well-being and their health related behaviors. Interventions on the creation of a task-involving motivational climate in the school are proposed to promote healthy lifestyles among young people.

Key words

  • adolescent health
  • health determinants
  • school health
  • structural equation modeling
  • psychosocial theories
Accesso libero

Effects of an Interpersonal Style Intervention for Coaches on Young Soccer Players’ Motivational Processes

Pubblicato online: 20 Oct 2017
Pagine: 107 - 120

Astratto

Abstract

The main goal of the study was to assess the effects of an intervention programme developed with soccer coaches, based on promoting strategies to optimise the satisfaction of the basic psychological needs of athletes. Eight soccer coaches, aged between 19 and 50 years (M = 32.5; SD = 14.34), participated in the study. They were selected intentionally (without academic or federative training) and divided equally into a control and an experimental group by random peer selection. Also, 109 soccer players, aged between 11 and 15 years (M = 13.78; SD = 1.38), divided into a control group (CG; n = 56) and an experimental group (EG; n = 53), participated in the experiment. The training programme (12 hours) was aimed to develop methodological and motivational strategies to promote autonomy, competence and relatedness need satisfaction among the players. The results showed that the participants in the EG decreased competence and relatedness control, while significantly increased (post-intervention) competence and relatedness needs satisfaction. Moreover, values for the EG did not decrease for autonomy, competence frustration and amotivation, while they increased for the sport commitment. Also, intrinsic motivation decreased in both groups (greater decrease in the CG). In conclusion, we can affirm the effectiveness of the training programme to create an environment of “bright side” motivation, and reduce thwarting styles, needs frustration and low self-determination levels.

Key words

  • basic psychological needs
  • coaches
  • interpersonal style
  • intervention
  • self-determination
Accesso libero

Does Context, Practice or Competition Affect Female Athletes’ Achievement Goal Dominance, Goal Pursuit, Burnout and Motivation?

Pubblicato online: 20 Oct 2017
Pagine: 91 - 105

Astratto

Abstract

The goal of this study was to assess the effects of two different achievement sport contexts, practice and competition, on the motivational profile of professional/semi-professional athletes. Forty-eight Spanish national/international-level female athletes (basketball = 18; handball = 12; soccer = 11; volleyball = 7), mean age 25.14 ± 3.43 years, agreed to participate in the study. They completed a questionnaire, prior and after training and competition, to assess achievement goals, achievement goal dominance, goal pursuit, motivational climate, motivation, burnout and perceived recovery-exertion. Data analyses revealed that, both in practice and competition, these team-sport athletes overwhelmingly showed a strong mastery-approach achievement goal in dominance as well as in pursuit. A significant finding was that this group of national/international-level, professional/semi-professional athletes not only adopted a mastery-approach achievement goal, but they also actively pursued it. It is also remarkable that this profile remained stable at post-tests, even after a painful defeat in competition, which produced a significant negative effect on the athletes’ burnout (emotional and physical exhaustion and devaluation of sport participation) and self-determined motivation. As expected, the difference between total recovery and perceived exertion significantly increased after practice and competition. National/international-level team-sport professional/semi-professional female athletes held and pursue stable mastery-approach goal dominance.

Key words

  • approach
  • avoidance
  • team-sports
  • perceived exertion
  • recovery
Accesso libero

Mental Strategies Predict Performance and Satisfaction with Performance Among Soccer Players

