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Aquatic Sports and Activities

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Presentation of the 1st International Symposium on Strength & Conditioning (ISSC 2011)

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Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1899-7562
ISSN
1640-5544
Pubblicato per la prima volta
13 Jan 2009
Periodo di pubblicazione
5 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 40 (2014): Edizione 1 (March 2014)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1899-7562
ISSN
1640-5544
Pubblicato per la prima volta
13 Jan 2009
Periodo di pubblicazione
5 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

26 Articoli
Accesso libero

Calculating the Home Advantage in Soccer Leagues

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 5 - 6

Astratto

Abstract

A recent article published in the Journal of Human Kinetics (Saavedra et al., 2013) was based on a flawed methodology when calculating the home advantage values in soccer leagues. This led to incorrect calculations, false conclusions and some misleading results about home advantage in 52 soccer leagues of UEFA countries over a 10 year period. The aim of this letter was to explain these flaws and to make sure future research would not be influenced by the subsequent results and conclusions that had been presented

Accesso libero

Sleep-Related Offline Learning in a Complex Arm Movement Sequence

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 7 - 20

Astratto

Abstract

Sleep is known to elicit off-line improvements of newly learned procedural skills, a phenomenon attributed to enhancement consolidation of an internal skill representation. In the motor domain, enhancement consolidation has been reported almost exclusively for sequential-finger-tapping skills. The aim of the present study was to extend the notion of sleep-related enhancement consolidation to tasks closer to everyday motor skills. This was achieved by employing a sequence of unrestrained reaching-movements with the non-dominant arm. Fifteen reaching-movements had to be executed as fast as possible, following a spatial pattern in the horizontal plane. Terminating each movement, a peg had to be fitted into a hole on an electronic pegboard. Two experimental groups received initial training, one in the evening, the other one in the morning. Subsequently, performance in both groups was retested twelve, and again 24 hrs later. Thus, during retention each individual experienced a night of sleep, either followed or preceded by a wake interval. Performance error remained low throughout training and retests. Yet mean total execution time, indicative of task execution-speed, significantly decreased for all individuals throughout initial training (no group differences), and significantly decreased again in either group following nocturnal sleep, but not following wake. This finding does not appear to result merely from additional practice afforded at the time of retests, because only after a night of sleep individuals of both experimental groups also revealed performance improvement beyond that estimated from their initial training performance.

Parole chiave

  • motor learning
  • sleep
  • memory consolidation
  • motor sequence
  • gross motor skill
Accesso libero

Effects of Body Mass Index and Full Body Kinematics on Tennis Serve Speed

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 21 - 28

Astratto

Abstract

Effective training to improve serve speed is important for competitive tennis players. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of anthropometric factors and whole body kinematics of elite players on ball speed and to propose possible training strategies for improving the quality of tennis serves. Body and racket kinematics of tennis serves of 12 male elite Hong Kong players were investigated. The tennis serve was divided into four phases: I) Back-Swing Phase, II) Lead-Leg-Drive Phase, III) Forward-Swing Phase, and IV) Follow-Through Phase. It was shown that racket-side knee range of motion during phases II and III (r=0.705; p<0.05), racket-side knee peak extension velocity during phase II (r=0.751; p<0.01), racket-side hip peak extension velocity during phase II (r=0.657; p<0.05), racket-side shoulder range of motion in the coronal plane during phase III (r=0.616; p<0.05), racket-side elbow peak extension velocity during phase III (r=0.708; p<0.01) and body mass index (r=0.577; p<0.05) were significantly correlated with ball speed. Body mass index and the identified kinematic parameters that were significantly correlated with ball speed could be used as training guidelines for coaches and players to improve serve speed. Players should pay particular attention in training to increasing the extension velocity and range of motion of the identified joints.

Parole chiave

  • tennis serve
  • sport kinematics
  • ball speed
Accesso libero

Biomechanical Evaluation of the Phases of the Triple Jump Take-Off in a Top Female Athlete

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 29 - 35

Astratto

Abstract

The triple jump is one of two track and field events in which the athlete aims to maximize the horizontal distance jumped. This jump is comprised of 3 take-off phases (hop, step, and jump), each playing an important role, as they require the jumper to tolerate extremely high forces of impact and to maintain a high level of horizontal velocity. The purpose of the study was to investigate the biomechanical characteristics of the 3 take-off phases in the triple jump in a top female athlete. The 3 take-off phases of the top national female triple jumper were videotaped and analyzed using 2D motion analysis. Three cameras (DSR-SR 68) were placed on the lateral sides of the 3 take-off points, to record the motions of the 3 take-off phases. Results indicated that maximum loss of the horizontal velocity was in the hop phase (1.13 m/s), while the maximum braking time was in the jump phase (0.05 sec). The maximum pushing time was in the jump phase (0.10 s), while the pushing time was equal in the hop and step phases (0.05 s). In conclusion, the success of the triple jump is the result of the physical and technical qualities of the jumper. The excessive loss in horizontal velocity during the 3 take-off phases is the main factor limiting the performance of the top female athlete.

Parole chiave

  • take-off
  • triple jump
  • female athletes
Accesso libero

Effect of Three Technical Arms Swings on The Elevation of the Center of Mass During a Standing Back Somersault

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 37 - 48

Astratto

Abstract

Arms swing during standing back somersaults relates to three different “gymnastics schools”, each is considered “optimal” by its adepts. In the three cases, technical performance, elevation and safety differ. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the mechanical variables of three different arms swing techniques in the performance of a standing back tucked somersault. Five high-level male gymnasts (age: 23.17±1.61 yrs; body height: 1.65±0.05 m; body mass: 56.80±7.66 kg) randomly performed standing somersaults under three conditions, each following a different arms’ swing technical angle (270°, 180° and 90°). A force plate synchronized with a three dimensional movement analysis system was used to collect kinetic and kinematic data. Significant differences were observed between somersaults’ performance. The back somersault performed with 270° arms swing showed the best vertical displacement (up to 13.73%), while the back somersaults performed with 180° arms swing showed a decrease in power (up to 22.20%). The back somersault with 90° arms swing showed the highest force (up to 19.46%). Considering that the higher elevation of the centre of mass during the flight phase would allow best performance and lower the risk of falls, this study demonstrated that optimal arms’ swing technique prior to back tucked somersault was 270°.

Parole chiave

  • Gymnastics
  • motion analysis
  • kinematics
  • backswing
  • performance analysis
Accesso libero

Ground Reaction Forces and Throwing Performance in Elite and Novice Players in Two Types of Handball Shot

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 49 - 55

Astratto

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in the ground reaction force (GRF) patterns between elite and novice players during two types of handball shots, as well as the relationships between throwing performance and the GRF variables. Ball velocity and throwing accuracy were measured during jump shots and 3-step shots performed by 15 elite and 15 novice players. The GRF pattern was recorded for the vertical and the anterior-posterior GRF components (Kistler forceplate type-9281, 750Hz). One-way ANOVA was used for the group differences and the Pearson coefficient for the correlation between throwing performance and GRF variables (SPSS 21.0, p ≤ 0.05). The elite players performed better in both types of shot. Both groups developed consistent and similar GRF patterns, except for the novices’ inconsistent Fz pattern in the 3-step shot. The GRF variables differed significantly between groups in the 3-step shot (p ≤ 0.05). Significant correlations were found only for ball velocity and predominantly for the novice players during the 3-step shot (p ≤ 0.05). The results possibly highlight a shortage in the novice ability to effectively reduce their forward momentum so as to provide a stable base of support for the momentum transfer up the kinetic chain, a situation that may predispose athletes to injury.

