Rivista e Edizione

Volume 56 (2022): Edizione 3 (July 2022)

Volume 56 (2022): Edizione 2 (April 2022)

Volume 56 (2022): Edizione 1 (January 2022)

Volume 55 (2021): Edizione 4 (October 2021)

Volume 55 (2021): Edizione 3 (July 2021)

Volume 55 (2021): Edizione 2 (April 2021)

Volume 55 (2021): Edizione 1 (January 2021)

Volume 54 (2020): Edizione 4 (October 2020)

Volume 54 (2020): Edizione 3 (July 2020)

Volume 54 (2020): Edizione 2 (April 2020)

Volume 54 (2020): Edizione 1 (January 2020)

Volume 53 (2019): Edizione 4 (October 2019)

Volume 53 (2019): Edizione 3 (July 2019)

Volume 53 (2019): Edizione 2 (April 2019)

Volume 53 (2019): Edizione 1 (January 2019)

Volume 52 (2018): Edizione 4 (October 2018)

Volume 52 (2018): Edizione 3 (July 2018)

Volume 52 (2018): Edizione 2 (April 2018)

Volume 52 (2018): Edizione 1 (January 2018)

Volume 51 (2017): Edizione 4 (October 2017)

Volume 51 (2017): Edizione 3 (July 2017)

Volume 51 (2017): Edizione 2 (April 2017)

Volume 51 (2017): Edizione 1 (January 2017)

Volume 50 (2016): Edizione 4 (October 2016)

Volume 50 (2016): Edizione 3 (July 2016)

Volume 50 (2016): Edizione 2 (April 2016)

Volume 50 (2016): Edizione 1 (January 2016)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1336-0329
Pubblicato per la prima volta
30 Mar 2016
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 54 (2020): Edizione 2 (April 2020)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1336-0329
Pubblicato per la prima volta
30 Mar 2016
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

9 Articoli
Accesso libero

Effects of treatment with haloperidol and clozapine on the plasma concentrations of thyroid hormones in rats

Pubblicato online: 08 May 2020
Pagine: 71 - 76

Astratto

Abstract

Objectives. Psychoactive drugs are group of compounds used to treat severe mental problems, including psychosis, as well as other conditions. This study assessed clinically relevant side effects of haloperidol and clozapine on the thyroid hormones.

Methods. Haloperidol (0.05 and 2 mg/kg) or clozapine (0.5 and 20 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected to male Wistar rats for 28 days. The control group received 2 ml of physiological saline. A chemiluminescent immunoassay was used to measure the plasma levels of thyroid hormones.

Results. Plasma concentrations of thyroxine (T4) in rats treated with high-dose (2 mg/kg) of haloperidol decreased significantly compared to the control group (p=0.001). However, both low (0.5 mg/kg) and high clozapine (20 mg/kg) doses did not have a significant effect on the plasma concentrations of T4 and triiodothyronine (T3) (p>0.05). Neither of the compound had a significant effect on T3 plasma concentration levels (p>0.05).

Conclusions. Haloperidol and clozapine act via different mechanisms and may have dissociable effects on thyroid hormones. Following treatment with haloperidol, significant changes in T4, but not in T3, serum levels were observed. Haloperidol and clozapine had different effects on the thyroid hormone levels. These results indicate that antipsychotic treatment can contribute to the thyroid dysfunction. Therefore, greater caution should be applied to the antipsychotics use. The thyroid function of the patients should be closely monitored, while using these drugs.

Parole chiave

  • antipsychotics
  • chemiluminescent
  • thyroxine
  • triiodothyronine
Accesso libero

Effect of amisulpride, olanzapine, quetiapine, and aripiprazole single administration on c-Fos expression in vasopressinergic and oxytocinergic neurons of the rat hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus

Pubblicato online: 08 May 2020
Pagine: 77 - 84

Astratto

Abstract

Objective. The goal of this study was to reveal the impact of four types of atypical antipsychotics including amisulpride (AMI), olanzapine (OLA), quetiapine (QUE), and aripiprazole (ARI), with different receptor-affinity profile and dissociation constant, on the activity of hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON) vasopressinergic and oxytocinergic neurons.