Pubblicato online: 20 Oct 2017
Pagine: 79 - 90

Astratto

Abstract

This study investigated the changes in mental strategies across the season and their effects on performance and satisfaction with individual performance. Data were collected three times: at the pre-season at Time 1 (T1; baseline), in the mid-season at Time 2 (T2; two-month follow-up), and at the end-of-season at Time 3 (T3; nine-month follow-up) among male soccer players (N = 97) aged 16-27. Athletes completed the questionnaires assessing the use of nine psychological strategies in competition and the level of satisfaction with individual performance. Endurance performance was measured objectively with a 300 m run. A high level of relaxation (T1) explained better 300 m run performance (T3) and a high level of self-talk explained a higher satisfaction with individual performance (T3). A rare use of distractibility and emotional control (T1) predicted a higher level of satisfaction with individual performance (T3). No predictive role of other psychological strategies was found. The use of emotional control, relaxation, and distractibility increased over the season, whereas the use of imagery and negative thinking declined. Besides the roles of self-talk, imagery, relaxation and goal-setting, the effects of distractibility and emotional control should be taken into account when considering athletes’ mental training programs.

Key words

  • psychological strategies
  • satisfaction with individual performance
  • male soccer players
Accesso libero

The Prevalence and Covariates of Potential Doping Behavior in Kickboxing; Analysis Among High-Level Athletes

Pubblicato online: 20 Oct 2017
Pagine: 67 - 77

Astratto

Abstract

The official reports on doping behavior in kickboxing are alarming, but there have been no empirical studies that examined this problem directly. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, gender differences and covariates of potential-doping-behavior, in kickboxing athletes. A total of 130 high-level kickboxing athletes (92 males, 21.37 ± 4.83 years of age, 8.39 ± 5.73 years of training experience; 38 women, 20.31 ± 2.94 years of age; 9.84 ± 4.74 years of training experience) completed questionnaires to study covariates and potential-doping behavior. The covariates were: sport factors (i.e. experience, success), doping-related factors (i.e. opinion about penalties for doping users, number of doping testing, potential-doping-behavior, etc.), sociodemographic variables, task- and ego-motivation, knowledge on sports nutrition, and knowledge on doping. Gender-based differences were established by independent t-tests, and the Mann-Whitney test. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to define the relationships between covariates and a tendency toward potential-doping behavior (positive tendency – neutral – negative tendency). The potential-doping behavior was higher in those athletes who perceived kickboxing as doping contaminated sport. The more experienced kickboxers were associated with positive intention toward potential-doping behavior. Positive intention toward potential-doping behavior was lower in those who had better knowledge on sports nutrition. The task- and ego-motivation were not associated to potential-doping behavior. Because of the high potential-doping-behavior (less than 50% of athletes showed a negative tendency toward doping), and similar prevalence of potential-doping behavior between genders, this study highlights the necessity of a systematic anti-doping campaign in kickboxing. Future studies should investigate motivational variables as being potentially related to doping behavior in younger kickboxers.

Key words

  • performance enhancing drugs
  • martial arts
  • task and ego motivation
Accesso libero

The Cognitive and Motivation Intervention Program in Youth Female Volleyball Players

Pubblicato online: 20 Oct 2017
Pagine: 55 - 65

Astratto

Abstract

This study, grounded in Self-Determination Theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985, 2002) was aimed to determine the influence of a cognitive-motivational intervention program, to improve the basic psychological need satisfaction of autonomy and competence, autonomous motivation, procedural knowledge, perceived performance and sport commitment, in youth volleyball players. Participants included 34 Under-19 female volleyball players. A quasi-experimental design was carried out with an experimental group (n = 16; M = 17.45; SD = .45) and a control group (n = 18; M = 16.64; SD = .70). The experimental group followed a multidimensional intervention program comprised of 24 sessions held over three months (two training sessions per week). It was based on two strategies: giving athletes the possibility of choice in specific training tasks (proposing training situations with several action alternatives) and questioning (cognitively involving players through tactical questions). A repeated-measures MANOVA 2 (group: experimental and control) x 2 (time: pre-test and post-test) was used to analyse the effect of Group x Time interaction. The results of the inter-group analysis showed significant differences in the post-test measurement between the experimental group and the control group (in favour of the experimental group) in the variables: basic psychological need satisfaction of autonomy and competence, autonomous motivation, procedural knowledge, perceived performance and sport commitment. Given the relevance of the cognitive-motivational processes, not only for performance but also for sport commitment, this intervention has important implications for sport coaching.

