As a distributed vibration monitoring technology, phasesensitive optical timedomain reflectometer (ΦOTDR) has the advantages of corrosion resistance, electromagnetic interference resistance, high sensitivity, wide detection range [1], and easy concealment [2] etc. ΦOTDR has been successfully used in perimeter security [3], protection of important underground infrastructures [4] and health monitoring of large buildings [5]. ΦOTDR technology is also a new way of protecting the underground cable. Because most of the cables are buried in areas of high population density, the behaviour of stealing and damaging cable will bring great inconvenience to people's life and also cause great economic losses. ΦOTDR, which is used directly on the paved communication optical fibre without additional sensing devices, does not affect the communication on fibre and also protect the fibre itself [6]. Therefore, ΦOTDR is a convenient, high costeffective cable protection way.
The primary problem of vibration monitoring is the localisation of vibration events, but the premise of localisation is to measure the distance between the vibration source and fibre. In the past, the research on ΦOTDR technology focused on the improvement of the detection range [7] as well as the sensitivity [8,9,10]. As the technology is maturing, the distance measurement to vibration signal through ΦOTDR becomes possible.
However, the distance measurement accuracy on ΦOTDR is low due to its high sensitivity along with other factors such as the inherent noises on devices, environmental noises, spatial resolution and human activities’ interference. Thus, this paper focuses on efficient distance measurement for vibration events.
This paper presents the method to determine the minimum distance between vibration source and fibre under existing optical vibration signals.
Some communication fibres are distributed in the dedicated pipe chase, nevertheless, some are directly embedded under the ground. Fibres in pipe chase are not directly contacted with the soil layers. Thus the capacity of sensing vibration is weak. In comparison, fibres under the ground have a stronger ability to sense vibration. The research of this paper is only limited to distance measurement between vibration source and fibre under the ground. In practice, evacuation is the main threat to optical fibres. Evacuation can be divided into shovel evacuation, excavator evacuation and tamping machine evacuation, etc. The experiment of this paper concentrated on shovel excavation due to its high frequency.
Vibration signals from excavation conform to the propagation law in the soil layers. The attenuation is in the exponential law [11], which means that the farther the signal is from the vibration source, the more it attenuates.
The spatial resolution of distributed fibres refers to the minimum spatial distance as measuring vibration along with the fiber distribution. One fibre can be divided into different segments. Each segment is equivalent to a sensor, and the length is considered as spatial resolution. For example, when spatial resolution is 1 m, vibration signals are distinguished on two fibre segments with an interval of 1 m.
After thorough consideration of spatial resolution and vibration attenuation law, the propagation process of distributed fibre for vibration can be described in Figure 1. The segment closest to the vibration source receives the strongest signal, vice versa. For convenient description, the fibre segment closest to the vibration source is numbered as 0—the 0th fibre or the datum fibre segment. The adjacent fibre segments are numbered as −1 and 1—the −1st fibre and the 1st fibre, and so on. Fibres are marked by using the subscript subsequence (−N. . . −1, 0, 1 . . . N). For convenient description, such a method is called MMDFS.
The vibration source closest to the fibre segment is l_{0}, the distance from each segment to the vibration source is marked as l_{i}, (i= −N, . . . 0, . . . , N). Δt_{i} refers to TDOA between the ith fibre and the 0th fibre. Δt_{0}, the TDOA of 0th fibre, is equal to 0. Δt_{i} is >0. v represents propagation velocity of vibration. d stands for spatial resolution. The relationship between Δt_{i} and l_{i} is
The goal of this paper is to substitute TDOA Δt_{i} into Eq. (4) to solve l_{0}. Since Eq. (4) is a nonlinear equation set, solving l_{0} directly is complicated. Therefore, Eq. (4) is firstly linearised, then the least square principle is used to deduce a solving equation. To ensure the estimation accuracy of Δt_{i}, the method of TDOA estimation and eliminating outliers are studied.
Distance Estimation between Vibration Source and Fibre Based on the Least Square
A variable substitution is made as follows
Accurate TDOA estimation is the key to measure the distance between vibration source and fibre. The classical method for TDOA estimation is GCC. In recent years, GCCSC has been developed to conduct correlation again based on GCC. Under the low SNR, the results from the secondary relation are much better than GCC. We conducted the simulation comparison experiments by aiming at five methods, including crosscorrelation (CC), SCOT, ML, GCCSC based on SCOT, and GCCSC based on ML. The findings of the comparative experiments indicate that the secondary relation estimation based on ML weighting has the maximum accuracy.
A signal emitting from a remote source and monitored in the presence of noise at two spatially separated receivers can be mathematically modelled as
GCC is the improvement on the basic crosscorrelation method, and it can be used under the low SNR. GCC's principle is prefiltering to eliminate noises and disturbance and then carrying out correlation operations.
According to the different weighting methods, GCC can be divided into four types, including Roth, SCOT, PHAT and ML. The ML algorithm can give the big weight to the frequency bands with the high SNR and the small weight to the bands with the small SNR, therefore it is the optimal filter statistically.
The generalised correlation between x_{1} (n) and x_{2} (n) is
The process of GCCSC is that the signals are autocorrelated and crosscorrelated firstly, and then the results of autocorrelation and crosscorrelation are used to carry out crosscorrelation operation again, so as to improve resolution power and antinoise performance.
Autocorrelation function of x_{1} (n) is
To improve the estimation accuracy, two aspects of the secondary relation are improved: one is limiting the range of delay peak; the other is using threepoint interpolation to improve the delay estimate.
The method of calculating Δt_{i} has been discussed above. However, in practice, affected by noises and interference, the estimated delay value Δt_{i} often sometimes exceeds the normal range. These points with apparent deviation are named as outliers. Too many outliers can affect the accuracy of estimation, and the removal of outliers can significantly improve the estimation accuracy.
Judging whether a data point is an outlier, it is necessary to select a suitable indicator. In this paper, the Deviation Square (DS) is used to judge whether Δt_{i} is an outlier. The definition is
According to Figure 2(a), when i is −1, 1, −6 and 6, the four DSi is relatively large. All DSi in Figure 2(a) are calculated and shown in Figure 2(b). In Figure 2(b), the four DSi marked with solid points are apparent outliers, and the rest 11 hollow points are more likely to be normal.
In Figure 2(b), the DS value of outliers is higher than normal points. The normal points gather in a specific region with smaller DS values, and the number is more. However, the outliers cluster into one or more classes in the region with larger DS values, and the number is less. Thus DS can be used to distinguish the normal points from outliers effectively.
This paper adopts the idea of eliminating outliers by clustering. The primary thought is as follows: First, all points are clustered into multiple classes according to the DS value. Second, the most likely outliers are determined by judging the number of points in the class and the distance between the classes. Third, and ared after removal of such points. Fourth, the new DS value is calculated. The above steps are repeated until the remaining data can be considered as one class. That is, no apparent outliers.
There are multiple clustering methods, including KMeans, hierarchical clustering, Clustering with Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM) and DBSCAN. However, this paper requires that only one class remain in the end, no matter how many classes there are at the beginning. KMeans and GMM cannot meet the requirement of changeable clustering number, and hierarchical clustering is not easy to determine the dividing layers. As a result, DBSCAN is used in this paper.