Methods. Male Sprague Dawley rats received a single injection of vehicle (VEH) (0.1 ml/100g), AMI (20 mg/kg), OLA (5 mg/kg), QUE (15 mg/kg/) or ARI (10 mg/kg). Ninety min after treatment, the animals were fixed by transcardial perfusion, the brains removed, and cryocut into serial coronal sections of 35 µm thickness. The sections were processed for c-Fos staining using an avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex and visualized by nickel intensified diaminobenzidine to reach black end product. Afterwards, the sections were exposed to vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXY) antibodies and the reaction product visualized by biotin-labeled fluorescent Alexa Fluor 568 dye. The data were evaluated from c-Fos and AVP or OXY merged sections.

Results. The present study shows that all four antipsychotics applied induced c-Fos expression in the SON. With respect to the stimulation efficacy of the individual antipsychotics, estimated based on the quantity of c-Fos-labeled AVP and OXY neurons, could be a preferential action assigned to QUE over moderate effect of ARI and lower effect to OLA and reduced effect of AMI (VEH < AMI < OLA < ARI < QUE).

Conclusion. The present data for the first time provide an insight into the quantitative pattern of brain activity within the clusters of SON AVP and OXY cells in response to different atypical antipsychotics single treatment.

Parole chiave

  • c-Fos-immunohistochemistry
  • amisulpride
  • olanzapine
  • quetiapine
  • aripiprazole
  • hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus
  • rat
Accesso libero

Can troxerutin pretreatment prevent testicular complications in prepubertal diabetic male rats?

Pubblicato online: 08 May 2020
Pagine: 85 - 95

Astratto

Abstract

Objective. The vast majority of type 1 diabetes leads to a higher prevalence of reproductive system’s impairments. Troxerutin has attracted much attention owing to its favorable properties, including antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects. This investigation was proposed to evaluate whether pretreatment with troxerutin could prevent apoptosis-induced testicular disorders in prepubertal diabetic rats.

Methods. Fifty prepubertal male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into five groups: control (C), troxerutin (TX), diabetic (D), diabetic+troxerutin (DTX), and diabetic+insulin (DI). Diabetes was induced by 55 mg/kg of streptozotocin applied intraperitoneally. In TX and DTX groups, 150 mg/kg troxerutin was administered by oral gavage. Diabetic rats in DI group received 2–4 U NPH insulin subcutaneously. Troxerutin and insulin treatments were begun immediately on the day of diabetes confirmation. After 30 days, the testicular lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity, apoptosis process, and stereology as well as serum glucose and insulin levels were assessed.

Results. The results showed that diabetes caused a significant increase in the blood glucose, the number of TUNEL positive cells and tubules, and the malondialdehyde level as well as a significant decrease in serum insulin level compared to controls. The stereological analysis also revealed various alterations in diabetic rats compared to controls. Troxerutin treatment improved these alterations compared to the diabetic group.

Conclusion. Troxerutin-pretreatment may play an essential role in the management of the type-1 diabetes-induced testicular disorders by decreasing blood glucose and modulating apoptosis.

Parole chiave

  • troxerutin
  • diabetes
  • testis
  • apoptosis
  • oxidative stress
Accesso libero

Involvement of Asc and Nlrp3 inflammasomes in the testes following spinal cord injury

Pubblicato online: 08 May 2020
Pagine: 96 - 108

Astratto

Abstract

Objective. The exact mechanism, by which spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to a male subfertility is not well-known. Present study was conducted to determine the mechanisms that lead to the elevated end-product cytokines and inflammasomes in the testes of an SCI rat model. Moreover, we evaluated the inflammasome components following SCI in testis over a defined time periods.

Methods. Weight drop technique was used to induce SCI at the level of the T10 vertebra in male Wistar rats. The animals were sacrificed at specific time intervals (3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 day’s post-SCI). mRNA levels of inflammasomes and cytokines were measured by real-time PCR, germ cells apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL staining, and the epithelium of seminiferous tubules by Miller’s and Johnsen’s scores.