Key words

  • intervention program
  • self-determination
  • cognition
  • youth sport
  • volleyball
Accesso libero

Middle and Elementary School Students’ Changes in Self-Determined Motivation in a Basketball Unit Taught using the Tactical Games Model

Pubblicato online: 20 Oct 2017
Pagine: 39 - 53

Astratto

Abstract

Studies examining student motivation levels suggest that this is a significant factor in students’ engagement in physical education and may be positively affected when teachers employ alternative pedagogical models such as game-centered approaches (GCAs). The aim of this study was to investigate changes in self-determined motivation of students as they participated in a GCA-basketball unit taught using the Tactical Games Model (TGM). Participants were 173 students (84 girls), 79 middle school (45 girls) and 94 (39 girls) elementary school students from four seventh and five fourth/fifth grade co-educational classes. Two teachers taught 32 (middle) and 33 (elementary) level one TGM basketball lessons. Need satisfaction and self-determined motivation data were collected using a previously validated instrument, while lesson context and teacher behavior data were recorded using systematic observation instruments. Repeated measures MANOVAs were employed to examine pre-posttest differences. Results revealed a significant main effect for time in need satisfaction for both middle (relatedness increased) and elementary school students (autonomy decreased) and a significant main effect in self-determined motivation for middle school students only (introjected regulation, external regulation, and amotivation all increased). Approximately 48%/42% (middle/elementary) of lesson time was game play, 22%/22% skill practice, 17%/17% management, and 13%/19% knowledge. The primary teacher behaviors used were instruction, management, specific observation, corrective feedback and modelling. Results indicate that it is important for future research to pay greater attention to the contextual factors associated with the application of the TGM, such as the students’ previous exposure to TGM lessons, and the teachers’ training and experience in utilizing the TGM. Indeed, results of the present study demonstrate that a longer-term commitment to the TGM is necessary to reduce controlling teacher behaviors, which will lead to positive changes in students’ need satisfaction and self-determined motivation. Future research is therefore needed to embrace this challenge to provide an increased evidence-base for GCAs such as the TGM.

Key words

  • pedagogical models
  • physical education
  • motivation
  • basic psychological needs
Accesso libero

Relationships Between Physical Activity Levels, Self-Identity, Body Dissatisfaction and Motivation Among Spanish High School Students

Pubblicato online: 20 Oct 2017
Pagine: 29 - 38

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between gender and the educational grade on the one hand, and physical activity levels, motivation, self-identity, body dissatisfaction, the intention to be physically active and daily sitting time on the other, in a sample of Spanish high school adolescents. The sample consisted of 2087 Spanish students from the 3rd (n = 1141) and 4th grade (n = 946), both male (n = 1046) and female (n = 1041), ranging in age from 15 to 17 years old (M = 15.42; SD = .86). Students completed questionnaires to assess their levels of physical activity, self-identity, motivation, intention to be physically active and daily sitting time. The students’ perceptions of their body height and mass were also tested. With the exception of walking MET values, the results showed gender differences in the variables tested. Male participants showed higher intrinsic motivation and lower amotivation than female participants. Furthermore, male students revealed higher levels of physical activity than female students. Finally, the research concluded with the importance of promoting intrinsic reasons for physical activity in order to encourage positive consequences in high school students.