DBSCAN has two advantages: (1) High efficiency. It can remove multiple outliers at one time. Compared with other clustering methods, iterations are fewer. (2) The clustering number is reduced with the increase of iterations, and finally into one class.
Before using DBSCAN, it is necessary to set two parameters, one is the cluster radius
Considering all the above problems, a complete method to calculate the distance between the vibration source and the optical fibre is described below.
The experiment is divided into two parts, including simulation fibre data and practical fibre data.
Ricker wavelets were used as the analogue vibration source signal. According to the attenuation coefficient and the distance between the optical fibre and vibration source, the attenuated signal was calculated. Then the attenuated signal was mixed with zero mean Gaussian noise to obtain the simulated vibration signal received by fibre.
Ricker wavelet is the typical waveform in vibration simulation. The timedomain expression is shown as follows
Figure 3 shows that the Ricker wavelet is not only similar to real vibration signals in the time domain but also in the frequency domain. Therefore, the Ricker wavelet is the desirable waveform of simulation vibration signals.
The vibration source data was composed of five Ricker wavelets with a frequency peak of 50 Hz. To improve the data quality, Ricker wavelet amplitude was expanded five times. After attenuation, the vibration source data was mixed with Gaussian noise with zero mean and 0.05 variance. The sampling frequency was set as 10000 Hz, the duration was 3 s, the wave velocity was 10000 m/s, and the minimum distance between the optical fibre and vibration source was 1 m. There were 19 fibre segments receiving vibration signals, and their serial numbers based on MMDFS were (−9, −8. . . −1, 0, 1. . . 8, 9).
At the same time, all data was stored as a matrix, with 30,000 rows and 19 columns. The stored data is shown in Figure 4.
In Figure 4(b), each column refers to data received by one fibre segment. Among these columns, the 10th column is the datum fibre segment and has the best signal quality with an SNR of −1.05 db. But the first and 19th columns have the worst data quality with an SNR of −2.12 db. Five Ricker wavelets in signals of No. 10 column can be observed obviously, but the Ricker wavelets are extremely close to noises and challenging to distinguish in signals of No. 1 column. The simulation fibre data used in this paper is named as SimuFiberData.
The experiment used the method of GCCSC based on ML to estimate TDOA. To improve accuracy, threepoint interpolation was conducted. Table 1 shows the simulation fiber data for making a comparison on the real TDOA with five methods, including CC, SCOT, ML, GCCSC based on SCOT and GCCSC based on ML. It is worth noting that the unit of TDOA is the sampling number, instead of the second. Mean Square Error and success rate of five methods in Table 1 are shown in Table 2.
Comparison of TDOA estimation for simu fibre data.
−9  7  −2  7.3147  7.3945  7.9716  8.055 
−8  8  8  8.2805  8.8228  7.4851  7.062 
−7  5  5  4.9436  4.3144  8.02  6.071 
−6  7  −7  6.9048  6.3663  5.464  5.083 
−5  9  −6  6.0667  8.9716  5.7098  4.099 
−4  3  −3  2.7389  2.8608  3.211  3.123 
−3  5  −1  −1.1754  −1.2043  2.3093  2.162 
−2  5  −10  5.2752  5.0414  2.1822  1.236 
−1  1  1  0.7914  0.9828  0.8831  0.414 
0  0  0  0  0  0  0 
1  0  13  −0.016  0.1585  0.3109  0.414 
2  2  3  2.8405  2.7737  1.5947  1.236 
3  3  −14  3.6201  3.1296  2.7702  2.162 
4  1  9  0.9783  1.2096  1.4064  3.123 
5  4  −8  3.9291  4.1022  4.1073  4.099 
6  8  14  7.8445  7.9643  6.8807  5.083 
7  11  −13  11.2104  11.013  6.5797  6.071 
8  3  3  11.0275  3.4893  8.4726  7.062 
9  6  −10  6.4191  6.4771  7.1539  8.055 
CC, crosscorrelation.
Mean square error and success rate of five methods of Table 1.
MSE  5.943  17.0042  5.2276  5.6606  0.9272 
Success Rate  100%  42.1053%  89.4737%  94.7368%  100% 
CC, crosscorrelation.
TDOA estimation in Table 1 has two unreasonable situations: (1) TDOA value is negative. For example, the estimation value of No. −9 in SCOT is −2; (2) TDOA value dramatically exceeds the theoretical value. For example, the estimation value of No. 1 in SCOT is 13, but the actual value is 1.236. These belong to unsuccessful estimation values. Thus the success rate is also an important indicator to estimate TDOA.
The success rate of the five methods in Table 2 shows that GCCSC based on ML has the highest success rate than other methods. The mean square error estimated by GCCSC based on ML is the minimum and it has the highest success rate. For this reason, GCCSC based on ML was selected to do TDOA estimation.
To obtain satisfactory distance estimation results, not only the accurate TDOA method should be selected, but also the TDOA outliers should be removed reasonably. The entire detailed computational process of SimuFiberData is shown in Table 3.
Complete process to simu fibre data.
1  8.055  7.9716  −9  248.021  0  0 
2  7.062  7.4851  −8  28.806  0  0 
3  6.071  8.02  −7  286.574  0  0 
4  5.083  5.464  −6  1.424  −6  0 
5  4.099  5.7098  −5  153.47  0  0 
6  3.123  3.211  −4  0.612  −4  1.402 
7  2.162  2.3093  −3  0.191  −3  0.03 
8  1.236  2.1822  −2  22.245  0  0 
9  0.414  0.8831  −1  2.88  −1  1.612 
10  0  0  0  0  0  0 
11  0.414  0.3109  1  0.032  1  1.28E−01 
12  1.236  1.5947  2  2.861  2  1.199 
13  2.162  2.7702  3  10.526  3  7.343 
14  3.123  1.4064  4  124.818  0  0 
15  4.099  4.1073  5  8.236  5  7.932 
16  5.083  6.8807  6  221.649  0  0 
17  6.071  6.5797  7  3.14  7  0.673 
18  7.062  8.4726  8  70.983  0  0 
19  8.055  7.1539  9  711.649  0  0 
DSMSE  105.4509  2.2577  
 8508.390  9370.197  
 1.419  0.958 
DS, deviation square.
The 1st column in Table 3 is the serial numbering for TDOA. Successively, the 2nd column is the true TDOA; the 3rd column is the TDOA estimation value according to GCCSC based on ML. After the 3rd column, data in two columns are divided into a group. Each group represents one distance estimation. No. 1 column of each group is the serial numbering based on MMDFS. If the serial numbering is 0, it means data at this point have been eliminated from the distance estimation. No. 2 column in each group is the corresponding DS of data involved in TDOA estimation. The antepenultimate row is the mean square error of all DS values after each distance estimation, implying the effect of DS clustering. The penultimate row is the estimation value of wave velocity. The tailender row is the estimation value of the distance between the vibration source and optical fibre.
In the first estimation, wave velocity is 8508.390, the distance is 1.419, both of which belong to the reasonable value range. However, DS has the more significant mean square error and it is 105.451, indicating that the clustering result is not desirable. The TDOA value involved in estimation probably has outliers, which should be eliminated.