Results. The results showed activation of Nlrp3 in the testes of SCI animals at different time points. Expression of Nlrp3 and IL-1β sharply increased 14 days after the SCI. Upregulation of IL-1β and IL-18 at days 14 and 21 post-SCI might disintegrate the epithelium of seminiferous tubules at day 14 and induce germ cells apoptosis, increase abnormal sperm cells, and attenuate motility and viability at 21 days post-SCI.

Conclusion. This study provided further evidence of innate immunity activation in testes that could lead to more disruption of spermatogenesis in SCI patients at specific times.

Parole chiave

  • inflammasomes
  • spinal cord injury
  • testis
Accesso libero

Nerve impulse transmission pathway-focused genes expression analysis in patients with primary hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis

Pubblicato online: 08 May 2020
Pagine: 109 - 118

Astratto

Abstract

Objective. Thyroid hormones have important actions in the adult brain. They regulate genes expression in myelination, differentiation of neuronal and glial cells, and neuronal viability and function.

Methods. We used the pathway-specific real-time PCR array (Neurotrophins and Receptors RT2 Profiler PCR Array, QIAGEN, Germany) to identify and verify nerve impulse transmission pathway-focused genes expression in peripheral white blood cells of patients with postoperative hypothyroidism, hypothyroidism as a result of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) and AIT with elevated serum an anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg) and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies.

Results. It was shown that patients with postoperative hypothyroidism and hypothyroidism resulting from AIT had significantly lower expression of BDNF and CBLN1. In patients with AIT with elevated serum anti-Tg and anti-TPO antibodies, the expression of GDNF was significantly down-regulated and the expression of PNOC was up-regulated. The expression levels of MEF2C and NTSR1 were decreased in the group of patients with postoperative hypothyroidism and AIT, correspondingly.

Conclusions. The results of this study demonstrate that AIT and hypothyroidism can affect the expression of mRNA nerve impulse transmission genes in gene specific manner and that these changes in gene expressions can be playing a role in the development of neurological complications associated with thyroid pathology. Detection of the transcriptional activity of nerve impulse transmission genes in peripheral white blood cells can be used as an important minimally invasive prognostic marker of the risk for developing neurological complications comorbid with thyroid pathology.

Parole chiave

  • neurotrophin
  • mRNA
  • autoimmune thyroiditis
  • hypothyroidism
Accesso libero

Association between serum adiponectin levels with gestational diabetes mellitus and postpartum metabolic syndrome:A case control study

Pubblicato online: 08 May 2020
Pagine: 119 - 125

Astratto

Abstract

Objective. Pregnancy can cause diabetic conditions and gestational diabetes is the most common metabolic disorder of the era. Scientific evidence suggests that obesity increases the incidence and severity of gestational diabetes. Adipokines are proteins secreted from adipose tissue in response to extracellular stimuli and altered metabolism. These hormones are involved in regulating the energy balance, lipid metabolism, and insulin sensitivity. One of the types of adipokines is called adiponectin, which has anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherogenic effects. Accordingly, this study is aimed to investigate the correlation between the serum adiponectin level with the gestational diabetes and the postpartum metabolic syndrome.

Methods. This case-control study was carried out on 37 pregnant women (in Sari, Iran) with gestational diabetes and 37 non-diabetic pregnant women who were matched regarding age and body mass index (BMI). Serum adiponectin and glucose levels were measured. Finally, six weeks after termination of pregnancy, women in both groups were evaluated for metabolic syndrome. All statistical analyses of this study were performed using IBM SPSS software version 21 and, in all cases, the two-way p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results. The mean age of pregnant women was 28.46±4.11 years in the non-diabetic group and 30.03±4.71 in the diabetic group. There was no statistically significant difference found between the mean age (p=0.123) and BMI (p=0.727) in two groups. Serum adiponectin levels in the diabetic group (5.51±3.15 µg/ml) were significantly lower than in the non-diabetic group (8.35±4.54 µg/ml) (p=0.003). In the diabetic group, serum adiponectin level did not correlate with the maternal age, maternal BMI, and postpartum metabolic syndrome (p>0.005).