Key words

  • motivation
  • students
  • physical activity
  • body image
Accesso libero

Teaching Games for Understanding: A Comprehensive Approach to Promote Student’s Motivation in Physical Education

Pubblicato online: 20 Oct 2017
Pagine: 17 - 27

Astratto

Abstract

It seems important to consider students’ attitudes towards physical education (PE), and the way they learn sports. The present study examines students’ perceptions of motivation and achievement in PE after experiencing three consecutive sport units. Two hundred and thirty seven students from the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grade in a high school in Burgos (Spain) and two teachers agreed to participate. They were divided into two groups in order to compare two instructional approaches. The experimental group (A), 128 students, experienced Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU), while the control group (B), 109 students, experienced a technical-traditional approach. Each group was taught by a different teacher. The study followed a mixed-method research design with quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (interview) data. Results revealed that group A showed greater motivation and achievement in PE than group B. Significant differences were found in achievement. Participants with better academic results in group A were more positive in sport participation. Meanwhile, students who practiced more extracurricular sports in group B were more actively involved in sport. Teachers disagreed greatly on the way sport should be taught in PE.

Key words

  • methodology
  • motivation
  • perception of achievement
  • teaching models
  • mixed methods
Accesso libero

The Effects of a Physical Education Intervention to Support the Satisfaction of Basic Psychological Needs on the Motivation and Intentions to Be Physically Active

Pubblicato online: 20 Oct 2017
Pagine: 5 - 15

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of an intervention to support the basic psychological needs on the satisfaction of these needs, intrinsic motivation, intention to be physically active and some enjoyment-related outcomes in Physical Education. The present study incorporated strategies presented by Standage and Ryan (2012) in a previous study. A quasi-experimental study was conducted with two groups (nexperimental = 30; ncontrol = 23) of 2nd year Secondary Education students aged between 13 and 15 (M = 13.35, SD = .62) by delivering 24 physical education classes. The teacher in the experimental group underwent prior and continual training. The results revealed that the students from the experimental group showed a significant increase in the perception of autonomy and competence. Furthermore, the experimental group showed a greater perception than the control group in the enjoyment related to learning and contents. These results provide information about the efficacy of an intervention programme based on the strategies presented by Standage and Ryan (2012) to foster satisfaction of basic psychological needs and facilitate support for basic psychological needs to promote the development of positive learning-related outcomes.

Key words

  • intervention effects
  • learning
  • adolescents
  • motivation
Accesso libero

Foreword of the Special Issue on Motivation in Physical Education, Sport and Physical Activity and Health

Pubblicato online: 20 Oct 2017
Pagine: 3 - 4

Astratto

13 Articoli

Motivation in Physical Education, Sport and Physical Activity and Health

Accesso libero

Influence of Goal Contents on Exercise Addiction: Analysing the Mediating Effect of Passion for Exercise

Pubblicato online: 20 Oct 2017
Pagine: 143 - 153

Astratto

Abstract

Based on the self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985, 2000), the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercise goal contents on exercise addiction, taking into account the mediating effects of passion for exercise. A total of 384 university students (284 men and 100 women; Mage = 20.31, SD = 3.10) completed a questionnaire that measured exercise frequency and intensity, exercise goal contents (e.g. intrinsic: social affiliation, health management, skill development; extrinsic: image and social recognition), passion for exercise (e.g. harmonious and obsessive), and exercise addiction. After controlling the exercise frequency and intensity effects, results showed that goal contents did not directly predict exercise addiction. However, mediation analysis showed that goal contents predicted addiction through passion for exercise. These results support a motivational sequence in which extrinsic versus intrinsic goals influence exercise addiction because such goals are positively associated with obsessive passion for exercise and negatively associated with harmonious passion.

Key words

  • exercise
  • motivation
  • self-determination theory
  • dualistic model of passion
  • university students
Accesso libero

Application of Two Intervention Programs in Order to Optimize Motivation and to Improve Eating Habits in Adult and Elderly Women