The primary step of eliminating outliers was to set up cluster radius
After removing outliers in the first time, the second estimation was conducted to obtain wave velocity as 9370.197 and distance as 0.958, close to the set value 1; DS mean square error was very small, that is 2.2577, indicating that the clustering result was desirable and outliers had been eliminated. Figure 5(b) shows the scatter diagram of all DS values in the No. 7 column in Table 3—the scatter diagram after removing outliers, showing that the DS values of residual points were maintained at 10 and there were no outliers. The whole calculation was over.
Fibre data were collected from the space in a college in Beijing, China. The space was an area of 800 m2 in a rectangle. The southnorth length was about 20 m and the southeast length was about 40 m. The length of fibre was 300 m, paved around the site with two circles. Its buried depth was about 10 cm under the ground.
The fibre was wireline cable. NBXS3000 from the Japanese Neubrex Company was used as the fibre collecting device. The sampling frequency was 10000 Hz. Fibre spatial resolution was 1.03 m, thus the entire fibre could be divided into 290 segments.
The excavation was carried out at 108.83 m of the fibre. A shovel was used to excavate on the ground. The excavation position was distant from the fibre about 1 m. The strongest excavation signal was at 108.83 m. Excavation signals could be distinguished at 99.59 m and 117.04 m. But it was difficult to distinguish farther excavation signals with the naked eyes. The vibration signals received from 99.59 m to 117.04 m were chosen as the analysis objects. According to MMDFS, the fibre segment at 108.83 m was the datum fibre segment with the serial numbering as 0. The serial numbering at 109.86 m, 117.04 m, 107.8 m and 99.59 m was 1, 8, −1 and −9, respectively. There were a total of 18 fibre segments, which had the sequence numbered as (−9, −8, −7, −6, −5, −4, −3, −2, −1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8).
Practical fibre data were greatly affected by the background noises, and the SNR was low. The best SNR obtained from the strongest excavation signal at 108.83 m was 17.72 dB, the worst SNR was 9.49 dB. At 117.04 m, the best SNR was 8.45 dB; the worst SNR was −2.27 dB.
Relative to the simulation fibre data, practical fibre data were affected by noises and soil medium, resulting in greater deviation. As estimating TDOA, more unreasonable values than simulation fibre data were generated, sometimes accounting for >30% of the total data. Therefore, the main task of pretreatment was to remove unreasonable TDOA.
As shown in Figure 6, the fibre data contains four groups of apparent excavation signals circled with dotted lines. In distance estimation, four segments of data are partitioned. The length of each segment ranges from 130 to 200 sampling points. Excavation data in each group regards the No. 0 column as the benchmark to estimate TDOA with other columns and eliminate unreasonable TDOA, remaining 25 effective values.
Because the method adopted for estimating TDOA has strong noise resistance, this paper does not carry out denoising processing on optical fibre data.
The complete details of distance estimation for excavation data are recorded in Table 4.
Differing from Table 3, because true TDOA is unknown, there is no real value column in Table 4. The rest is the same as Table 4. The original number ranges from 1 to 72. After pretreatment, only 25 valid TDOA values remained. No. 2 column is the TDOA estimation value. The entire calculation conducted distance estimation five times. Outliers were eliminated four times. The setting of cluster radius
The overall process of excavation data treatment.
11  0.30  1  76.82  1  22.90  1  5.46  1  1.83  1  0.02 
12  0.40  2  73.13  2  11.87  2  0.09  2  0.92  2  6.18 
13  0.45  3  20.16  3  1.15  3  20.17  3  34.44  0  0 
14  0.61  4  1.15  4  34.72  4  103.16  0  0  0  0 
15  0.71  5  40.03  5  195.43  0  0  0  0  0  0 
16  0.82  6  246.77  6  577.32  0  0  0  0  0  0 
17  0.81  7  889.91  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0 
18  0.93  8  1902.98  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0 
20  0.95  −8  1878.44  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0 
21  1.94  −7  504.32  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0 
22  1.61  −6  63.24  −6  268.29  0  0  0  0  0  0 
23  1.56  −5  13.22  −5  24.83  −5  101.21  0  0  0  0 
24  1.05  −4  81.91  −4  0.01  −4  31.30  −4  62.44  0  0 
25  0.28  −3  0.08  −3  16.31  −3  40.42  −3  53.09  0  0 
26  0.32  −2  37.20  −2  3.69  −2  0.42  −2  2.83  −2  8.66 
27  0.25  −1  52.07  −1  14.75  −1  3.11  −1  0.87  −1  0.01 
47  0.53  1  228.79  1  77.38  1  24.15  1  11.17  1  2.14 
48  0.81  2  322.49  2  94.42  2  22.01  2  6.90  2  0.06 
49  1.36  3  388.30  3  110.21  3  24.98  3  6.87  3  0.04 
50  1.81  4  172.13  4  34.59  4  3.03  4  0.06  4  3.18 
51  2.55  5  20.72  5  9.16  5  2.03  5  2.11  5  0.13 
65  0.63  1  303.47  1  106.37  1  35.55  1  17.58  1  4.40 
66  1.13  2  520.48  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0 
67  1.45  3  407.44  3  124.57  3  33.62  3  11.92  3  1.26 
68  1.94  4  157.81  4  40.46  4  8.47  4  1.33  4  0.00 
DSMSE  336.12  88.42  27.01  14.29  2.17  
 32894.05i  21501.91i  8321.26i  8756.23  16942.8  
 −5.50i  −4.884i  −6.976i  4.498  0.951  
100  40  10  10  
MinPts  5  5  5  5 
DS, deviation square; MinPts, minimum number of points.
However, this method has the possibility of failure. Especially when there are many outliers with the DS values close to each other, they are easy to aggregate into a class, resulting in the deletion of the normal points. In this case, the result has a significant deviation.
When this method is applied to the practical optical fibre data, it is affected by many factors and will produce significant errors. These factors include
Sampling affects the measurement of the time when the vibration reaches the fibre. Sampling occurs at integer multiples of the sampling period. If the time of the vibration signal arriving at the optical fibre is not an integer multiple of the sampling period, the signal arrival time is regarded as the nearest next integer time. For example, the vibration that reaches the fibre is the 5.1 sampling point theoretically, but the actual time collected is in the 6th sampling point.
It is assumed that the arrival time of the vibration to the fibre is uniformly distributed, the average arrival time obtained will be 0.5 sampling points later than the actual arrival time during sampling.
The better method to solve the sampling problem is interpolation which can greatly reduce the sampling error.
Noises will affect the accuracy of TDOA estimation. With the decrease of SNR, the accuracy of TDOA estimation also decreases sharply. Moreover, when the SNR exceeds 10 dB, the accuracy of TDOA estimation obtained is also higher.
In this paper, a fibre segment is equivalent to a sensor. However, a sensor can be thought of as a point, and a fibre segment as a line segment whose length is equal to the spatial resolution. Therefore, the spatial resolution will cause a ±d/2 error in the estimation of the closest point of the vibration source to the optical fibre. Further reduction of spatial resolution is the key to improve the accuracy of distance estimation.
Fibres in the experiment are paved in the earth ditch with a depth of 10–15 cm. In the pavement process, the fibre is not straight due to the factors such as the fluctuation of the pavement surface and the natural bending of the fibre.