Parole chiave

  • braking force
  • postural control
  • jump shot
  • drive leg
  • injury prevention
  • handball
Accesso libero

Effect of Fatigue Upon Performance and Electromyographic Activity in 6-RM Bench Press

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 57 - 65

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of fatigue during one set of 6-RM bench pressing upon the muscle patterning and performance. Fourteen resistance-trained males (age 22.5±2.0 years, stature 1.82±0.07 m, body mass 82.0±7.8 kg) conducted a 6-RM bench press protocol. Barbell kinematics and EMG activity of pectoralis major, deltoid anterior, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, rectus abdominis, oblique external and erector spinae were measured in each repetition during the 6-RM bench press. Total lifting time increased and the velocity in the ascending movement decreased (p≤0.001). However, the kinematics in the descending phase deferred: the time decreased and velocity increased during the 6-RM (p≤0.001). Generally, muscles increased their EMG amplitude during the six repetitions in the ascending movement, while only three of the seven measured muscles showed an increase over the six repetitions in the descending part in 6-RM bench pressing. It was concluded that the bench pressing performance decreased (lower barbell velocities and longer lifting times) with increasing fatigue in the 6-RM execution. Furthermore EMG increased in the prime movers and the trunk stabilizers (abdominal and spine), while the antagonist muscle (biceps) activity was not affected by fatigue during the lifting phase in a single set of 6-RM bench pressing

Parole chiave

  • EMG
  • resistance exercise
  • trunk
  • coordination
  • kinematics
Accesso libero

Ground Reaction Force and Valgus Knee Loading during Landing after a Block in Female Volleyball Players

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 67 - 75

Astratto

Abstract

A non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is both a serious and very common problem in volleyball. The aim of the study was to determine the association between stick, step-back, and run-back landings after a block and select risk factors of ACL injuries for female professional volleyball players. The research sample involved fourteen female professional volleyball players. Two force plates were used to determine ground reaction forces. Eight infrared cameras were employed to collect the kinematic data. The one-factor repeated-measures analysis of variance, where the landing type was the factor, was used for comparing the valgus moment and ground reaction force on the right lower limb. ANOVA showed that the type of landing has a main effect on the valgus moment on the right lower limb (F) = 5.96, p = 0.019df = 1.18, partial ƞ2 = 0.239 and SP = 0.693). Furthermore, it did not show a main effect on the vertical reaction force on the right lower limb ((F)=2.77, p=0.090, df=1.55, partial ƞ2= 0.128 and SP=0.448). The highest valgus moment occurred during the run-back landing. This moment, however, did not have any effect within the first 100 ms after initial contact with the ground, but rather upon the subsequent motion carried out when stepping back off the net. A comparison between a run-back landing and a step-back landing showed relevant higher values of vertical ground reaction forces during the run-back landing.

Parole chiave

  • anterior cruciate ligament
  • injury prevention
  • kinetics
Accesso libero

Effect of Choline Supplementation on Rapid Weight Loss and Biochemical Variables Among Female Taekwondo and Judo Athletes

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 77 - 82

Astratto

Abstract

Taekwondo and judo competitions are divided into weight categories. Many athletes reduce their body mass a few days before competition in order to obtain a competitive advantage over lighter opponents. To achieve fast body mass reduction, athletes use a number of nutritional strategies, including choline supplementation. The goal of this study was to identify the effects of choline supplementation on body mass reduction and leptin levels among female taekwondo and judo athletes. Twenty-two female athletes (15 taekwondo and 7 judo athletes) were selected from different weight categories and divided into two groups, according to weight. The players in the experimental group took choline tablets for one week before a competition. The results revealed significant differences between pre- and post-competition measurements of leptin, free plasma choline, urine choline and urine malondialdehyde levels; body mass was also reduced in the post-competition measurements. In conclusion, choline supplementation could rapidly reduce body mass without any side effects on biochemical levels or static strength.

Keywords

  • Choline supplementation
  • body mass reduction
  • biochemical variables
  • female athletes
  • combat sports
Accesso libero

Measurement of Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Children from Two Commonly Used Field Tests After Accounting for Body Fatness and Maturity

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 83 - 92

Astratto

Abstract

Body fat and maturation both influence cardiorespiratory fitness, however few studies have taken these variables into account when using field tests to predict children’s fitness levels. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between two field tests of cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m Maximal Multistage Shuttle Run [20-MST], 550 m distance run [550-m]) and direct measurement of VO2max after adjustment for body fatness and maturity levels. Fifty-three participants (25 boys, 28 girls, age 10.6 ± 1.2 y, mean ± SD) had their body fat levels estimated using bioelectrical impedance (16.6% ± 6.0% and 20.0% ± 5.8% for boys and girls, respectively). Participants performed in random order, the 20-MST and 550-m run followed by a progressive treadmill test to exhaustion during which gas exchange measures were taken. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed that the participants’ performance in the 20-MST and 550-m run were highly correlated to VO2max obtained during the treadmill test to exhaustion (r = 0.70 and 0.59 for 20-MST and 550-m run, respectively). Adjusting for body fatness and maturity levels in a multivariate regression analysis increased the associations between the field tests and VO2max (r = 0.73 for 20-MST and 0.65 for 550-m). We may conclude that both the 20-MST and the 550-m distance run are valid field tests of cardiorespiratory fitness in New Zealand 8-13 year old children and incorporating body fatness and maturity levels explains an additional 5-7% of the variance.

Keywords

  • VO2max
  • aerobic performance
  • endurance
  • cardiorespiratory fitness
  • children
Accesso libero

Norms for an Isometric Muscle Endurance Test

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 93 - 102

Astratto

Abstract

Musculoskeletal performance assessment is critical in the analysis of physical training programs in order to prioritize goals for decreasing injury risk and focusing performance goals. Abdominal endurance as part of this analysis is often assessed with techniques that have validity that has been debated in literature. The purpose of this study was to develop normative sex- and athlete-specific percentiles for a trunk stabilization and muscular endurance by using a prone forearm plank test in college-aged students. A second purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of habitual physical activity and the reason for test termination. There were 471 participants (means [xxx] SE; males: n = 194, age 20.4 [xxx] 0.2 years, body height 179.4 [xxx] 0.5 cm, body mass 81.1 [xxx] 1.2 kg; females: n = 277, age 20.2 [xxx] 0.2 years, body height 165.7 [xxx] 0.4 cm, body mass 63.9 [xxx] 0.7 kg) who performed this test to volitional or technique failure. Males produced significantly higher test durations than females (means [xxx] SD; 124 [xxx] 72 seconds vs. 83 [xxx] 63 seconds) and athletes produced significantly longer test durations than non-athletes (123 [xxx] 69 s vs. 83 [xxx] 63 s) but no interaction effects were seen in the variables of sex and athletic status. The activity level was found to have a threshold of influence (>3 times/week) on abdominal endurance that is dose-specific where greater than 5 times/week showed the greatest influence. The fatigue of the abdominals was the termination reason producing the lowest test duration and there was no sex effect on reason for test termination. These normative percentiles for abdominal endurance suggest that the abdominal plank test can now be used as an alternative to other abdominal assessments in college students, but further investigation is warranted prior to confirmation and generalization to other populations.

Keywords

  • Fitness
  • testing
  • exercise evaluation
  • muscular endurance
Accesso libero

Adrenergic Response to Maximum Exercise of Trained Road Cyclists

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 103 - 111

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate adrenergic responses in the peripheral blood of trained road cyclists at rest, at maximal intensity of incremental bicycle exercise test, and during 15 minutes of recovery, as well as the relationship between them. Competitive male road cyclists, in the pre-competitive phase of a season, mean age 21.7 ± 6.4 years, and BMI 20.7 ± 0.8 kg·m-2, performed an incremental test on a bicycle ergometer with unloaded cycling for 5 min, then increased the load to 40 W every 3 min, up to maximal exercise intensity. The plasma catecholamine concentrations (epinephrine, norepinephrine) and oxygen uptake were estimated. The expression of 132 genes related to the adrenergic system in leukocytes was measured. A statistically significant increase in plasma epinephrine concentration (p < 0.01) was observed in response to exercise. The mean of maximal oxygen uptake was 65.7 ± 5.5 ml·kg-1·min-1. The RGS2 gene expression was highest regardless of the test phase for all athletes. The effort had a statistically significant influence on ADRB2 and RAB2A expression. In addition, the RAB2A, ADM and HSPB1 expression level increased during recovery. We can conclude that plasma epinephrine concentration and genes related to the adrenergic system such as ADM, ADRB2, CCL3, GPRASP1, HSPB1, RAB2A, RGS2 and ROCK1 seem to have an influence on the response to high-intensity exercise in trained cyclists.

Parole chiave

  • epinephrine
  • microarray analysis
  • incremental test
Accesso libero

Physical Determinants of Interval Sprint Times in Youth Soccer Players

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 113 - 120

Astratto

Abstract

Relationships between sprinting speed, body mass, and vertical jump kinetics were assessed in 243 male soccer athletes ranging from 10-19 years. Participants ran a maximal 36.6 meter sprint; times at 9.1 (10 y) and 36.6 m (40 y) were determined using an electronic timing system. Body mass was measured by means of an electronic scale and body composition using a 3-site skinfold measurement completed by a skilled technician. Countermovement vertical jumps were performed on a force platform - from this test peak force was measured and peak power and vertical jump height were calculated. It was determined that age (r=-0.59; p<0.01), body mass (r=-0.52; p<0.01), lean mass (r=-0.61; p<0.01), vertical jump height (r=-0.67; p<0.01), peak power (r=-0.64; p<0.01), and peak force (r=-0.56; p<0.01) were correlated with time at 9.1 meters. Time-to-complete a 36.6 meter sprint was correlated with age (r=-0.71; p<0.01), body mass (r=- 0.67; p<0.01), lean mass (r=-0.76; p<0.01), vertical jump height (r=-0.75; p<0.01), peak power (r=-0.78; p<0.01), and peak force (r=-0.69; p<0.01). These data indicate that soccer coaches desiring to improve speed in their athletes should devote substantive time to fitness programs that increase lean body mass and vertical force as well as power generating capabilities of their athletes. Additionally, vertical jump testing, with or without a force platform, may be a useful tool to screen soccer athletes for speed potential.