Conclusions. The results of the present study indicate a correlation of low adiponectin concentrations with gestational diabetes, but this association with postpartum metabolic syndrome is uncertain. However, to elucidate the mechanism of adiponectin in predicting gestational diabetes and postpartum metabolic syndrome further studies are required.

Parole chiave

  • adiponectin
  • gestational diabetes
  • metabolic syndrome
Accesso libero

The altered circadian pattern of basal insulin requirements – an early marker of autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes in type 1 diabetes mellitus

Pubblicato online: 08 May 2020
Pagine: 126 - 132

Astratto

Abstract

Objectives. The purpose of the present paper is to propose and introduce novel biomarkers of autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes that are relevant to the early diagnosis and optimal medical management of the patients who already suffer from type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Methods. We hypothesize and demonstrate on a case study that various organ-specific autoimmune endocrinopathies can result in lowered basal insulin requirements, leading to unexplained hypoglycemia.

Results. It can be hypothesized that hypothyroidism in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus may deteriorate glycemic control and can lead to an increased rate of hypoglycemia, particularly the overnight and morning hypoglycemia. Thus, the decreased requirements for particularly overnight basal insulin can be an early marker of the autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome-3 with subclinical autoimmune thyroiditis in immune-mediated type 1 diabetes mellitus. Further, it could be proposed that unexplained hypoglycemia during the late afternoon or evening could be an early marker of the autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome-2 with subclinical autoimmune Addison disease in immune-mediated type 1 diabetes mellitus. As a result, an altered circadian pattern of basal insulin requirements can occur, characterized by a decreased late afternoon basal insulin rate.

Conclusions. After exclusion of other causes, the unexplained reoccurring hypoglycemia can be a remarkable feature of autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes in immune-mediated type 1 diabetes mellitus on intensive insulin replacement therapy.

Parole chiave

  • type 1 diabetes mellitus
  • hypoglycemia
  • autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes
  • insulin
  • hypothyroidism
  • Addison disease
Accesso libero

Thyroid fibromatosis: A case report

Pubblicato online: 08 May 2020
Pagine: 133 - 136

Astratto

Abstract

Objectives. Fibromatosis is a rare tumor with a prevalence of 2–4 per million per year. Its occur-rence in the thyroid is very rare and to the best of our knowledge only five cases have been reported in the literature.

Subject and Results. In this case report, we present a thirty-seven-year-old man without any significant past medical history, who presented with an anterior neck swelling and occasional cough for four months before admission. Sonographic-guided fine needle aspiration cytology studies reported a follicular neoplasm. Microscopic and immunohistochemical evaluation of the thyroidectomy specimen showed thyroid fibromatosis. The patient had no symptoms after surgery and no signs of recurrence after 2 years of follow-up.

Parole chiave

  • fibromatosis
  • thyroid
  • neoplasm
Accesso libero

The polypharmacy reduction potential of cinnamic acids and some related compounds in pre- and post-onset management of type 2 diabetes mellitus

Pubblicato online: 08 May 2020
Pagine: 137 - 155

Astratto

Abstract

Objectives. This review assesses the polypharmacy reduction potential of cinnamic acids (CAs) and some related compounds in managing three or more of the cluster of seven, pre- and post-type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)-related features (central obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, pro-thrombosis, oxidation, and inflammation).

Methods. Google scholar and Pubmed were searched for cinnam*, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, and caffeic acid in conjunction with each of pre- and post-onset T2DM, central obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, pro-thrombosis, oxidation, and inflammation. The study was divided into an introduction followed by findings on the impacts of each of the CAs including trans-CA acid, the E isomer of a CA-based thiazolidinedione and a metabolite of that isomer, as well as p-methoxy CA, various cinnamic amides and some other CA-related compounds (chlorogenic acid, cinnamaldehyde, ferulic and caffeic acid).