The propagation speed of the vibration signal in the soil layer is related to the propagation medium. If the elasticity modulus of the propagation medium increases, the velocity will be faster. The elasticity modulus of stone is greater than that of soil, and the elasticity modulus of soil is greater than that of sand. In the experimental site, when the earth ditch was excavated, it was found that there were more stones and harder soil. Therefore, when the vibration signal propagated in the soil layer, the wave velocity in different media was different. It even happened that the nondatum fibre segment received the signal earlier than the datum fibre segment.
Safety protection for underground communication fibre is of great significance. When a threatening event to optical fibre security happens, the effective distance measurement between the threat location and the optical fibre is an important basis for further protective actions. OTDR technology is used to make use of the existing communication fibre without adding additional sensors. This is a new way to protect the security of optical fibre by using the fibre itself as the sensor.
The method of distance measurement used in this paper includes four steps: fibre marking, TDOA estimation, outliers’ removal, and distance calculation. It is proved that the method is correct and useful in theory.
However, affected by many factors, it is still not a very accurate distance estimation method in practice. To further improve the accuracy of the estimation, certain improvements, such as reducing spatial resolution and increasing SNR, need further study.
Complete process to simu fibre data.
1  8.055  7.9716  −9  248.021  0  0 
2  7.062  7.4851  −8  28.806  0  0 
3  6.071  8.02  −7  286.574  0  0 
4  5.083  5.464  −6  1.424  −6  0 
5  4.099  5.7098  −5  153.47  0  0 
6  3.123  3.211  −4  0.612  −4  1.402 
7  2.162  2.3093  −3  0.191  −3  0.03 
8  1.236  2.1822  −2  22.245  0  0 
9  0.414  0.8831  −1  2.88  −1  1.612 
10  0  0  0  0  0  0 
11  0.414  0.3109  1  0.032  1  1.28E−01 
12  1.236  1.5947  2  2.861  2  1.199 
13  2.162  2.7702  3  10.526  3  7.343 
14  3.123  1.4064  4  124.818  0  0 
15  4.099  4.1073  5  8.236  5  7.932 
16  5.083  6.8807  6  221.649  0  0 
17  6.071  6.5797  7  3.14  7  0.673 
18  7.062  8.4726  8  70.983  0  0 
19  8.055  7.1539  9  711.649  0  0 
DSMSE  105.4509  2.2577  

8508.390  9370.197  

1.419  0.958 
Mean square error and success rate of five methods of Table 1.
MSE  5.943  17.0042  5.2276  5.6606  0.9272 
Success Rate  100%  42.1053%  89.4737%  94.7368%  100% 
The overall process of excavation data treatment.
11  0.30  1  76.82  1  22.90  1  5.46  1  1.83  1  0.02 
12  0.40  2  73.13  2  11.87  2  0.09  2  0.92  2  6.18 
13  0.45  3  20.16  3  1.15  3  20.17  3  34.44  0  0 
14  0.61  4  1.15  4  34.72  4  103.16  0  0  0  0 
15  0.71  5  40.03  5  195.43  0  0  0  0  0  0 
16  0.82  6  246.77  6  577.32  0  0  0  0  0  0 
17  0.81  7  889.91  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0 
18  0.93  8  1902.98  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0 
20  0.95  −8  1878.44  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0 
21  1.94  −7  504.32  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0 
22  1.61  −6  63.24  −6  268.29  0  0  0  0  0  0 
23  1.56  −5  13.22  −5  24.83  −5  101.21  0  0  0  0 
24  1.05  −4  81.91  −4  0.01  −4  31.30  −4  62.44  0  0 
25  0.28  −3  0.08  −3  16.31  −3  40.42  −3  53.09  0  0 
26  0.32  −2  37.20  −2  3.69  −2  0.42  −2  2.83  −2  8.66 
27  0.25  −1  52.07  −1  14.75  −1  3.11  −1  0.87  −1  0.01 
47  0.53  1  228.79  1  77.38  1  24.15  1  11.17  1  2.14 
48  0.81  2  322.49  2  94.42  2  22.01  2  6.90  2  0.06 
49  1.36  3  388.30  3  110.21  3  24.98  3  6.87  3  0.04 
50  1.81  4  172.13  4  34.59  4  3.03  4  0.06  4  3.18 
51  2.55  5  20.72  5  9.16  5  2.03  5  2.11  5  0.13 
65  0.63  1  303.47  1  106.37  1  35.55  1  17.58  1  4.40 
66  1.13  2  520.48  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0 
67  1.45  3  407.44  3  124.57  3  33.62  3  11.92  3  1.26 
68  1.94  4  157.81  4  40.46  4  8.47  4  1.33  4  0.00 
DSMSE  336.12  88.42  27.01  14.29  2.17  

32894.05i  21501.91i  8321.26i  8756.23  16942.8  

−5.50i  −4.884i  −6.976i  4.498  0.951  
100  40  10  10  
MinPts  5  5  5  5 
Comparison of TDOA estimation for simu fibre data.
−9  7  −2  7.3147  7.3945  7.9716  8.055 
−8  8  8  8.2805  8.8228  7.4851  7.062 
−7  5  5  4.9436  4.3144  8.02  6.071 
−6  7  −7  6.9048  6.3663  5.464  5.083 
−5  9  −6  6.0667  8.9716  5.7098  4.099 
−4  3  −3  2.7389  2.8608  3.211  3.123 
−3  5  −1  −1.1754  −1.2043  2.3093  2.162 
−2  5  −10  5.2752  5.0414  2.1822  1.236 
−1  1  1  0.7914  0.9828  0.8831  0.414 
0  0  0  0  0  0  0 
1  0  13  −0.016  0.1585  0.3109  0.414 
2  2  3  2.8405  2.7737  1.5947  1.236 
3  3  −14  3.6201  3.1296  2.7702  2.162 
4  1  9  0.9783  1.2096  1.4064  3.123 
5  4  −8  3.9291  4.1022  4.1073  4.099 
6  8  14  7.8445  7.9643  6.8807  5.083 
7  11  −13  11.2104  11.013  6.5797  6.071 
8  3  3  11.0275  3.4893  8.4726  7.062 
9  6  −10  6.4191  6.4771  7.1539  8.055 
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hydraulic pump motor test stand based on mechanical power recovery Analysis of Intelligent Control Strategy for Heavy Media Coal Separation Process Based on Deep Learning Model A study on the impact of COVID19 class suspension on college students’ emotions based on affective computing model Optimization of Civic Education Paths in Universities Based on the Subordination Matrix Model A study of the relationship between the prosperity of literary novels and the prevalence of the imperial examination system in the Ming Dynasty based on the LDA model Cluster control technology of transmission line intelligent inspection drones based on 5G communication Visualization communication mode and path optimization of data news in the context of big data Cooperative control method of transmission line inspection UAV cluster based on hybrid networking technology Research on the development of watercolor painting education in universities based on smart contract model Energysaving and noisereducing integrated task allocation model for machining systems and its application Research on the construction and sustainable development of online teaching model for universities based on deep learning Optimization of the innovation path of practical teaching of college Civics based on VR technology under information fusion technology Speech recognitionbased packaging design techniques and graphic design Research on the cultivation mode of big data accounting talents in higher education institutions based on hierarchical analysis method Barriers to Renewable Energy Share of the Grid in the Context of Big Data and Countermeasures The role of LightGBM model in management efficiency enhancement of listed agricultural companies Innovation of product packaging design based on visual communication from a digital perspective Statistical language modelbased analysis of the EnglishChinese corpus and political discourse Analysis of the construction and reform path of preschool education professional practice courses in the context of computer big data A study of algorithms for solving nonlinear twolevel programming problems oriented to decision tree models Research on localization and navigation methods for intelligent terminal devices oriented to multisource fusion technology Application of graphic image processing technology in 2D game interface design Computer visionbased image data processing of digital media video images with ultraclear picture quality Research on the intelligent management mode of university education and teaching for innovative talents cultivation strategy Research on the Analysis of Efficiency and Potential Prediction of Crossborder ECommerce Trade of Agricultural Products in West Anhui Based on Improved DEVA Model The introduction and cultivation of intercultural communication in undergraduate German language teaching process based on big data technology Research on the integration path of cultural creative industry and tourism industry based on collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm Research on the development of literature practice teaching for college students in the context of computer technology Sensitivity Analysis of the Waterproof Performance of Elastic Rubber Gasket in Shield Tunnel The main color structure setting of Chinese oil painting based on content analysis method The application of red music culture resources in the education of ecological civilization concept in colleges and universities under the background of multimedia Optimization of the development path of integration between folk art and contemporary textile industry in Shandong based on BOPPPS model Analysis of the application of BIM technology in the combination of interior design and smart home Research on the development of digitalization of art education in the era of big data technology Research on the role of psychological education in college Civic Education under the background of Internet Visual learning analysis of physical virtual simulation experiments based on heterogeneous data features Dilemmas and Breakthroughs in the Legal Regulation of Artificial Intelligence Based on Deep Learning Models A study on the psychological relief path of gender stress in women's workplace based on hierarchical analysis Localized Imagery and Narrative of Chinese Contemporary Oil Painting Based on Big Data