Keywords

  • Speed
  • Acceleration
  • Talent Identification
  • Soccer Screening
  • Soccer
Accesso libero

Short-Term Performance Effects of Three Different Low-Volume Strength-Training Programmes in College Male Soccer Players

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 121 - 128

Astratto

Abstract

This study aimed to analyse the short-term performance effects of three in-season low-volume strength-training programmes in college male soccer players. Fifty-seven male college soccer players (age: 20.31.6 years) were randomly assigned to a resistance-training group (n=12), plyometric training group (n=12), complex training group (n=12), or a control group (n=21). In the mid-season, players underwent a 9-week strength-training programme, with two 20 min training sessions per week. Short-term effects on strength, sprint, agility, and vertical jump abilities were measured. All training groups increased 1-RM squat (range, 17.2-24.2%), plantar flexion (29.1-39.6%), and knee extension (0.5- 22.2%) strength compared with the control group (p<0.05). The resistance-training group increased concentric peak torque of the knee extensor muscles by 9.9-13.7%, and changes were greater compared with the control group (p<0.05). The complex training group presented major increments (11.7%) in eccentric peak torque of the knee flexor muscles on the non-dominant limb compared with the control group and plyometric training group (p<0.05). All training groups improved 20-m sprint performance by 4.6-6.2% (p<0.001) compared with the control group. No differences were observed in 5-m sprint and agility performances (p>0.05). Overall, the results suggest that in-season low-volume strength training is adequate for developing strength and speed in soccer players.

Keywords

  • soccer
  • resistance training
  • plyometric training
  • complex and contrast
Accesso libero

Chronic Effects of Different Resistance Training Exercise Orders on Flexibility in Elite Judo Athletes

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 129 - 137

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of twelve weeks of resistance training with different exercise orders (upper limbs and lower limbs vs. lower limbs and upper limbs) on flexibility levels in elite judo athletes. Thirtynine male athletes were randomly divided into 3 groups as follows: G1 (n = 13), G2 (n = 13), and CG (n = 13). The flexibility was assessed on 8 joint movements: shoulder flexion and shoulder extension, shoulder abduction and shoulder adduction, trunk flexion and trunk extension, and hip flexion and hip extension. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (time [pre-experimental vs. post-experimental] × group [G1 vs. G2 vs. CG]) were used to compare the differences between pre- and post-test situations and the differences among groups. The results from the within-group (pre vs. post) comparisons demonstrated significant increases (p < 0.05) in the range of motion of 3.93 and 5.96% for G1 and G2 training groups, respectively, in all joints. No significant changes (p > 0.05) were observed for the CG. The results from the between-group comparisons demonstrated no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the range of motion between G1post vs. G2post (1.15%). Although both exercise orders (from upper to lower limbs and from lower to upper limbs) increased flexibility, no significant variations were observed between the different exercise orders. Nevertheless, these findings demonstrate that flexibility gains could be obtained with a resistance training program, and thus, more time can be devoted to sports-specific judo training.

Parole chiave

  • strength training
  • static stretching
  • martial arts
  • exercise sequence
Accesso libero

Relationship Between Repeated Sprint Performance and both Aerobic and Anaerobic Fitness

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 139 - 148

Astratto

Abstract

The aims of this study were firstly, to examine the relationship between repeated sprint performance indices and anaerobic speed reserve (AnSR), aerobic fitness and anaerobic power and secondly, to identify the best predictors of sprinting ability among these parameters. Twenty nine subjects (age: 22.5 ± 1.6 years, body height: 1.8 ± 0.1 m, body mass: 68.8 ± 8.5 kg, body mass index (BMI): 22.2 ± 2.1 kg•m-2, fat mass: 11.3 ± 2.9 %) participated in this study. All participants performed a 30 m sprint test (T30) from which we calculated the maximal anaerobic speed (MAnS), vertical and horizontal jumps, 20m multi-stage shuttle run test (MSRT) and repeated sprint test (10 x 15 m shuttle run). AnSR was calculated as the difference between MAnS and the maximal speed reached in the MSRT. Blood lactate sampling was performed 3 min after the RSA protocol. There was no significant correlation between repeated sprint indices (total time (TT); peak time (PT), fatigue index (FI)) and both estimated VO2max and vertical jump performance). TT and PT were significantly correlated with T30 (r=0.63, p=0.001 and r=0.62, p=0.001; respectively), horizontal jump performance (r = -0.47, p = 0.001 and r = -0.49, p = 0.006; respectively) and AnSR (r=-0.68, p= 0.001 and r=-0.70, p=0.001, respectively). Significant correlations were found between blood lactate concentration and TT, PT, and AnSR (r=-0.44, p=0.017; r=-0.43, p=0.018 and r=0.44, p=0.016; respectively). Stepwise multiple regression analyses demonstrated that AnSR was the only significant predictor of the TT and PT, explaining 47% and 50% of the shared variance, respectively. Our findings are of particular interest for coaches and fitness trainers in order to predict repeated sprint performance by using AnSR that can easily identify the respective upper performance limits supported by aerobic and anaerobic power of a player involved in multi-sprint team sports.

Keywords

  • aerobic fitness
  • anaerobic power
  • vertical jump
  • horizontal jump
  • repeated sprint ability
Accesso libero

Profile, Correlation and Structure of Speed in Youth Elite Soccer Players

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 149 - 159

Astratto

Abstract

Speed, power and agility are important components of fitness and determine the level of success and performance in soccer. The aim of this study was to identify speed variables and to determine their mutual correlation and structure in youth elite soccer players. The research group consisted of players from the Czech U16 national team (n = 22, age = 15.6 ± 0.4 years). Speed variables were assessed using the following tests: a) linear speed: 5 m sprint (S5), 10 m sprint (S10) and 20 m flying sprint (F20); b) the agility: agility test 505 with turning on the dominant (A505D) and nondominant legs (A505N) and the K-test (K) and c) ball velocity after an instep kick with the dominant (IKD) and nondominant (IKN) legs. Significant dependence was found for S5 compared with S10, F20 vs. A505N, K vs. A505N (p < 0.01) and S10 vs. F20 (p < 0.05). The factor analysis revealed three components of the latent variable - speed. The first component consisted of linear sprint (S10, S20) and also partially consisted of maximum speed (F20). The second component was primarily composed of agility (A505D, A505N, K) and also included maximum speed (F20). The third independent component represented ball velocity after an instep kick (IKD, IKN). The speed variables in youth elite players exhibited significant heterogeneity from the perspective of performance, as determined by the monitored tests. The structure of the speed predisposition indicated that there were three components of speed. The results of our studies support the notion that each component of speed must be considered independently when designing training programmes.

Keywords

  • testing
  • performance
  • sprint
  • agility
  • predisposition
Accesso libero

The Effect of Active Recovery on Power Performance During the Bench Press Exercise

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 161 - 169

Astratto

Abstract

The objective of this study was to verify the effect of active and passive recovery on blood lactate concentration and power performance. Twelve male subjects were submitted to a maximal strength test in the the bench press, a maximal aerobic test in the bench step, and to four sets of bench press exercise performed as fast and as long as possible, using 80% of maximal strength when active or passive recovery was performed. The maximum number of repetitions, mean and peak power in eccentric and concentric phases were computed and blood lactate concentration was measured. Comparisons for the variables were made using a two-way variance analysis (recovery type and set numer) with repeated measures in the second factor. When significant differences were detected (p < 0.05), a Tukey post-hoc test was used. There was a main effect of set number on maximum number of repetitions (p < 0.05) (1 > 2, 3, and 4; 2 > 3 and 4; 3 > 4). Mean and peak power in both eccentric and concentric phases also differed across sets (1 > 2, 3, and 4; 2 > 4). There was also a main effect for the recovery type, with lower values (p < 0.05) observed for the active recovery compared to the passive one. It can be concluded that active recovery resulted in lower lactate concentration, but did not improve power performance in the bench press exercise.