Pubblicato online: 20 Oct 2017
Pagine: 131 - 142

Astratto

Abstract

The objective of this study was to analyse the effectiveness of two intervention programs: a physical exercise program with strategies to support the three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence and relatedness); and a physical exercise program with nutritional education in order to improve the lifestyles of adult and elderly women who practiced functional maintenance. The Self-Determination Theory was applied as the theoretical framework. A sample of 135 women aged between 40 and 88 years (59.66 ± 10.76) who enrolled in a 12-week functional maintenance program and attended 24 exercise classes took part in the study. A quasi-experimental study was performed where strategies to support the three basic psychological needs were applied to one group and strategies for the improvement of eating habits were applied to the other group. No strategy was applied to the control group. The main results showed an improvement in experimental groups I and II when compared to the control group regarding the variables of autonomy, competence, intrinsic regulation, identified regulation, introjected regulation, external regulation and eating habits, after the application of the intervention programs. The conclusion is that both intervention programs were successful with this project’s participants and that it is crucial to promote such intervention programs in functional maintenance classes, as they foster healthy lifestyles among participants.

Key words

  • self-determination theory
  • nutritional education
  • physical activity
  • healthy lifestyle
Accesso libero

Motivational Antecedents of Well-Being and Health Related Behaviors in Adolescents

Pubblicato online: 20 Oct 2017
Pagine: 121 - 130

Astratto

Abstract

Grounded in the Achievement Goal Theory framework of motivation and optimal functioning, there were two objectives of this study: (a) to test a model hypothesizing links between personal theories of school achievement, indices of the quality of academic engagement, wellbeing, and health-related behaviors, and (b) to explore whether the hypothesized model was invariant across gender groups. A multisection questionnaire pack tapping the targeted variables was administered to 967 teenagers (475 boys and 492 girls) aged between 11 to 16 years old. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that Task theory of achievement predicted positively satisfaction in school and negatively boredom in school. An Ego theory of achievement was linked to higher levels of boredom in school. Satisfaction in school corresponded to higher life satisfaction, while boredom was negatively related. Higher life satisfaction was associated with lower tobacco, alcohol and marijuana consumption, more healthy food intake and greater levels of physical activity. The results revealed partial invariance of the model by gender. The quality of adolescents’ involvement in the classroom holds important implications for adolescent’s well-being and their health related behaviors. Interventions on the creation of a task-involving motivational climate in the school are proposed to promote healthy lifestyles among young people.

Key words

  • adolescent health
  • health determinants
  • school health
  • structural equation modeling
  • psychosocial theories
Accesso libero

Effects of an Interpersonal Style Intervention for Coaches on Young Soccer Players’ Motivational Processes

Pubblicato online: 20 Oct 2017
Pagine: 107 - 120

Astratto

Abstract

The main goal of the study was to assess the effects of an intervention programme developed with soccer coaches, based on promoting strategies to optimise the satisfaction of the basic psychological needs of athletes. Eight soccer coaches, aged between 19 and 50 years (M = 32.5; SD = 14.34), participated in the study. They were selected intentionally (without academic or federative training) and divided equally into a control and an experimental group by random peer selection. Also, 109 soccer players, aged between 11 and 15 years (M = 13.78; SD = 1.38), divided into a control group (CG; n = 56) and an experimental group (EG; n = 53), participated in the experiment. The training programme (12 hours) was aimed to develop methodological and motivational strategies to promote autonomy, competence and relatedness need satisfaction among the players. The results showed that the participants in the EG decreased competence and relatedness control, while significantly increased (post-intervention) competence and relatedness needs satisfaction. Moreover, values for the EG did not decrease for autonomy, competence frustration and amotivation, while they increased for the sport commitment. Also, intrinsic motivation decreased in both groups (greater decrease in the CG). In conclusion, we can affirm the effectiveness of the training programme to create an environment of “bright side” motivation, and reduce thwarting styles, needs frustration and low self-determination levels.

Key words

  • basic psychological needs
  • coaches
  • interpersonal style
  • intervention
  • self-determination
Accesso libero

Does Context, Practice or Competition Affect Female Athletes’ Achievement Goal Dominance, Goal Pursuit, Burnout and Motivation?