Improving online ideological and political precision education in universities based on knowledge mapping Research on unmanned vehicle obstacle avoidance technology based on LIDAR and depth camera fusion A multiobjective optimization algorithm based on the identification of risk spillover intensity measurement in Chinese financial markets A Study on Second Language Academic Writing Anxiety of Chinese Students Studying in Japan A Study on the Multidimensional Expression Form of Ancient Chinese Teaching in Universities Based on Multidimensional Analysis Model Analysis of Spatial Pattern and Geographical Divergence Characteristics of Traditional Villages Oriented to Digital Landscape Technology Innovation of teaching methods of international Chinese language education in universities based on artificial intelligence analysis technology The application of BOPPPS teaching model in online and offline hybrid Civics teaching in universities Exploring the Multiple Meanings of Ice and Snow Sports Culture Construction in Chinese Universities Based on Fuzzy Algorithm Research on service quality evaluation and improvement strategy of Chinese civil aviation based on DEA model The Importance of Emotional Expression in Vocal Performance Art in the Internet Era A Study on Innovative Strategies for Teaching English to College Students Based on Knowledge Mapping Research on urban landscape big data information processing system based on ordinary differential equations Research on greendriven product value creation process Assessment and Analysis of Ecotourism Resources in China Based on RIAM System Keyword Extractionbased Library Intelligence Services: Challenges, Adaptations and Reinvention Application of linear ordinary differential equations to the stability control of long time lag networks Research on the innovation of ideological and political education for college students based on the Civic and Political Science Cloud Education Platform Research on digital reform of music education resources in universities in the context of data governance Analysis of the evolutionary path of early civilization agriculture based on the plain Bayesian model Exploring the blended learning model of music teaching skills for teacher trainees based on teacher training professional certification in the context of big data A statistical method for massive data based on partial least squares algorithm Construction of an intelligent agricultural irrigation control platform based on PLC technology Analysis of digital cloud accounting incorporating data mining technology in corporate investment decision making Colorized visual aesthetics of interior design based on the VAR model Application of machine learning based models in computer network data Research on the Construction of Innovation and Entrepreneurship Education Model System in Universities Based on Big Data Technology Optimizing Strategy of Computer Teaching Mode in Universities Based on Continuous Discrete Method Variation in metadiscourse verb patterns in English academic papers from intra and interdisciplinary analysis Analysis of the opportunities and challenges of information technology for enterprise development strategy based on big data technology Building an efficient classroom for Civics in vocational colleges in the era of new media Research on energy consumption analysis of air conditioning and refrigeration equipment based on perceptron model Application of modern architectural color layout in interior design Indepth analysis of the artistic expression of papercutting elements in interior space design Research on the extraction method of traditional elements in environmental art space design based on intelligent algorithm Esearch on the optimization path of campus football teaching based on deep learning mode Analysis of the prospect of the development of university innovation and entrepreneurship courses based on the chaintype intelligent education model Study on the optimization of the quality management path of university physical education teaching in the context of multimedia network technology Exploring the path of integration of rural tourism culture and food industry in the context of big data Analysis of the Construction and Course Effectiveness of the Online Course Platform for College Piano in the Background of the Internet Machining hardening and dislocation modeling of magnesium alloys based on FieldsBackofen equation The construction of hotel information management mode under the trend of low carbon tourism Digital Intelligence Civilization Drives New Business Civilization: A Theoretical Framework for the Collaborative Ecosystem of Digital Culture and Tourism Industry Research and Application of Crossmedia Knowledge Discovery Service Based on Deep Learning Model A Study on the Evaluation System of Aesthetic Education in Guangdong Higher Education Institutions in the Context of Internet+ Education The mechanism of innovationdriven emerging technology generation based on big data fusion in the perspective of technological selfreliance and selfimprovement Analysis of the practice in college English listening teaching based on multimedia technology Research on New Liberal Arts Professional Talent Cultivation Model Based on OBE Concept Construction material manufacturing in the context of artificial intelligence and its use in the construction of assembled buildings New Digital Infrastructure, Financial Resource Allocation and High Quality Economic Development in the Internet Era Analysis of the integration development of enterprise refinement management and financial integration in the context of informationization Graphic Design Optimization Method Based on Deep Reinforcement Learning Model Innovation of tax incentives in the context of integration of traditional industries and digital economy Research on the Evaluation of the Effect of Tourism Revitalization of Intangible Cultural Heritage in China in the Context of New Media Analysis of the Design and Effectiveness Evaluation of Personalized English Teaching System for Mongolian College Students in Trilingual Context Research on composite dynamic disaster prevention and control system of mine earthquake and shock in thick and hard rock mines Research on urban energy Internet planning based on fuzzy comprehensive method Research on innovative strategies of college students’ English teaching under the background of artificial intelligence Electromagnetic interference prediction technology of new energy motor drive system Analysis of interaction experience of sculpture product design based on perceptual machine model Research on the intelligent path of college students’ network ideological and political education based on big data mining technology Exploring the characteristics of folk music tunes based on data mining model Research on the application of PLC technology in electrical automation engineering Model Innovation Research of Cultivating Applied Art and Design Talents Based on Environmental Psychology Application of matrix multiplication in signal sensor image perception Analysis of the application of abstract symbols in advertising design based on cluster analysis method Analysing the variation of metadiscourse verb patterns in English academic papers from within and between disciplines Cyclic Convolutional Neural Network Model Based on Artificial Intelligence A multivariate nonlinear dynamic programming of female figures in Qing dynasty literature Impact of COVID19 policy on stock prices of listed property companies Analysis of the Influence Path of Confucianism in the Civic Education of Contemporary College Students in the Context of Big Data Teaching Strategies of English Speaking Informatization in Colleges and Universities in the Context of ComputerAssisted Language Learning Application of the ADDIE Model in the Teaching Practice of Basketball Skills Energy Efficiency Evaluation of HVDC Converter Station Based on Deep Neural Network Model Numerical Simulation and Characteristic Analysis of Music Based on Nonlinear Equations Títul Automatic Extraction and Discrimination of Vocal Theme Based on Quadratic Wave Equation Marginal Scale State Analysis of Cloud Computing Economy Based on a Class of First Order Differential Equations ComputerAided Design of HandDrawn art Food Packaging Design Based on Deep Neural Network Model Innovative Development Model of Ideological and Political Education Under “Selfmedia” Based on Big Data Thoughts and Design of Ideological and Political Construction Based on the ADDIE Model Innovation of fresh agricultural products ecommerce operation mode based on artificial intelligence and machine learning model Research on the Application of Civic Education into the Brain and Heart Based on Physiological Data Recognition Algorithm VRbased computer maintenance practical training platform development design and application research Design and implementation of an integrated management system for discipline construction and postgraduate education in universities Research on innovative human capital for China’s economic development based on STI model Indepth analysis of the artistic expression of papercut elements in the design of boat space Dual Construction of “Composition” and “Analysis” in Composition and Technical Theory in the Context of Big Data Construction and intelligent analysis of power grid physical data knowledge graph based on Internet of Things for power system Deep learning modelbased reading of Chinese language and literature classics and situational experience