Keywords

  • recovery type
  • blood lactate concentration
  • bench press
  • power
Accesso libero

Swimming Stroke Mechanical Efficiency and Physiological Responses of 100-m Backstroke with and without the use of paddles

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 171 - 180

Astratto

Abstract

The use of swimming aids during training contributes to greater swimming efficiency by the improvement of the swimming specific power of the athlete. The purpose of this study was to compare the swimming stroke technical characteristics and the physiological responses of swimming 100-m backstroke, with and without the use of paddles at maximum and sub-maximum intensities at the same swimming speed. Eight swimmers competing at the national level participated in this study. The measurements took place at 4 different sessions. At every session, each participant swam individually one 100-m backstroke swimming trial with or without paddles at the same speed and two levels of intensity (100% and 85% of maximum speed). The results revealed lower stroke length, greater stroke number and gliding length without the use of swimming paddles at both intensities. Βlood lactate concentration (10.03±2.96 vs. 5.85±2.23 mmol/l) and Rating of Perceived Exertion (17.43±2.07 vs. 12±2.82) were greater without the use of swimming paddles only at 100% of maximum speed. Thus, swimming backstroke with paddles compared to unaided swimming, at a similar speed, showed a greater efficiency at maximal but not at sub-maximal intensity.

Keywords

  • swimming
  • training aids
  • stroke length
  • stroke number
  • gliding length
  • blood lactate
Accesso libero

Somatotype of Top-Level Serbian Rhythmic Gymnasts

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 181 - 187

Astratto

Abstract

Body size and build influence performance in many sports, especially in those belonging to the group of female aesthetic sports (rhythmic gymnastics, artistic gymnastics, and figure skating). These sports pose high specific demands upon the functional, energy, motor and psychological capacities of athletes, but also upon the size, body build and composition of the performers, particularly of the top-level female athletes. The study of the top athletes (rhythmic gymnasts, in this case) may provide valuable information on the morphological requirements for achieving success in this sport. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to analyze the somatotype of 40 Serbian top-level rhythmic gymnasts, aged 13.04±2.79, and to form the five age group categories. The anthropometric variables included body height, body mass, the selected diameters, girths and skinfolds, and the Heath-Carter anthropometric somatotype. All of the anthropometric data were collected according to International Biological Programme, and then processed in the Somatotype 1.2. The applied analysis of variance indicated an increase in endomorphic component with age. The obtained results show that the balanced ectomorph is a dominant somatotype, being similar for all of the athletes that took part in the research (3.54-3.24-4.5). These results are in line with the ones obtained in previous studies.

Keywords

  • rhythmic gymnastics
  • selection
  • kinanthropometry
  • constitution
  • elite athletes
Accesso libero

Relationship Between Performance Characteristics and the Selection Process in Youth Soccer Players

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 189 - 199

Astratto

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to establish the anthropometric and physical profiles of elite young soccer players according to their playing position, and to determine their relevance for the selection process. One hundred and fifty-six young male soccer players participated in the study. Players were classified into the following groups: Goalkeepers (n=16), Central Defenders (n=26), External Defenders (n=29), Central Midfielders (n=34), External Midfielders (n=28), and Forwards (n=23). Anthropometric variables of participants (body height, body mass, body mass index, 6 skinfolds, 4 diameters, and 3 perimeters) were measured. Participants performed the Yo-Yo test, sprint tests (30 m flat sprint and Balsom agility test) and 2 jump tests (countermovement jump and the Abalakov test). At the end of the season, the technical staff of the club selected some of the players to continue playing on the same team and the rest were not selected. The results show that heavier and taller outfield players performed better in vertical jumps and sprint tests, whereas leaner outfield players performed better in the Yo-Yo test. Fat percentage of selected players was lower than that of the non-selected ones. The rest of the body components were similar in the selected and non-selected players within each playing position. Moreover, the selected players performed slightly better than the non-selected players in the physical test, but these differences were not statistically significant.

Keywords

  • soccer
  • physical fitness
  • muscle power
  • aerobic endurance
  • speed
Accesso libero

Importance of Muscle Power Variables in Repeated and Single Sprint Performance in Soccer Players

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 201 - 211

Astratto

Abstract

This study examined the relationship between lower body power and repeated as well as single sprint performance in soccer players. The performance of nineteen male soccer players was examined. The first testing session included the countermovement jump (CMJL) and the progressive full squat (FSL), both with external loads. Power in the CMJL and FSL was measured with each load that was lifted. The second session included a protocol of 40-m repeated sprints with a long recovery period (2 min). The number of sprints executed until there was a 3% decrease in performance for the best 40-m sprint time was recorded as a repeated sprint index (RSI). The RSI was moderately associated with power output relative to body mass in the CMJL and FSL (r = 0.53/0.54, p ≤ 0.05). The most and least powerful players (determined by FSL) showed significant differences in the RSI (9.1 ± 4.2 vs. 6.5 ± 1.6) and 10 m sprint time (p 0.01). Repeated and single sprints are associated with relatively lower body power in soccer players.

Keywords

  • repeated-sprint ability
  • strength
  • testing
  • soccer
  • velocity
Accesso libero

Inter-individual Variability in Soccer Players of Different Age Groups Playing Different Positions

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 213 - 225

Astratto

Abstract

The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to profile physical characteristics and motor abilities of three age groups of soccer players - under 14 years, 14-17, and over 17, playing different positions - goalkeepers, defenders, midfielders, and forwards; and (b) to examine the inter-individual variability among the players in each age group in all physical and physiological measurements performed in the study. In addition, anthropometric, power, strength, and flexibility tests were administered. Findings showed large inter-individual variability in all three age groups and in all playing positions. Differences between playing positions were found only in the 14-17 group (body mass) and in the over-17 group (body height, body mass, fat-free mass, and mean power in the Wingate Anaerobic Test). Due to the observed large inter-individual variability, it was concluded that the findings obtained in the physical and physiological tests should be interpreted with caution when attempting to differentiate between successful and unsuccessful soccer players, as well as when trying to predict future success in soccer.

Keywords

  • exercise
  • performance
  • talent development
  • anthropometric and physiological characteristics
Accesso libero

Relationship Between Break-Time Physical Activity, Age, and Sex in a Rural Primary Schools, Wales, UK

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 227 - 234

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine the physical activity during the break-times of primary school children in rural areas, and its relationship with age and sex. 380 children (192 boys and 188 girls; age=9.5±1.1 years) participated in the study. Break-time physical activity in the morning and lunch breaks was measured by accelerometry. An ANOVA was used to determine differences by sex in each age group, together with the respective confidence intervals and effect sizes. The results showed that 8-year-olds performed more physical exercise than 11-year-olds during the two breaks (p=0.005). For the boys, the 8-year-olds did more physical activity than the 10-year-olds, while, for the girls, those aged 8 and 9 years did more PA than girls aged 11 years (p<0.001). The only difference between boys and girls was for the 10-year-olds (p=0.043), with the boys doing more physical activity. Teachers might find it useful to take these findings into account to design physical activity programmes aimed at increasing the playground physical activity of older children.

Parole chiave

  • Childhood
  • exercise
  • health
  • sedentary lifestyle
Accesso libero

The Elements of Executive Attention in Top Soccer Referees and Assistant Referees

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 235 - 243

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to compare executive attention of top soccer referees and assistant referees at different levels of professional attainment. The sample consisted of 53 subjects (FIFA and national level) - 30 referees and 23 assistant referees. Executive attention of assistant referees was significantly better than the referees’ (p<0.01). Furthermore, extraclass and international referees demonstrated better executive attention than the first-league referees (p<0.01). The research results have proved that referees’ executive attention differs depending on their function and professional level, as well as indicated that the quality of abilities may influence the number and correctness of decisions made during a game. This elementary cognitive process may be strongly shaped by individual’s experience and age. This finding may be instrumental in screening referees and developing criteria for recruiting future referees.

Keywords

  • soccer referee
  • perceptual skills
  • psychomotor abilities
Accesso libero

Can Achievement Goals be Primed in Competitive Tasks?

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 245 - 250

Astratto

Abstract

This study examined whether achievement goal priming effects would be observed within an overtly competitive setting. Male soccer players (N = 66) volunteered to participate in a soccer penalty-kick taking competition during which they took 20 penalty-kicks on 2 occasions. Following a pretest, participants were allocated to 1 of 5 priming conditions. Immediately prior to the posttest, participants in the priming conditions were asked to complete what was presented as an ostensibly unrelated task that took the form of either a computer task (subliminal priming) or wordsearch task (supraliminal priming). Results revealed that priming had no significant influence on performance.