Pubblicato online: 20 Oct 2017
Pagine: 91 - 105

Astratto

Abstract

The goal of this study was to assess the effects of two different achievement sport contexts, practice and competition, on the motivational profile of professional/semi-professional athletes. Forty-eight Spanish national/international-level female athletes (basketball = 18; handball = 12; soccer = 11; volleyball = 7), mean age 25.14 ± 3.43 years, agreed to participate in the study. They completed a questionnaire, prior and after training and competition, to assess achievement goals, achievement goal dominance, goal pursuit, motivational climate, motivation, burnout and perceived recovery-exertion. Data analyses revealed that, both in practice and competition, these team-sport athletes overwhelmingly showed a strong mastery-approach achievement goal in dominance as well as in pursuit. A significant finding was that this group of national/international-level, professional/semi-professional athletes not only adopted a mastery-approach achievement goal, but they also actively pursued it. It is also remarkable that this profile remained stable at post-tests, even after a painful defeat in competition, which produced a significant negative effect on the athletes’ burnout (emotional and physical exhaustion and devaluation of sport participation) and self-determined motivation. As expected, the difference between total recovery and perceived exertion significantly increased after practice and competition. National/international-level team-sport professional/semi-professional female athletes held and pursue stable mastery-approach goal dominance.

Key words

  • approach
  • avoidance
  • team-sports
  • perceived exertion
  • recovery
Accesso libero

Mental Strategies Predict Performance and Satisfaction with Performance Among Soccer Players

Pubblicato online: 20 Oct 2017
Pagine: 79 - 90

Astratto

Abstract

This study investigated the changes in mental strategies across the season and their effects on performance and satisfaction with individual performance. Data were collected three times: at the pre-season at Time 1 (T1; baseline), in the mid-season at Time 2 (T2; two-month follow-up), and at the end-of-season at Time 3 (T3; nine-month follow-up) among male soccer players (N = 97) aged 16-27. Athletes completed the questionnaires assessing the use of nine psychological strategies in competition and the level of satisfaction with individual performance. Endurance performance was measured objectively with a 300 m run. A high level of relaxation (T1) explained better 300 m run performance (T3) and a high level of self-talk explained a higher satisfaction with individual performance (T3). A rare use of distractibility and emotional control (T1) predicted a higher level of satisfaction with individual performance (T3). No predictive role of other psychological strategies was found. The use of emotional control, relaxation, and distractibility increased over the season, whereas the use of imagery and negative thinking declined. Besides the roles of self-talk, imagery, relaxation and goal-setting, the effects of distractibility and emotional control should be taken into account when considering athletes’ mental training programs.

Key words

  • psychological strategies
  • satisfaction with individual performance
  • male soccer players
Accesso libero

The Prevalence and Covariates of Potential Doping Behavior in Kickboxing; Analysis Among High-Level Athletes

Pubblicato online: 20 Oct 2017
Pagine: 67 - 77

Astratto

Abstract

The official reports on doping behavior in kickboxing are alarming, but there have been no empirical studies that examined this problem directly. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, gender differences and covariates of potential-doping-behavior, in kickboxing athletes. A total of 130 high-level kickboxing athletes (92 males, 21.37 ± 4.83 years of age, 8.39 ± 5.73 years of training experience; 38 women, 20.31 ± 2.94 years of age; 9.84 ± 4.74 years of training experience) completed questionnaires to study covariates and potential-doping behavior. The covariates were: sport factors (i.e. experience, success), doping-related factors (i.e. opinion about penalties for doping users, number of doping testing, potential-doping-behavior, etc.), sociodemographic variables, task- and ego-motivation, knowledge on sports nutrition, and knowledge on doping. Gender-based differences were established by independent t-tests, and the Mann-Whitney test. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to define the relationships between covariates and a tendency toward potential-doping behavior (positive tendency – neutral – negative tendency). The potential-doping behavior was higher in those athletes who perceived kickboxing as doping contaminated sport. The more experienced kickboxers were associated with positive intention toward potential-doping behavior. Positive intention toward potential-doping behavior was lower in those who had better knowledge on sports nutrition. The task- and ego-motivation were not associated to potential-doping behavior. Because of the high potential-doping-behavior (less than 50% of athletes showed a negative tendency toward doping), and similar prevalence of potential-doping behavior between genders, this study highlights the necessity of a systematic anti-doping campaign in kickboxing. Future studies should investigate motivational variables as being potentially related to doping behavior in younger kickboxers.