Research on the quality of information disclosure of listed companies in the era of big data Research on the effects of financial literacy on rural household credit constraint The significance of senior education in the Internet era for the construction of lifelong education system Research on educational resource recommendation system based on MRLG Rec Study on Regional Financial Innovation, Technological Progress Bias and High Quality Economic Development Visual analysis of the trend of mental health changes among Chinese college students in the context of the normalisation of the new crown epidemic Research on the Market Positioning and Suitable Cargo Value Range of “YiwuXinjiangEurope” Train Based on Data Model A study on the phenomenon of anaphoric correction in college students’ English conversation Research on the application of improved Vdetector algorithm in network intrusion detection Integration of government accounting system reform and university infrastructure consolidation based on type two fuzzy sets Design of fitness walker for the elderly based on ergonomic SAPAD model The challenges of ideological and political education in higher education institutions in the era of big data and its path analysis Research on the innovation of collaborative education model of scientific research and teaching in colleges and universities based on the theory of process reengineering Analysis of the regulatory environment on Green innovations Efficiency and its Impact Effect The innovative path of diversified vocal music education reform in colleges and universities under the advanced educational concepts of China and the West Research on face emotion recognition algorithm based on deep learning neural network Rhino application in ceramic packaging design teaching Study on the Rationalization of Human Resources Allocation in Hospitals in the PostEpidemic Era Analysis and countermeasures of cultivating independent learning ability in colleges teaching English based on OBE theory Influencing Factors of Ideological and Political Construction Work based on VSBPC Model Denoising complex background radar signals based on wavelet decomposition thresholding Projection of Early Warning Identification of Hazardous Sources of Gas Explosion Accidents in Coal Mines Based on NTM Deep Learning Network Coupling Coordination of Long Triangle Digitization and High Quality Development of Manufacturing Industry based on Differential Equation The use of color elements in graphic design based on convolutional neural network model Research, analysis and optimization of the drive characteristics of the drive wheel of the machine tiller based on SPH method The application of graph theory teaching method in ideological and political education of discrete mathematics Design of automatic tobacco trash detection system based on quadratic fuzzy theory Construction of a personalized learning platform based on genetic algorithm for specialized education in industrial colleges in the context of industryeducation integration Analysis of the application of music curriculum education integrating modern network technology Evaluation of capability maturity of digital transformation of manufacturing industry in Yangtze River Delta based on SDAF model Online and Offline Audiovisualoral English Teaching Model Construction Based on ARCS Research on new ways of ideological and political education in new era universities Application of ecological architecture in architectural design based on information technology integration Strategies for the implementation of aesthetic education in music teaching in colleges and universities under the threshold of big data Exploring the implementation path of teaching Civics in online courses in colleges and universities under the background of big data RETRACTION NOTE A study on the principles of Chinese painting line drawing figure sketching techniques based on cognitive mapping constructs Research on the focus of national traditional sports culture inheritance based on weighted function algorithm First principles study of the electronic structure of antimony (Sb) and samarium (Sm) doped tin dioxide (SnO2) based on big data analysis Research on virtual color restoration algorithm for printmaking art images based on semantic segmentation and convolutional neural network Analysis of tennis techniques and tactics based on multiple linear regression model Exploring the creation of films based on digital media technology Automatic Detection of Transformer Health Based on Bayesian Network Model Research on the integration path and expected effect of university civic education and music teaching based on information fusion technology The construction of a shared resource base of enterprise financial informationization for intelligent terminal platform The value dimension and realization of online ideological and political education in colleges and universities based on deep learning Application and value of painting technique in art education based on improved ARMA model 3D Virtual Art Design Method Based on ARCS Model Construction of intelligent terminal equipment for Electric Internet of Things based on edge computing model Analysis of bridge foundation pile detection based on convolutional neural network model Application of deep learning model in computer data mining intrusion detection Defect prediction of big data computer network based on deep learning model Analysis of News Communication Law Based on PSR Model Analysis of the Evolution Trend of Segmentation of Online Public Opinion Based on Dynamic Tracking Technology Formative Assessment of College English Teaching Based on the CLA Model The evolution of Chinese traditional ethnic clothing design style based on interactive dichroism algorithm Research on the prediction method of stringsupported dome cable force based on digital twin technology Exploring the innovation of visual communication design style based on artificial intelligence technology Study on the Synergistic Development of Chinese Traditional Villages Protection and Landscape Development Facilitated by Rural Revitalization Research on the evaluation system and teaching optimization effect of animation aesthetics education based on principal component analysis method Design and application of an online teaching platform for public sports tennis in colleges and universities based on discrete choice regression model Innovative Research on Deep Learning Algorithm in Intelligent Attractions Recommendation Technology Construction of a screening and evaluation system for antihepatitis B virus drugs based on quadratic exponential smoothing model An empirical analysis of the impact of Crossborder Ecommerce on the competitiveness of SMEs based on the context of big data Research on computer network information image data processing based on machine learning Construction of preschool education resource sharing platform based on matrix model Application of animation design in the digital media art industry based on artificial intelligence technology An applied mathematical model based on discrete regression algorithm for computational prediction of blood collection volume Fractional Differential Equation in the Cost Control System of CrossBorder ECommerce Optimization of innovative informationbased teaching paths in college sports psychology based on principal component analysis Data Information Security Algorithm Based on Chaos and Hash Function Research on the innovative inheritance application of Guangxi minority elements in clothing design under the perspective of rural revitalization A study of English learning anxiety regulation strategies based on the deep learning model Application of power electronic circuit design based on BP artificial neural network in environmental monitoring Research on Curriculum Civic Education and Innovation and Entrepreneurship Education Reform in Undergraduate Universities under the Webbased Teaching Collaboration Platform Optimized reform strategy for quality education of Chinese language and literature education for college students based on information fusion technology Research on the innovation path of university library management and service under the background of big data Construction and practice of a standardized training system for outpatient clinics based on the cultivation of TCM thinking Genetic algorithmbased analysis of heat production prediction in electronic devices Analysis of the Implementation Approach of University Budget Performance Project Based on Equity Realization Perspective A study of multimodal education and discursive reading model in English based on multidimensional cognitive information aggregation theory Teaching Effect Evaluation of Music Education Based on Partial Differential Equation Model Analysis of the effect of music on personal emotional experience and identification of psychophysiological signals The application of body symbols in contemporary art from the perspective of Da Vinci’s theory A Hybrid Stochastic/Robust Planning Model for Integrated Energy System Considering Multiple Uncertainties Railroad freight service quality evaluation system based on a logistic regression model The Design and Development of Network Multimedia Music Teaching Based on Multiple Linear Regression Algorithm Research on the relationship between investment in preschool education and economic growth in Chongqing Deep Learningbased Fuzzy Translation Problem in ChineseEnglish Epidemic News Reporting Innovation and application of digital reading