Keywords

  • priming
  • penalty-kicks
  • achievement goals
26 Articoli
Accesso libero

Calculating the Home Advantage in Soccer Leagues

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 5 - 6

Astratto

Abstract

A recent article published in the Journal of Human Kinetics (Saavedra et al., 2013) was based on a flawed methodology when calculating the home advantage values in soccer leagues. This led to incorrect calculations, false conclusions and some misleading results about home advantage in 52 soccer leagues of UEFA countries over a 10 year period. The aim of this letter was to explain these flaws and to make sure future research would not be influenced by the subsequent results and conclusions that had been presented

Accesso libero

Sleep-Related Offline Learning in a Complex Arm Movement Sequence

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 7 - 20

Astratto

Abstract

Sleep is known to elicit off-line improvements of newly learned procedural skills, a phenomenon attributed to enhancement consolidation of an internal skill representation. In the motor domain, enhancement consolidation has been reported almost exclusively for sequential-finger-tapping skills. The aim of the present study was to extend the notion of sleep-related enhancement consolidation to tasks closer to everyday motor skills. This was achieved by employing a sequence of unrestrained reaching-movements with the non-dominant arm. Fifteen reaching-movements had to be executed as fast as possible, following a spatial pattern in the horizontal plane. Terminating each movement, a peg had to be fitted into a hole on an electronic pegboard. Two experimental groups received initial training, one in the evening, the other one in the morning. Subsequently, performance in both groups was retested twelve, and again 24 hrs later. Thus, during retention each individual experienced a night of sleep, either followed or preceded by a wake interval. Performance error remained low throughout training and retests. Yet mean total execution time, indicative of task execution-speed, significantly decreased for all individuals throughout initial training (no group differences), and significantly decreased again in either group following nocturnal sleep, but not following wake. This finding does not appear to result merely from additional practice afforded at the time of retests, because only after a night of sleep individuals of both experimental groups also revealed performance improvement beyond that estimated from their initial training performance.

Parole chiave

  • motor learning
  • sleep
  • memory consolidation
  • motor sequence
  • gross motor skill
Accesso libero

Effects of Body Mass Index and Full Body Kinematics on Tennis Serve Speed

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 21 - 28

Astratto

Abstract

Effective training to improve serve speed is important for competitive tennis players. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of anthropometric factors and whole body kinematics of elite players on ball speed and to propose possible training strategies for improving the quality of tennis serves. Body and racket kinematics of tennis serves of 12 male elite Hong Kong players were investigated. The tennis serve was divided into four phases: I) Back-Swing Phase, II) Lead-Leg-Drive Phase, III) Forward-Swing Phase, and IV) Follow-Through Phase. It was shown that racket-side knee range of motion during phases II and III (r=0.705; p<0.05), racket-side knee peak extension velocity during phase II (r=0.751; p<0.01), racket-side hip peak extension velocity during phase II (r=0.657; p<0.05), racket-side shoulder range of motion in the coronal plane during phase III (r=0.616; p<0.05), racket-side elbow peak extension velocity during phase III (r=0.708; p<0.01) and body mass index (r=0.577; p<0.05) were significantly correlated with ball speed. Body mass index and the identified kinematic parameters that were significantly correlated with ball speed could be used as training guidelines for coaches and players to improve serve speed. Players should pay particular attention in training to increasing the extension velocity and range of motion of the identified joints.

Parole chiave

  • tennis serve
  • sport kinematics
  • ball speed
Accesso libero

Biomechanical Evaluation of the Phases of the Triple Jump Take-Off in a Top Female Athlete

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 29 - 35

Astratto

Abstract

The triple jump is one of two track and field events in which the athlete aims to maximize the horizontal distance jumped. This jump is comprised of 3 take-off phases (hop, step, and jump), each playing an important role, as they require the jumper to tolerate extremely high forces of impact and to maintain a high level of horizontal velocity. The purpose of the study was to investigate the biomechanical characteristics of the 3 take-off phases in the triple jump in a top female athlete. The 3 take-off phases of the top national female triple jumper were videotaped and analyzed using 2D motion analysis. Three cameras (DSR-SR 68) were placed on the lateral sides of the 3 take-off points, to record the motions of the 3 take-off phases. Results indicated that maximum loss of the horizontal velocity was in the hop phase (1.13 m/s), while the maximum braking time was in the jump phase (0.05 sec). The maximum pushing time was in the jump phase (0.10 s), while the pushing time was equal in the hop and step phases (0.05 s). In conclusion, the success of the triple jump is the result of the physical and technical qualities of the jumper. The excessive loss in horizontal velocity during the 3 take-off phases is the main factor limiting the performance of the top female athlete.

Parole chiave

  • take-off
  • triple jump
  • female athletes
Accesso libero

Effect of Three Technical Arms Swings on The Elevation of the Center of Mass During a Standing Back Somersault

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 37 - 48

Astratto

Abstract

Arms swing during standing back somersaults relates to three different “gymnastics schools”, each is considered “optimal” by its adepts. In the three cases, technical performance, elevation and safety differ. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the mechanical variables of three different arms swing techniques in the performance of a standing back tucked somersault. Five high-level male gymnasts (age: 23.17±1.61 yrs; body height: 1.65±0.05 m; body mass: 56.80±7.66 kg) randomly performed standing somersaults under three conditions, each following a different arms’ swing technical angle (270°, 180° and 90°). A force plate synchronized with a three dimensional movement analysis system was used to collect kinetic and kinematic data. Significant differences were observed between somersaults’ performance. The back somersault performed with 270° arms swing showed the best vertical displacement (up to 13.73%), while the back somersaults performed with 180° arms swing showed a decrease in power (up to 22.20%). The back somersault with 90° arms swing showed the highest force (up to 19.46%). Considering that the higher elevation of the centre of mass during the flight phase would allow best performance and lower the risk of falls, this study demonstrated that optimal arms’ swing technique prior to back tucked somersault was 270°.

Parole chiave

  • Gymnastics
  • motion analysis
  • kinematics
  • backswing
  • performance analysis
Accesso libero

Ground Reaction Forces and Throwing Performance in Elite and Novice Players in Two Types of Handball Shot

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 49 - 55

Astratto

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in the ground reaction force (GRF) patterns between elite and novice players during two types of handball shots, as well as the relationships between throwing performance and the GRF variables. Ball velocity and throwing accuracy were measured during jump shots and 3-step shots performed by 15 elite and 15 novice players. The GRF pattern was recorded for the vertical and the anterior-posterior GRF components (Kistler forceplate type-9281, 750Hz). One-way ANOVA was used for the group differences and the Pearson coefficient for the correlation between throwing performance and GRF variables (SPSS 21.0, p ≤ 0.05). The elite players performed better in both types of shot. Both groups developed consistent and similar GRF patterns, except for the novices’ inconsistent Fz pattern in the 3-step shot. The GRF variables differed significantly between groups in the 3-step shot (p ≤ 0.05). Significant correlations were found only for ball velocity and predominantly for the novice players during the 3-step shot (p ≤ 0.05). The results possibly highlight a shortage in the novice ability to effectively reduce their forward momentum so as to provide a stable base of support for the momentum transfer up the kinetic chain, a situation that may predispose athletes to injury.