Key words

  • performance enhancing drugs
  • martial arts
  • task and ego motivation
Accesso libero

The Cognitive and Motivation Intervention Program in Youth Female Volleyball Players

Pubblicato online: 20 Oct 2017
Pagine: 55 - 65

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Abstract

This study, grounded in Self-Determination Theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985, 2002) was aimed to determine the influence of a cognitive-motivational intervention program, to improve the basic psychological need satisfaction of autonomy and competence, autonomous motivation, procedural knowledge, perceived performance and sport commitment, in youth volleyball players. Participants included 34 Under-19 female volleyball players. A quasi-experimental design was carried out with an experimental group (n = 16; M = 17.45; SD = .45) and a control group (n = 18; M = 16.64; SD = .70). The experimental group followed a multidimensional intervention program comprised of 24 sessions held over three months (two training sessions per week). It was based on two strategies: giving athletes the possibility of choice in specific training tasks (proposing training situations with several action alternatives) and questioning (cognitively involving players through tactical questions). A repeated-measures MANOVA 2 (group: experimental and control) x 2 (time: pre-test and post-test) was used to analyse the effect of Group x Time interaction. The results of the inter-group analysis showed significant differences in the post-test measurement between the experimental group and the control group (in favour of the experimental group) in the variables: basic psychological need satisfaction of autonomy and competence, autonomous motivation, procedural knowledge, perceived performance and sport commitment. Given the relevance of the cognitive-motivational processes, not only for performance but also for sport commitment, this intervention has important implications for sport coaching.

Key words

  • intervention program
  • self-determination
  • cognition
  • youth sport
  • volleyball
Accesso libero

Middle and Elementary School Students’ Changes in Self-Determined Motivation in a Basketball Unit Taught using the Tactical Games Model

Pubblicato online: 20 Oct 2017
Pagine: 39 - 53

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Abstract

Studies examining student motivation levels suggest that this is a significant factor in students’ engagement in physical education and may be positively affected when teachers employ alternative pedagogical models such as game-centered approaches (GCAs). The aim of this study was to investigate changes in self-determined motivation of students as they participated in a GCA-basketball unit taught using the Tactical Games Model (TGM). Participants were 173 students (84 girls), 79 middle school (45 girls) and 94 (39 girls) elementary school students from four seventh and five fourth/fifth grade co-educational classes. Two teachers taught 32 (middle) and 33 (elementary) level one TGM basketball lessons. Need satisfaction and self-determined motivation data were collected using a previously validated instrument, while lesson context and teacher behavior data were recorded using systematic observation instruments. Repeated measures MANOVAs were employed to examine pre-posttest differences. Results revealed a significant main effect for time in need satisfaction for both middle (relatedness increased) and elementary school students (autonomy decreased) and a significant main effect in self-determined motivation for middle school students only (introjected regulation, external regulation, and amotivation all increased). Approximately 48%/42% (middle/elementary) of lesson time was game play, 22%/22% skill practice, 17%/17% management, and 13%/19% knowledge. The primary teacher behaviors used were instruction, management, specific observation, corrective feedback and modelling. Results indicate that it is important for future research to pay greater attention to the contextual factors associated with the application of the TGM, such as the students’ previous exposure to TGM lessons, and the teachers’ training and experience in utilizing the TGM. Indeed, results of the present study demonstrate that a longer-term commitment to the TGM is necessary to reduce controlling teacher behaviors, which will lead to positive changes in students’ need satisfaction and self-determined motivation. Future research is therefore needed to embrace this challenge to provide an increased evidence-base for GCAs such as the TGM.