model for college students based on deep learning model Study of trip card data analysis system under big data Construction of a text complexity grading model for English textbooks in the context of globalization Design and research of big data technology based on ecommerce platform A study of cultural differences in SinoThai translation based on big data analysis On the Application of Artificial Intelligence in Local Legislation Big data analysis based on the correlation between livestreaming with goods, perceived value and consumer repurchase Big data methods and news communication innovation from theoretical definition to operational route Design and Practice of Human Geography Field Teaching in the Age of Big Data The innovation path of virtual practice teaching in college Civics class based on the Ridge regression model Application of CAE for mold flow analysis in plastic molding mold design Intelligent control system of port turning line based on WITNESS software Symmetry Analysis and Exact Solutions of Extended KadomtsevPetviashvili Equation in Fluids The reform of university English education inspired by cultural differences between China and foreign countries Research on structural damage identification and localization based on artificial neural network New approach to regularise the perturbed twobody problem Analysis of the factors influencing the development of college students’ Civic Science course based on ISO model The development trend of music art based on content analysis method The construction of crossregional cooperation innovation network governance system based on data fusion technology Analysis of the innovative development path of university civic education based on the era of big data On new aspects of Chebyshev polynomials for spacetime fractional diffusion process Rural landscape design strategy based on deep learning model Innovative Development Path of ECommerce and Civil and Commercial Law in the Information Age Based on Discrete Regression Algorithm Stability of equilibrium priceproduction of dynamic duopoly Bertrand–Cournot game in a transnational supply chain with asymmetric information Mathematical model on Type 1 diabetes and Healthy state: Mechanisms of β cells on the interaction between M1 and M2 MacrophagesScientific Training Model of Sports Tourism Based on Nonlinear Differential Equation The dilemma and path of rural college students returning to their hometowns for employment and entrepreneurship in the postepidemic period under the background of big data Financial big data control and intelligent analysis method for investment decision of renewable energy projects Analysis of the dilemma of higher vocational thinking education in China under the background of “Internet+” Analysis of the current situation and development countermeasures of college sports training and management based on the background of artificial intelligence A Review of the Design and Enhancement of Pastoral Culture Creativity in Chinese Rural Ecotourism Research on Computer Network Security Protection Technology Incorporating Full Convolutional Networks Research on the Logical Turn and Practical Path of China’s HighQuality Economic Development in the Context of Digitalization Influencing factors of modern and contemporary decorative pattern design on users’ visual perception characteristics Construction machinery hydraulic transmission system fault analysis and elimination methods Optimization strategy of ideological and political education in colleges and universities based on modern information technology A Review of the Research on Labor Supply Effect of Active Aging Application of traditional cultural elements in landscape design Driving Model of Electronic Information System Based on Agent Modeling and Simulation Research on the path of highquality development of the rural tourism industry driven by big data technology The application of cloud accounting in enterprise financial decision making in the era of big data Variable combinatorial gapfilling method for singlecell RNAseq data Research on the development path of integration of rural sports culture and sports tourism in the context of big data Risk Assessment of Financial Markets in the Era of Big Data Based on Eviews Econometric Model Cost Control System of CrossBorder ECommerce Based on Fractional Differential Equation Fourier transformbased electronic logic information processing architecture design The Development of Enterprise Management Innovation in the Digital Economy Era Based on the Schumpeter Model Neural Networks and Migration Learning Models in Sports Video Course Applications Research on performance evaluation and optimization of college budget management under the background of big data Risks and preventive measures for manufacturing enterprises in the Context of cloud accounting Research and application of Augmented Reality Technology and digital media Technology in mobile visual media Research on Information Visualization of Chinese Cultural Heritage Patterns in the Digital Perspective The modernization strategy of constructing teacherstudent relationship in the new era of universities Research on optimal path planning technology for vehicle positioning and navigation system Construction and practice of training system for dance professionals based on OBE teaching model combined with Kinect motion capture technology The construction of environmental cost accounting system  based on ecological perspective Interactive experience of information visualization in mechanical design Analysis of tea culture communication path based on the principal component analysis method Programming application of contemporary jewelry design forms based on Grasshopper software Construction of a multimodal poetry translation corpus based on AdaBoost model Analysis of the practical education model and its value in the context of big data in university civic education Information Fusion Technologybased Approach to Mining Civic Political Elements in College Curriculum Design of a decentralized Internetbased control system for industrial robot robotic arms General Architecture of Sustainable Urban Spatial Development Model Based on Smart Cities Design of a mechanical automatic transmission system for automobiles based on torsional vibration damping Optimization of the quality management path of physical education teaching in colleges and universities integrating modern network technology Construction of a mathematical modeling teaching quality assessment system for universities based on Eviews model Research on Information Literacy Education Model in the Big Data Environment  A Case Study of six Hainan high school Libraries Innovative model of teaching in law experiment center based on LETS software Fuzzy PID control theory in multiobjective optimal longitudinal following of intelligent trolley A Study on the Implications of Critical Discourse Analysis Theory for College English Teaching in the Context of Big Data The Construction of “Party Building + Curriculum Civics” Education Model for Chinese Grassroots Party Organizations in the Context of “Internet+” The artistic aesthetic and cultural value orientation of 3D printing A multidimensional interpretation of Marxist theory based on a decentralized Internet perspective Research on key technologies for connected vehicle autonomous driving based on 5G big data Student management model of college student associations based on ant colony Algorithm Research on practical teaching of Ideological and political education based on VR technology in the information age The Construction of Cultural Translation Research System under Big Data Technology Analysis of factors influencing the development of Civic Education for senior students of Chinese party culture based on ISO model Research on the application of big data technology in enterprise project management An investigation into the practice of blended teaching in English courses based on the BOPPPS model Analysis of student management path optimization in higher education institutions with ISM Strategies for optimising chemical instrumental analysis methods based on the ADDIE model The improvement path of international Chinese education management in universities based on big data technology Analysis of the coupling correlation between environmental protection efforts and economic development level based on artificial intelligence technology Seismic finite element analysis of underground integrated pipe corridor based on generalized reaction displacement method Research on the construction and operation mode of smart city information service system based on IOT technology Innovative reform strategy of artistic practice of university folk dance education based on information fusion technology Biosafety management strategy based on multiple linear regression model Thinking about the strategy and practice path of modern agricultural industry development in the context of big data New ideas of precision teaching development based on the background of big data Design and research of news recommendation system based on perceptron model in big data era Combined application of employment education and big data internet technology based on the context of vocational education reform Research on structural damage identification and localization based on artificial neural network College students' innovation and entrepreneurship model based on probability theory statistics Research on the design and application of intelligent teaching management