Parole chiave

  • braking force
  • postural control
  • jump shot
  • drive leg
  • injury prevention
  • handball
Accesso libero

Effect of Fatigue Upon Performance and Electromyographic Activity in 6-RM Bench Press

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 57 - 65

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of fatigue during one set of 6-RM bench pressing upon the muscle patterning and performance. Fourteen resistance-trained males (age 22.5±2.0 years, stature 1.82±0.07 m, body mass 82.0±7.8 kg) conducted a 6-RM bench press protocol. Barbell kinematics and EMG activity of pectoralis major, deltoid anterior, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, rectus abdominis, oblique external and erector spinae were measured in each repetition during the 6-RM bench press. Total lifting time increased and the velocity in the ascending movement decreased (p≤0.001). However, the kinematics in the descending phase deferred: the time decreased and velocity increased during the 6-RM (p≤0.001). Generally, muscles increased their EMG amplitude during the six repetitions in the ascending movement, while only three of the seven measured muscles showed an increase over the six repetitions in the descending part in 6-RM bench pressing. It was concluded that the bench pressing performance decreased (lower barbell velocities and longer lifting times) with increasing fatigue in the 6-RM execution. Furthermore EMG increased in the prime movers and the trunk stabilizers (abdominal and spine), while the antagonist muscle (biceps) activity was not affected by fatigue during the lifting phase in a single set of 6-RM bench pressing

Parole chiave

  • EMG
  • resistance exercise
  • trunk
  • coordination
  • kinematics
Accesso libero

Ground Reaction Force and Valgus Knee Loading during Landing after a Block in Female Volleyball Players

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 67 - 75

Astratto

Abstract

A non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is both a serious and very common problem in volleyball. The aim of the study was to determine the association between stick, step-back, and run-back landings after a block and select risk factors of ACL injuries for female professional volleyball players. The research sample involved fourteen female professional volleyball players. Two force plates were used to determine ground reaction forces. Eight infrared cameras were employed to collect the kinematic data. The one-factor repeated-measures analysis of variance, where the landing type was the factor, was used for comparing the valgus moment and ground reaction force on the right lower limb. ANOVA showed that the type of landing has a main effect on the valgus moment on the right lower limb (F) = 5.96, p = 0.019df = 1.18, partial ƞ2 = 0.239 and SP = 0.693). Furthermore, it did not show a main effect on the vertical reaction force on the right lower limb ((F)=2.77, p=0.090, df=1.55, partial ƞ2= 0.128 and SP=0.448). The highest valgus moment occurred during the run-back landing. This moment, however, did not have any effect within the first 100 ms after initial contact with the ground, but rather upon the subsequent motion carried out when stepping back off the net. A comparison between a run-back landing and a step-back landing showed relevant higher values of vertical ground reaction forces during the run-back landing.

Parole chiave

  • anterior cruciate ligament
  • injury prevention
  • kinetics
Accesso libero

Effect of Choline Supplementation on Rapid Weight Loss and Biochemical Variables Among Female Taekwondo and Judo Athletes

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 77 - 82

Astratto

Abstract

Taekwondo and judo competitions are divided into weight categories. Many athletes reduce their body mass a few days before competition in order to obtain a competitive advantage over lighter opponents. To achieve fast body mass reduction, athletes use a number of nutritional strategies, including choline supplementation. The goal of this study was to identify the effects of choline supplementation on body mass reduction and leptin levels among female taekwondo and judo athletes. Twenty-two female athletes (15 taekwondo and 7 judo athletes) were selected from different weight categories and divided into two groups, according to weight. The players in the experimental group took choline tablets for one week before a competition. The results revealed significant differences between pre- and post-competition measurements of leptin, free plasma choline, urine choline and urine malondialdehyde levels; body mass was also reduced in the post-competition measurements. In conclusion, choline supplementation could rapidly reduce body mass without any side effects on biochemical levels or static strength.

Keywords

  • Choline supplementation
  • body mass reduction
  • biochemical variables
  • female athletes
  • combat sports
Accesso libero

Measurement of Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Children from Two Commonly Used Field Tests After Accounting for Body Fatness and Maturity

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 83 - 92

Astratto

Abstract

Body fat and maturation both influence cardiorespiratory fitness, however few studies have taken these variables into account when using field tests to predict children’s fitness levels. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between two field tests of cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m Maximal Multistage Shuttle Run [20-MST], 550 m distance run [550-m]) and direct measurement of VO2max after adjustment for body fatness and maturity levels. Fifty-three participants (25 boys, 28 girls, age 10.6 ± 1.2 y, mean ± SD) had their body fat levels estimated using bioelectrical impedance (16.6% ± 6.0% and 20.0% ± 5.8% for boys and girls, respectively). Participants performed in random order, the 20-MST and 550-m run followed by a progressive treadmill test to exhaustion during which gas exchange measures were taken. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed that the participants’ performance in the 20-MST and 550-m run were highly correlated to VO2max obtained during the treadmill test to exhaustion (r = 0.70 and 0.59 for 20-MST and 550-m run, respectively). Adjusting for body fatness and maturity levels in a multivariate regression analysis increased the associations between the field tests and VO2max (r = 0.73 for 20-MST and 0.65 for 550-m). We may conclude that both the 20-MST and the 550-m distance run are valid field tests of cardiorespiratory fitness in New Zealand 8-13 year old children and incorporating body fatness and maturity levels explains an additional 5-7% of the variance.

Keywords

  • VO2max
  • aerobic performance
  • endurance
  • cardiorespiratory fitness
  • children
Accesso libero

Norms for an Isometric Muscle Endurance Test

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 93 - 102

Astratto

Abstract

Musculoskeletal performance assessment is critical in the analysis of physical training programs in order to prioritize goals for decreasing injury risk and focusing performance goals. Abdominal endurance as part of this analysis is often assessed with techniques that have validity that has been debated in literature. The purpose of this study was to develop normative sex- and athlete-specific percentiles for a trunk stabilization and muscular endurance by using a prone forearm plank test in college-aged students. A second purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of habitual physical activity and the reason for test termination. There were 471 participants (means [xxx] SE; males: n = 194, age 20.4 [xxx] 0.2 years, body height 179.4 [xxx] 0.5 cm, body mass 81.1 [xxx] 1.2 kg; females: n = 277, age 20.2 [xxx] 0.2 years, body height 165.7 [xxx] 0.4 cm, body mass 63.9 [xxx] 0.7 kg) who performed this test to volitional or technique failure. Males produced significantly higher test durations than females (means [xxx] SD; 124 [xxx] 72 seconds vs. 83 [xxx] 63 seconds) and athletes produced significantly longer test durations than non-athletes (123 [xxx] 69 s vs. 83 [xxx] 63 s) but no interaction effects were seen in the variables of sex and athletic status. The activity level was found to have a threshold of influence (>3 times/week) on abdominal endurance that is dose-specific where greater than 5 times/week showed the greatest influence. The fatigue of the abdominals was the termination reason producing the lowest test duration and there was no sex effect on reason for test termination. These normative percentiles for abdominal endurance suggest that the abdominal plank test can now be used as an alternative to other abdominal assessments in college students, but further investigation is warranted prior to confirmation and generalization to other populations.

Keywords

  • Fitness
  • testing
  • exercise evaluation
  • muscular endurance
Accesso libero

Adrenergic Response to Maximum Exercise of Trained Road Cyclists

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 103 - 111

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate adrenergic responses in the peripheral blood of trained road cyclists at rest, at maximal intensity of incremental bicycle exercise test, and during 15 minutes of recovery, as well as the relationship between them. Competitive male road cyclists, in the pre-competitive phase of a season, mean age 21.7 ± 6.4 years, and BMI 20.7 ± 0.8 kg·m-2, performed an incremental test on a bicycle ergometer with unloaded cycling for 5 min, then increased the load to 40 W every 3 min, up to maximal exercise intensity. The plasma catecholamine concentrations (epinephrine, norepinephrine) and oxygen uptake were estimated. The expression of 132 genes related to the adrenergic system in leukocytes was measured. A statistically significant increase in plasma epinephrine concentration (p < 0.01) was observed in response to exercise. The mean of maximal oxygen uptake was 65.7 ± 5.5 ml·kg-1·min-1. The RGS2 gene expression was highest regardless of the test phase for all athletes. The effort had a statistically significant influence on ADRB2 and RAB2A expression. In addition, the RAB2A, ADM and HSPB1 expression level increased during recovery. We can conclude that plasma epinephrine concentration and genes related to the adrenergic system such as ADM, ADRB2, CCL3, GPRASP1, HSPB1, RAB2A, RGS2 and ROCK1 seem to have an influence on the response to high-intensity exercise in trained cyclists.

Parole chiave

  • epinephrine
  • microarray analysis
  • incremental test
Accesso libero

Physical Determinants of Interval Sprint Times in Youth Soccer Players

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 113 - 120

Astratto

Abstract

Relationships between sprinting speed, body mass, and vertical jump kinetics were assessed in 243 male soccer athletes ranging from 10-19 years. Participants ran a maximal 36.6 meter sprint; times at 9.1 (10 y) and 36.6 m (40 y) were determined using an electronic timing system. Body mass was measured by means of an electronic scale and body composition using a 3-site skinfold measurement completed by a skilled technician. Countermovement vertical jumps were performed on a force platform - from this test peak force was measured and peak power and vertical jump height were calculated. It was determined that age (r=-0.59; p<0.01), body mass (r=-0.52; p<0.01), lean mass (r=-0.61; p<0.01), vertical jump height (r=-0.67; p<0.01), peak power (r=-0.64; p<0.01), and peak force (r=-0.56; p<0.01) were correlated with time at 9.1 meters. Time-to-complete a 36.6 meter sprint was correlated with age (r=-0.71; p<0.01), body mass (r=- 0.67; p<0.01), lean mass (r=-0.76; p<0.01), vertical jump height (r=-0.75; p<0.01), peak power (r=-0.78; p<0.01), and peak force (r=-0.69; p<0.01). These data indicate that soccer coaches desiring to improve speed in their athletes should devote substantive time to fitness programs that increase lean body mass and vertical force as well as power generating capabilities of their athletes. Additionally, vertical jump testing, with or without a force platform, may be a useful tool to screen soccer athletes for speed potential.