Results. Trans-CA has a potential to manage three, while each of chlorogenic acid, cinnamalde-hyde, caffeic acid and ferulic acid has a potential to manage all seven members of the cluster. Other CA-related compounds identified may manage only one or two of the cluster of seven.

Conclusions. Much of the work has been done in animal models of pre- and post-onset T2DM and non-pre- or post-onset T2DM humans and animals, along with some cell culture and in vitro work. Very little work has been done with human pre- and post-onset T2DM. While there is potential for managing 3 or more members of the cluster with many of these compounds, a definitive answer awaits large pre- and post-T2DM onset clinical trials with humans.

Parole chiave

  • cinnamic acids and related compounds
  • type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • central obesity
  • hyperglycemia
  • hypertension
  • dyslipidemia
  • pro-thrombosis
  • oxidation and inflammation
9 Articoli
Accesso libero

Effects of treatment with haloperidol and clozapine on the plasma concentrations of thyroid hormones in rats

Pubblicato online: 08 May 2020
Pagine: 71 - 76

Astratto

Abstract

Objectives. Psychoactive drugs are group of compounds used to treat severe mental problems, including psychosis, as well as other conditions. This study assessed clinically relevant side effects of haloperidol and clozapine on the thyroid hormones.

Methods. Haloperidol (0.05 and 2 mg/kg) or clozapine (0.5 and 20 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected to male Wistar rats for 28 days. The control group received 2 ml of physiological saline. A chemiluminescent immunoassay was used to measure the plasma levels of thyroid hormones.

Results. Plasma concentrations of thyroxine (T4) in rats treated with high-dose (2 mg/kg) of haloperidol decreased significantly compared to the control group (p=0.001). However, both low (0.5 mg/kg) and high clozapine (20 mg/kg) doses did not have a significant effect on the plasma concentrations of T4 and triiodothyronine (T3) (p>0.05). Neither of the compound had a significant effect on T3 plasma concentration levels (p>0.05).

Conclusions. Haloperidol and clozapine act via different mechanisms and may have dissociable effects on thyroid hormones. Following treatment with haloperidol, significant changes in T4, but not in T3, serum levels were observed. Haloperidol and clozapine had different effects on the thyroid hormone levels. These results indicate that antipsychotic treatment can contribute to the thyroid dysfunction. Therefore, greater caution should be applied to the antipsychotics use. The thyroid function of the patients should be closely monitored, while using these drugs.

Parole chiave

  • antipsychotics
  • chemiluminescent
  • thyroxine
  • triiodothyronine
Accesso libero

Effect of amisulpride, olanzapine, quetiapine, and aripiprazole single administration on c-Fos expression in vasopressinergic and oxytocinergic neurons of the rat hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus

Pubblicato online: 08 May 2020
Pagine: 77 - 84

Astratto

Abstract

Objective. The goal of this study was to reveal the impact of four types of atypical antipsychotics including amisulpride (AMI), olanzapine (OLA), quetiapine (QUE), and aripiprazole (ARI), with different receptor-affinity profile and dissociation constant, on the activity of hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON) vasopressinergic and oxytocinergic neurons.

Methods. Male Sprague Dawley rats received a single injection of vehicle (VEH) (0.1 ml/100g), AMI (20 mg/kg), OLA (5 mg/kg), QUE (15 mg/kg/) or ARI (10 mg/kg). Ninety min after treatment, the animals were fixed by transcardial perfusion, the brains removed, and cryocut into serial coronal sections of 35 µm thickness. The sections were processed for c-Fos staining using an avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex and visualized by nickel intensified diaminobenzidine to reach black end product. Afterwards, the sections were exposed to vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXY) antibodies and the reaction product visualized by biotin-labeled fluorescent Alexa Fluor 568 dye. The data were evaluated from c-Fos and AVP or OXY merged sections.