Key words

  • pedagogical models
  • physical education
  • motivation
  • basic psychological needs
Accesso libero

Relationships Between Physical Activity Levels, Self-Identity, Body Dissatisfaction and Motivation Among Spanish High School Students

Pubblicato online: 20 Oct 2017
Pagine: 29 - 38

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between gender and the educational grade on the one hand, and physical activity levels, motivation, self-identity, body dissatisfaction, the intention to be physically active and daily sitting time on the other, in a sample of Spanish high school adolescents. The sample consisted of 2087 Spanish students from the 3rd (n = 1141) and 4th grade (n = 946), both male (n = 1046) and female (n = 1041), ranging in age from 15 to 17 years old (M = 15.42; SD = .86). Students completed questionnaires to assess their levels of physical activity, self-identity, motivation, intention to be physically active and daily sitting time. The students’ perceptions of their body height and mass were also tested. With the exception of walking MET values, the results showed gender differences in the variables tested. Male participants showed higher intrinsic motivation and lower amotivation than female participants. Furthermore, male students revealed higher levels of physical activity than female students. Finally, the research concluded with the importance of promoting intrinsic reasons for physical activity in order to encourage positive consequences in high school students.

Key words

  • motivation
  • students
  • physical activity
  • body image
Accesso libero

Teaching Games for Understanding: A Comprehensive Approach to Promote Student’s Motivation in Physical Education

Pubblicato online: 20 Oct 2017
Pagine: 17 - 27

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Abstract

It seems important to consider students’ attitudes towards physical education (PE), and the way they learn sports. The present study examines students’ perceptions of motivation and achievement in PE after experiencing three consecutive sport units. Two hundred and thirty seven students from the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grade in a high school in Burgos (Spain) and two teachers agreed to participate. They were divided into two groups in order to compare two instructional approaches. The experimental group (A), 128 students, experienced Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU), while the control group (B), 109 students, experienced a technical-traditional approach. Each group was taught by a different teacher. The study followed a mixed-method research design with quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (interview) data. Results revealed that group A showed greater motivation and achievement in PE than group B. Significant differences were found in achievement. Participants with better academic results in group A were more positive in sport participation. Meanwhile, students who practiced more extracurricular sports in group B were more actively involved in sport. Teachers disagreed greatly on the way sport should be taught in PE.

Key words

  • methodology
  • motivation
  • perception of achievement
  • teaching models
  • mixed methods
Accesso libero

The Effects of a Physical Education Intervention to Support the Satisfaction of Basic Psychological Needs on the Motivation and Intentions to Be Physically Active

Pubblicato online: 20 Oct 2017
Pagine: 5 - 15

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Abstract

The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of an intervention to support the basic psychological needs on the satisfaction of these needs, intrinsic motivation, intention to be physically active and some enjoyment-related outcomes in Physical Education. The present study incorporated strategies presented by Standage and Ryan (2012) in a previous study. A quasi-experimental study was conducted with two groups (nexperimental = 30; ncontrol = 23) of 2nd year Secondary Education students aged between 13 and 15 (M = 13.35, SD = .62) by delivering 24 physical education classes. The teacher in the experimental group underwent prior and continual training. The results revealed that the students from the experimental group showed a significant increase in the perception of autonomy and competence. Furthermore, the experimental group showed a greater perception than the control group in the enjoyment related to learning and contents. These results provide information about the efficacy of an intervention programme based on the strategies presented by Standage and Ryan (2012) to foster satisfaction of basic psychological needs and facilitate support for basic psychological needs to promote the development of positive learning-related outcomes.

Key words

  • intervention effects
  • learning
  • adolescents
  • motivation
Accesso libero

Foreword of the Special Issue on Motivation in Physical Education, Sport and Physical Activity and Health

Pubblicato online: 20 Oct 2017
Pagine: 3 - 4

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