Keywords

  • Speed
  • Acceleration
  • Talent Identification
  • Soccer Screening
  • Soccer
Accesso libero

Short-Term Performance Effects of Three Different Low-Volume Strength-Training Programmes in College Male Soccer Players

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 121 - 128

Astratto

Abstract

This study aimed to analyse the short-term performance effects of three in-season low-volume strength-training programmes in college male soccer players. Fifty-seven male college soccer players (age: 20.31.6 years) were randomly assigned to a resistance-training group (n=12), plyometric training group (n=12), complex training group (n=12), or a control group (n=21). In the mid-season, players underwent a 9-week strength-training programme, with two 20 min training sessions per week. Short-term effects on strength, sprint, agility, and vertical jump abilities were measured. All training groups increased 1-RM squat (range, 17.2-24.2%), plantar flexion (29.1-39.6%), and knee extension (0.5- 22.2%) strength compared with the control group (p<0.05). The resistance-training group increased concentric peak torque of the knee extensor muscles by 9.9-13.7%, and changes were greater compared with the control group (p<0.05). The complex training group presented major increments (11.7%) in eccentric peak torque of the knee flexor muscles on the non-dominant limb compared with the control group and plyometric training group (p<0.05). All training groups improved 20-m sprint performance by 4.6-6.2% (p<0.001) compared with the control group. No differences were observed in 5-m sprint and agility performances (p>0.05). Overall, the results suggest that in-season low-volume strength training is adequate for developing strength and speed in soccer players.

Keywords

  • soccer
  • resistance training
  • plyometric training
  • complex and contrast
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Chronic Effects of Different Resistance Training Exercise Orders on Flexibility in Elite Judo Athletes

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 129 - 137

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of twelve weeks of resistance training with different exercise orders (upper limbs and lower limbs vs. lower limbs and upper limbs) on flexibility levels in elite judo athletes. Thirtynine male athletes were randomly divided into 3 groups as follows: G1 (n = 13), G2 (n = 13), and CG (n = 13). The flexibility was assessed on 8 joint movements: shoulder flexion and shoulder extension, shoulder abduction and shoulder adduction, trunk flexion and trunk extension, and hip flexion and hip extension. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (time [pre-experimental vs. post-experimental] × group [G1 vs. G2 vs. CG]) were used to compare the differences between pre- and post-test situations and the differences among groups. The results from the within-group (pre vs. post) comparisons demonstrated significant increases (p < 0.05) in the range of motion of 3.93 and 5.96% for G1 and G2 training groups, respectively, in all joints. No significant changes (p > 0.05) were observed for the CG. The results from the between-group comparisons demonstrated no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the range of motion between G1post vs. G2post (1.15%). Although both exercise orders (from upper to lower limbs and from lower to upper limbs) increased flexibility, no significant variations were observed between the different exercise orders. Nevertheless, these findings demonstrate that flexibility gains could be obtained with a resistance training program, and thus, more time can be devoted to sports-specific judo training.

Parole chiave

  • strength training
  • static stretching
  • martial arts
  • exercise sequence
Accesso libero

Relationship Between Repeated Sprint Performance and both Aerobic and Anaerobic Fitness

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 139 - 148

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Abstract

The aims of this study were firstly, to examine the relationship between repeated sprint performance indices and anaerobic speed reserve (AnSR), aerobic fitness and anaerobic power and secondly, to identify the best predictors of sprinting ability among these parameters. Twenty nine subjects (age: 22.5 ± 1.6 years, body height: 1.8 ± 0.1 m, body mass: 68.8 ± 8.5 kg, body mass index (BMI): 22.2 ± 2.1 kg•m-2, fat mass: 11.3 ± 2.9 %) participated in this study. All participants performed a 30 m sprint test (T30) from which we calculated the maximal anaerobic speed (MAnS), vertical and horizontal jumps, 20m multi-stage shuttle run test (MSRT) and repeated sprint test (10 x 15 m shuttle run). AnSR was calculated as the difference between MAnS and the maximal speed reached in the MSRT. Blood lactate sampling was performed 3 min after the RSA protocol. There was no significant correlation between repeated sprint indices (total time (TT); peak time (PT), fatigue index (FI)) and both estimated VO2max and vertical jump performance). TT and PT were significantly correlated with T30 (r=0.63, p=0.001 and r=0.62, p=0.001; respectively), horizontal jump performance (r = -0.47, p = 0.001 and r = -0.49, p = 0.006; respectively) and AnSR (r=-0.68, p= 0.001 and r=-0.70, p=0.001, respectively). Significant correlations were found between blood lactate concentration and TT, PT, and AnSR (r=-0.44, p=0.017; r=-0.43, p=0.018 and r=0.44, p=0.016; respectively). Stepwise multiple regression analyses demonstrated that AnSR was the only significant predictor of the TT and PT, explaining 47% and 50% of the shared variance, respectively. Our findings are of particular interest for coaches and fitness trainers in order to predict repeated sprint performance by using AnSR that can easily identify the respective upper performance limits supported by aerobic and anaerobic power of a player involved in multi-sprint team sports.

Keywords

  • aerobic fitness
  • anaerobic power
  • vertical jump
  • horizontal jump
  • repeated sprint ability
Accesso libero

Profile, Correlation and Structure of Speed in Youth Elite Soccer Players

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 149 - 159

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Abstract

Speed, power and agility are important components of fitness and determine the level of success and performance in soccer. The aim of this study was to identify speed variables and to determine their mutual correlation and structure in youth elite soccer players. The research group consisted of players from the Czech U16 national team (n = 22, age = 15.6 ± 0.4 years). Speed variables were assessed using the following tests: a) linear speed: 5 m sprint (S5), 10 m sprint (S10) and 20 m flying sprint (F20); b) the agility: agility test 505 with turning on the dominant (A505D) and nondominant legs (A505N) and the K-test (K) and c) ball velocity after an instep kick with the dominant (IKD) and nondominant (IKN) legs. Significant dependence was found for S5 compared with S10, F20 vs. A505N, K vs. A505N (p < 0.01) and S10 vs. F20 (p < 0.05). The factor analysis revealed three components of the latent variable - speed. The first component consisted of linear sprint (S10, S20) and also partially consisted of maximum speed (F20). The second component was primarily composed of agility (A505D, A505N, K) and also included maximum speed (F20). The third independent component represented ball velocity after an instep kick (IKD, IKN). The speed variables in youth elite players exhibited significant heterogeneity from the perspective of performance, as determined by the monitored tests. The structure of the speed predisposition indicated that there were three components of speed. The results of our studies support the notion that each component of speed must be considered independently when designing training programmes.

Keywords

  • testing
  • performance
  • sprint
  • agility
  • predisposition
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The Effect of Active Recovery on Power Performance During the Bench Press Exercise

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 161 - 169

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Abstract

The objective of this study was to verify the effect of active and passive recovery on blood lactate concentration and power performance. Twelve male subjects were submitted to a maximal strength test in the the bench press, a maximal aerobic test in the bench step, and to four sets of bench press exercise performed as fast and as long as possible, using 80% of maximal strength when active or passive recovery was performed. The maximum number of repetitions, mean and peak power in eccentric and concentric phases were computed and blood lactate concentration was measured. Comparisons for the variables were made using a two-way variance analysis (recovery type and set numer) with repeated measures in the second factor. When significant differences were detected (p < 0.05), a Tukey post-hoc test was used. There was a main effect of set number on maximum number of repetitions (p < 0.05) (1 > 2, 3, and 4; 2 > 3 and 4; 3 > 4). Mean and peak power in both eccentric and concentric phases also differed across sets (1 > 2, 3, and 4; 2 > 4). There was also a main effect for the recovery type, with lower values (p < 0.05) observed for the active recovery compared to the passive one. It can be concluded that active recovery resulted in lower lactate concentration, but did not improve power performance in the bench press exercise.