Results. The present study shows that all four antipsychotics applied induced c-Fos expression in the SON. With respect to the stimulation efficacy of the individual antipsychotics, estimated based on the quantity of c-Fos-labeled AVP and OXY neurons, could be a preferential action assigned to QUE over moderate effect of ARI and lower effect to OLA and reduced effect of AMI (VEH < AMI < OLA < ARI < QUE).

Conclusion. The present data for the first time provide an insight into the quantitative pattern of brain activity within the clusters of SON AVP and OXY cells in response to different atypical antipsychotics single treatment.

Parole chiave

  • c-Fos-immunohistochemistry
  • amisulpride
  • olanzapine
  • quetiapine
  • aripiprazole
  • hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus
  • rat
Accesso libero

Can troxerutin pretreatment prevent testicular complications in prepubertal diabetic male rats?

Pubblicato online: 08 May 2020
Pagine: 85 - 95

Astratto

Abstract

Objective. The vast majority of type 1 diabetes leads to a higher prevalence of reproductive system’s impairments. Troxerutin has attracted much attention owing to its favorable properties, including antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects. This investigation was proposed to evaluate whether pretreatment with troxerutin could prevent apoptosis-induced testicular disorders in prepubertal diabetic rats.

Methods. Fifty prepubertal male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into five groups: control (C), troxerutin (TX), diabetic (D), diabetic+troxerutin (DTX), and diabetic+insulin (DI). Diabetes was induced by 55 mg/kg of streptozotocin applied intraperitoneally. In TX and DTX groups, 150 mg/kg troxerutin was administered by oral gavage. Diabetic rats in DI group received 2–4 U NPH insulin subcutaneously. Troxerutin and insulin treatments were begun immediately on the day of diabetes confirmation. After 30 days, the testicular lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity, apoptosis process, and stereology as well as serum glucose and insulin levels were assessed.

Results. The results showed that diabetes caused a significant increase in the blood glucose, the number of TUNEL positive cells and tubules, and the malondialdehyde level as well as a significant decrease in serum insulin level compared to controls. The stereological analysis also revealed various alterations in diabetic rats compared to controls. Troxerutin treatment improved these alterations compared to the diabetic group.

Conclusion. Troxerutin-pretreatment may play an essential role in the management of the type-1 diabetes-induced testicular disorders by decreasing blood glucose and modulating apoptosis.

Parole chiave

  • troxerutin
  • diabetes
  • testis
  • apoptosis
  • oxidative stress
Accesso libero

Involvement of Asc and Nlrp3 inflammasomes in the testes following spinal cord injury

Pubblicato online: 08 May 2020
Pagine: 96 - 108

Astratto

Abstract

Objective. The exact mechanism, by which spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to a male subfertility is not well-known. Present study was conducted to determine the mechanisms that lead to the elevated end-product cytokines and inflammasomes in the testes of an SCI rat model. Moreover, we evaluated the inflammasome components following SCI in testis over a defined time periods.

Methods. Weight drop technique was used to induce SCI at the level of the T10 vertebra in male Wistar rats. The animals were sacrificed at specific time intervals (3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 day’s post-SCI). mRNA levels of inflammasomes and cytokines were measured by real-time PCR, germ cells apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL staining, and the epithelium of seminiferous tubules by Miller’s and Johnsen’s scores.

Results. The results showed activation of Nlrp3 in the testes of SCI animals at different time points. Expression of Nlrp3 and IL-1β sharply increased 14 days after the SCI. Upregulation of IL-1β and IL-18 at days 14 and 21 post-SCI might disintegrate the epithelium of seminiferous tubules at day 14 and induce germ cells apoptosis, increase abnormal sperm cells, and attenuate motility and viability at 21 days post-SCI.

Conclusion. This study provided further evidence of innate immunity activation in testes that could lead to more disruption of spermatogenesis in SCI patients at specific times.

Parole chiave

  • inflammasomes
  • spinal cord injury
  • testis
Accesso libero

Nerve impulse transmission pathway-focused genes expression analysis in patients with primary hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis

Pubblicato online: 08 May 2020
Pagine: 109 - 118

Astratto

Abstract

Objective. Thyroid hormones have important actions in the adult brain. They regulate genes expression in myelination, differentiation of neuronal and glial cells, and neuronal viability and function.

Methods. We used the pathway-specific real-time PCR array (Neurotrophins and Receptors RT2 Profiler PCR Array, QIAGEN, Germany) to identify and verify nerve impulse transmission pathway-focused genes expression in peripheral white blood cells of patients with postoperative hypothyroidism, hypothyroidism as a result of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) and AIT with elevated serum an anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg) and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies.

Results. It was shown that patients with postoperative hypothyroidism and hypothyroidism resulting from AIT had significantly lower expression of BDNF and CBLN1. In patients with AIT with elevated serum anti-Tg and anti-TPO antibodies, the expression of GDNF was significantly down-regulated and the expression of PNOC was up-regulated. The expression levels of MEF2C and NTSR1 were decreased in the group of patients with postoperative hypothyroidism and AIT, correspondingly.

Conclusions. The results of this study demonstrate that AIT and hypothyroidism can affect the expression of mRNA nerve impulse transmission genes in gene specific manner and that these changes in gene expressions can be playing a role in the development of neurological complications associated with thyroid pathology. Detection of the transcriptional activity of nerve impulse transmission genes in peripheral white blood cells can be used as an important minimally invasive prognostic marker of the risk for developing neurological complications comorbid with thyroid pathology.

Parole chiave

  • neurotrophin
  • mRNA
  • autoimmune thyroiditis
  • hypothyroidism
Accesso libero

Association between serum adiponectin levels with gestational diabetes mellitus and postpartum metabolic syndrome:A case control study

Pubblicato online: 08 May 2020
Pagine: 119 - 125

Astratto

Abstract

Objective. Pregnancy can cause diabetic conditions and gestational diabetes is the most common metabolic disorder of the era. Scientific evidence suggests that obesity increases the incidence and severity of gestational diabetes. Adipokines are proteins secreted from adipose tissue in response to extracellular stimuli and altered metabolism. These hormones are involved in regulating the energy balance, lipid metabolism, and insulin sensitivity. One of the types of adipokines is called adiponectin, which has anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherogenic effects. Accordingly, this study is aimed to investigate the correlation between the serum adiponectin level with the gestational diabetes and the postpartum metabolic syndrome.

Methods. This case-control study was carried out on 37 pregnant women (in Sari, Iran) with gestational diabetes and 37 non-diabetic pregnant women who were matched regarding age and body mass index (BMI). Serum adiponectin and glucose levels were measured. Finally, six weeks after termination of pregnancy, women in both groups were evaluated for metabolic syndrome. All statistical analyses of this study were performed using IBM SPSS software version 21 and, in all cases, the two-way p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results. The mean age of pregnant women was 28.46±4.11 years in the non-diabetic group and 30.03±4.71 in the diabetic group. There was no statistically significant difference found between the mean age (p=0.123) and BMI (p=0.727) in two groups. Serum adiponectin levels in the diabetic group (5.51±3.15 µg/ml) were significantly lower than in the non-diabetic group (8.35±4.54 µg/ml) (p=0.003). In the diabetic group, serum adiponectin level did not correlate with the maternal age, maternal BMI, and postpartum metabolic syndrome (p>0.005).

Conclusions. The results of the present study indicate a correlation of low adiponectin concentrations with gestational diabetes, but this association with postpartum metabolic syndrome is uncertain. However, to elucidate the mechanism of adiponectin in predicting gestational diabetes and postpartum metabolic syndrome further studies are required.

Parole chiave

  • adiponectin
  • gestational diabetes
  • metabolic syndrome
Accesso libero

The altered circadian pattern of basal insulin requirements – an early marker of autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes in type 1 diabetes mellitus

Pubblicato online: 08 May 2020
Pagine: 126 - 132

Astratto

Abstract

Objectives. The purpose of the present paper is to propose and introduce novel biomarkers of autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes that are relevant to the early diagnosis and optimal medical management of the patients who already suffer from type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Methods. We hypothesize and demonstrate on a case study that various organ-specific autoimmune endocrinopathies can result in lowered basal insulin requirements, leading to unexplained hypoglycemia.