Keywords

  • recovery type
  • blood lactate concentration
  • bench press
  • power
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Swimming Stroke Mechanical Efficiency and Physiological Responses of 100-m Backstroke with and without the use of paddles

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 171 - 180

Astratto

Abstract

The use of swimming aids during training contributes to greater swimming efficiency by the improvement of the swimming specific power of the athlete. The purpose of this study was to compare the swimming stroke technical characteristics and the physiological responses of swimming 100-m backstroke, with and without the use of paddles at maximum and sub-maximum intensities at the same swimming speed. Eight swimmers competing at the national level participated in this study. The measurements took place at 4 different sessions. At every session, each participant swam individually one 100-m backstroke swimming trial with or without paddles at the same speed and two levels of intensity (100% and 85% of maximum speed). The results revealed lower stroke length, greater stroke number and gliding length without the use of swimming paddles at both intensities. Βlood lactate concentration (10.03±2.96 vs. 5.85±2.23 mmol/l) and Rating of Perceived Exertion (17.43±2.07 vs. 12±2.82) were greater without the use of swimming paddles only at 100% of maximum speed. Thus, swimming backstroke with paddles compared to unaided swimming, at a similar speed, showed a greater efficiency at maximal but not at sub-maximal intensity.

Keywords

  • swimming
  • training aids
  • stroke length
  • stroke number
  • gliding length
  • blood lactate
Accesso libero

Somatotype of Top-Level Serbian Rhythmic Gymnasts

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 181 - 187

Astratto

Abstract

Body size and build influence performance in many sports, especially in those belonging to the group of female aesthetic sports (rhythmic gymnastics, artistic gymnastics, and figure skating). These sports pose high specific demands upon the functional, energy, motor and psychological capacities of athletes, but also upon the size, body build and composition of the performers, particularly of the top-level female athletes. The study of the top athletes (rhythmic gymnasts, in this case) may provide valuable information on the morphological requirements for achieving success in this sport. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to analyze the somatotype of 40 Serbian top-level rhythmic gymnasts, aged 13.04±2.79, and to form the five age group categories. The anthropometric variables included body height, body mass, the selected diameters, girths and skinfolds, and the Heath-Carter anthropometric somatotype. All of the anthropometric data were collected according to International Biological Programme, and then processed in the Somatotype 1.2. The applied analysis of variance indicated an increase in endomorphic component with age. The obtained results show that the balanced ectomorph is a dominant somatotype, being similar for all of the athletes that took part in the research (3.54-3.24-4.5). These results are in line with the ones obtained in previous studies.

Keywords

  • rhythmic gymnastics
  • selection
  • kinanthropometry
  • constitution
  • elite athletes
Accesso libero

Relationship Between Performance Characteristics and the Selection Process in Youth Soccer Players

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 189 - 199

Astratto

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to establish the anthropometric and physical profiles of elite young soccer players according to their playing position, and to determine their relevance for the selection process. One hundred and fifty-six young male soccer players participated in the study. Players were classified into the following groups: Goalkeepers (n=16), Central Defenders (n=26), External Defenders (n=29), Central Midfielders (n=34), External Midfielders (n=28), and Forwards (n=23). Anthropometric variables of participants (body height, body mass, body mass index, 6 skinfolds, 4 diameters, and 3 perimeters) were measured. Participants performed the Yo-Yo test, sprint tests (30 m flat sprint and Balsom agility test) and 2 jump tests (countermovement jump and the Abalakov test). At the end of the season, the technical staff of the club selected some of the players to continue playing on the same team and the rest were not selected. The results show that heavier and taller outfield players performed better in vertical jumps and sprint tests, whereas leaner outfield players performed better in the Yo-Yo test. Fat percentage of selected players was lower than that of the non-selected ones. The rest of the body components were similar in the selected and non-selected players within each playing position. Moreover, the selected players performed slightly better than the non-selected players in the physical test, but these differences were not statistically significant.

Keywords

  • soccer
  • physical fitness
  • muscle power
  • aerobic endurance
  • speed
Accesso libero

Importance of Muscle Power Variables in Repeated and Single Sprint Performance in Soccer Players

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 201 - 211

Astratto

Abstract

This study examined the relationship between lower body power and repeated as well as single sprint performance in soccer players. The performance of nineteen male soccer players was examined. The first testing session included the countermovement jump (CMJL) and the progressive full squat (FSL), both with external loads. Power in the CMJL and FSL was measured with each load that was lifted. The second session included a protocol of 40-m repeated sprints with a long recovery period (2 min). The number of sprints executed until there was a 3% decrease in performance for the best 40-m sprint time was recorded as a repeated sprint index (RSI). The RSI was moderately associated with power output relative to body mass in the CMJL and FSL (r = 0.53/0.54, p ≤ 0.05). The most and least powerful players (determined by FSL) showed significant differences in the RSI (9.1 ± 4.2 vs. 6.5 ± 1.6) and 10 m sprint time (p 0.01). Repeated and single sprints are associated with relatively lower body power in soccer players.

Keywords

  • repeated-sprint ability
  • strength
  • testing
  • soccer
  • velocity
Accesso libero

Inter-individual Variability in Soccer Players of Different Age Groups Playing Different Positions

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 213 - 225

Astratto

Abstract

The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to profile physical characteristics and motor abilities of three age groups of soccer players - under 14 years, 14-17, and over 17, playing different positions - goalkeepers, defenders, midfielders, and forwards; and (b) to examine the inter-individual variability among the players in each age group in all physical and physiological measurements performed in the study. In addition, anthropometric, power, strength, and flexibility tests were administered. Findings showed large inter-individual variability in all three age groups and in all playing positions. Differences between playing positions were found only in the 14-17 group (body mass) and in the over-17 group (body height, body mass, fat-free mass, and mean power in the Wingate Anaerobic Test). Due to the observed large inter-individual variability, it was concluded that the findings obtained in the physical and physiological tests should be interpreted with caution when attempting to differentiate between successful and unsuccessful soccer players, as well as when trying to predict future success in soccer.

Keywords

  • exercise
  • performance
  • talent development
  • anthropometric and physiological characteristics
Accesso libero

Relationship Between Break-Time Physical Activity, Age, and Sex in a Rural Primary Schools, Wales, UK

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 227 - 234

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine the physical activity during the break-times of primary school children in rural areas, and its relationship with age and sex. 380 children (192 boys and 188 girls; age=9.5±1.1 years) participated in the study. Break-time physical activity in the morning and lunch breaks was measured by accelerometry. An ANOVA was used to determine differences by sex in each age group, together with the respective confidence intervals and effect sizes. The results showed that 8-year-olds performed more physical exercise than 11-year-olds during the two breaks (p=0.005). For the boys, the 8-year-olds did more physical activity than the 10-year-olds, while, for the girls, those aged 8 and 9 years did more PA than girls aged 11 years (p<0.001). The only difference between boys and girls was for the 10-year-olds (p=0.043), with the boys doing more physical activity. Teachers might find it useful to take these findings into account to design physical activity programmes aimed at increasing the playground physical activity of older children.

Parole chiave

  • Childhood
  • exercise
  • health
  • sedentary lifestyle
Accesso libero

The Elements of Executive Attention in Top Soccer Referees and Assistant Referees

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 235 - 243

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Abstract

The aim of the present study was to compare executive attention of top soccer referees and assistant referees at different levels of professional attainment. The sample consisted of 53 subjects (FIFA and national level) - 30 referees and 23 assistant referees. Executive attention of assistant referees was significantly better than the referees’ (p<0.01). Furthermore, extraclass and international referees demonstrated better executive attention than the first-league referees (p<0.01). The research results have proved that referees’ executive attention differs depending on their function and professional level, as well as indicated that the quality of abilities may influence the number and correctness of decisions made during a game. This elementary cognitive process may be strongly shaped by individual’s experience and age. This finding may be instrumental in screening referees and developing criteria for recruiting future referees.

Keywords

  • soccer referee
  • perceptual skills
  • psychomotor abilities
Accesso libero

Can Achievement Goals be Primed in Competitive Tasks?

Pubblicato online: 09 Apr 2014
Pagine: 245 - 250

Astratto

Abstract

This study examined whether achievement goal priming effects would be observed within an overtly competitive setting. Male soccer players (N = 66) volunteered to participate in a soccer penalty-kick taking competition during which they took 20 penalty-kicks on 2 occasions. Following a pretest, participants were allocated to 1 of 5 priming conditions. Immediately prior to the posttest, participants in the priming conditions were asked to complete what was presented as an ostensibly unrelated task that took the form of either a computer task (subliminal priming) or wordsearch task (supraliminal priming). Results revealed that priming had no significant influence on performance.

Keywords

  • priming
  • penalty-kicks
  • achievement goals

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