Results. It can be hypothesized that hypothyroidism in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus may deteriorate glycemic control and can lead to an increased rate of hypoglycemia, particularly the overnight and morning hypoglycemia. Thus, the decreased requirements for particularly overnight basal insulin can be an early marker of the autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome-3 with subclinical autoimmune thyroiditis in immune-mediated type 1 diabetes mellitus. Further, it could be proposed that unexplained hypoglycemia during the late afternoon or evening could be an early marker of the autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome-2 with subclinical autoimmune Addison disease in immune-mediated type 1 diabetes mellitus. As a result, an altered circadian pattern of basal insulin requirements can occur, characterized by a decreased late afternoon basal insulin rate.

Conclusions. After exclusion of other causes, the unexplained reoccurring hypoglycemia can be a remarkable feature of autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes in immune-mediated type 1 diabetes mellitus on intensive insulin replacement therapy.

Parole chiave

  • type 1 diabetes mellitus
  • hypoglycemia
  • autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes
  • insulin
  • hypothyroidism
  • Addison disease
Accesso libero

Thyroid fibromatosis: A case report

Pubblicato online: 08 May 2020
Pagine: 133 - 136

Astratto

Abstract

Objectives. Fibromatosis is a rare tumor with a prevalence of 2–4 per million per year. Its occur-rence in the thyroid is very rare and to the best of our knowledge only five cases have been reported in the literature.

Subject and Results. In this case report, we present a thirty-seven-year-old man without any significant past medical history, who presented with an anterior neck swelling and occasional cough for four months before admission. Sonographic-guided fine needle aspiration cytology studies reported a follicular neoplasm. Microscopic and immunohistochemical evaluation of the thyroidectomy specimen showed thyroid fibromatosis. The patient had no symptoms after surgery and no signs of recurrence after 2 years of follow-up.

Parole chiave

  • fibromatosis
  • thyroid
  • neoplasm
Accesso libero

The polypharmacy reduction potential of cinnamic acids and some related compounds in pre- and post-onset management of type 2 diabetes mellitus

Pubblicato online: 08 May 2020
Pagine: 137 - 155

Astratto

Abstract

Objectives. This review assesses the polypharmacy reduction potential of cinnamic acids (CAs) and some related compounds in managing three or more of the cluster of seven, pre- and post-type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)-related features (central obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, pro-thrombosis, oxidation, and inflammation).

Methods. Google scholar and Pubmed were searched for cinnam*, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, and caffeic acid in conjunction with each of pre- and post-onset T2DM, central obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, pro-thrombosis, oxidation, and inflammation. The study was divided into an introduction followed by findings on the impacts of each of the CAs including trans-CA acid, the E isomer of a CA-based thiazolidinedione and a metabolite of that isomer, as well as p-methoxy CA, various cinnamic amides and some other CA-related compounds (chlorogenic acid, cinnamaldehyde, ferulic and caffeic acid).

Results. Trans-CA has a potential to manage three, while each of chlorogenic acid, cinnamalde-hyde, caffeic acid and ferulic acid has a potential to manage all seven members of the cluster. Other CA-related compounds identified may manage only one or two of the cluster of seven.

Conclusions. Much of the work has been done in animal models of pre- and post-onset T2DM and non-pre- or post-onset T2DM humans and animals, along with some cell culture and in vitro work. Very little work has been done with human pre- and post-onset T2DM. While there is potential for managing 3 or more members of the cluster with many of these compounds, a definitive answer awaits large pre- and post-T2DM onset clinical trials with humans.

Parole chiave

  • cinnamic acids and related compounds
  • type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • central obesity
  • hyperglycemia
  • hypertension
  • dyslipidemia
  • pro-thrombosis
  • oxidation and inflammation

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