system of intelligent training room in the background of internet Innovation and entrepreneurship model of higher vocational college students based on probability theory statistics Analysis of distribution network planning with distributed power supply based on ELM algorithm A fuzzy mathematical modelbased approach to customerside energy management for power companies Research on the evaluation of the employment effect of Jiangsu artificial intelligence based on neural network on colleges and universities Rural Tourism Development Planning Based on Nonlinear Differential Equation Analysis of the properties of matrix rank and the relationship between matrix rank and matrix operations Strategies for Marine remote sensing target detection based on deep learning model and internal wave simulation imaging technology Construction of a smart grid load forecasting platform based on clustering algorithm Variation mechanisms of metadiscourse verb patterns in English journal articles from intra and interdisciplinary perspectives Construction of a refined people management model for SMEs based on discrete regression algorithm Color and composition under big data technology: the art of visual communication in film art FPGAbased Intelligent Logistics Management for Universities Study on the design of old residential district landscape space renewal based on Cite Space from the perspective of big data Digital design and experimental testing of a compressor's suction muffler transmission loss A Study on the Impact of the Internet+ Era on Korean Film Consumer Culture SCP model based on the new energy vehicle collaborative detection configuration method research Research on the innovation path of teaching interior design majors in universities based on big data analysis The cardiovascular promotion of college taekwondo based on fractional differential equation A Systematic Study of Intercultural Listening Strategies in Higher Education Institutions in the Context of Big Data Analysis and research on the economic benefits of employee labor in enterprises in the context of the Internet Design and application of an intelligent communication platform for aesthetics education for internationalization The boundedness of functional differential equations of hospital financial software under information MultiUAV Aerial Mission Intelligent Assignment Algorithm Based on LightGBM Model Deep learning modelbased brand design 3D image construction The Evolution of Marxist Theory of Financial Capital in the ACC Payment Model The character image setting of 3D animation works based on Poisson equation The Impact of College English Teaching on Improving Students’ Writing Effectiveness in the Context of Big Data Research on the interaction between university physical culture education and college students’ physical exercise in the context of big data Innovative research on the construction of experimental teaching platform of economics and management in colleges and universities based on the background of big data The optimization path of core literacy of innovative talents in universities based on the improved Markov model Analysis of the innovation path of university education management informatization in the era of big data Research on visual recognition and positioning of industrial robots based on big data technology Coupled coordination analysis of green finance on economic growth based on big data Information technology system to promote drug production command supervision Exploring EnglishChinese Translation Skills Based on Big Data Technology Decentralized Internetbased calligraphy education leads the internal development of aesthetic education in schools Research on the construction and effect evaluation of OMO mode of professional practical training teaching of landscape engineering technology based on virtual simulation technology Theoretical and practical research on mathematical modeling of economy and finance based on artificial intelligence Calculation and evaluation of similarity in sports information resources based on combined algorithm Research on personalized Japanese language teaching model based on big data technology A multidimensional interpretation of Marxist globalization theory based on decentralized internet Analysis of the improvement path of English listening and speaking ability based on big data technology Study on the absorption technology of distribution network with highproportion distributed power supply Application of BOPPPS teaching model in online and offline blended teaching of college Public Basic Mathematics Information Development and Student Talent Cultivation of Modern Chinese Language and Literature in the Context of Big Data The application of communication art in tea packaging design under the modern aesthetic perspective Grouting reinforcement strategy for tunnel sand layer based on BP neural network Multimodal discourse analysis of automotive websites Research on university laboratory network security based on Cloud Computing Optimization of journalism communication digital education ecology based on SEM model Títul Mobile visual media design based on digital media technology and augmented reality Spatial planning layout design of national land in the context of rural revitalization based on MOLA model Influence of 3D characters image transfer on animation drawing based on detail feature preservation Títul Sports consumption behavior and consumption demand of urban residents in the context of “Internet+” A study of investment decision behavior based on risk analysis Theoretical Innovation of English Teaching Methodology Based on Continuous Discretization Method The use of graphic design elements in commercial architectural design in the context of intelligence Study on the influencing factors of the development of art education in colleges and universities based on the deep learning model Research on the modernization of the spirit of marathon sports culture based on information dissemination mechanism Evaluation mechanism of local universities’ faculty construction based on SOAP technology Analysis of factors influencing social responsibility in private education industry based on multimodal discourse analysis model of big data An analysis of the cultural heritage of traditional Chinese festivals based on the perspective of big data A Markov Chain Prediction Model Based on Rural Tourism Supply and Demand Matching Governance Model from the Perspective of Cultural Tourism Integration Research on the mechanism of cultivating the English listening ability of college students based on the background of big data Study and experimental analysis of the effect of static stretching combined with resistance training on neck and shoulder syndrome in college students in the context of big data Reform and innovation of saxophone teaching mode in colleges and universities based on Bayesian model An empirical analysis of the evolution of piano performance skills based on big data Mediabased information display in university libraries based on a generalized differential equation numerical method Exploring the path of highquality development of teacher education and teaching based on collaborative filtering algorithm Research on detection of parking space based on the combination of magnetoresistance and microwave radar sensor under IoT platform Research on sustainable development mechanism of regional ‘Artisan Workshop’ under big data environment Innovative Teaching Strategies for Aesthetic Arts in Higher Education Institutions Based on Big Data Technology Application of hybrid kernel function in economic benefit analysis and evaluation of enterprises The analysis method of the impact of missing audit information on the securities investment decisions based on Logistic regression models Research on the closerange photogrammetry accuracy of 3D digital interactive platform of Hunan intangible cultural heritage Research and implementation of visual question and answer system based on deep learning Títul Research on Wireless Network Coverage for Transformation and Upgrading of Exhibition Management with Artificial Intelligence Technology Study on the application of multiangle imaging related technology in the construction process The combination application of Civic Education and Big Data Internet Technology based on the background of college education reform Economic statistical strategies for the transportation industry based on timevarying parametric state space models The digital economy is an important path to boosting common prosperity Public Management Model Based on Mathematical Equation of Statistics of Probability Theory Optimization path of corporate ESG performance and compensation performance management under carbon neutral target New anergy tide control strategy based on Eviews econometric model Optimization of vocal singing training method based on intelligent big data technology The construction of blockchain platform for engineering museums based on vectorized image processing technology Green supply chain innovation management strategy based on the combination of low carbon economy and ecommerce with big data technology Numerical simulation analysis of loadbearing capacity at joints of symmetrical cantileverassembled bridges based on the logistic regression model Research on the current situation and countermeasures of cultivating talents in recreational sports under the perspective of artificial intelligence The Construction of a Coordinated Integration System of Rural Tourism and Habitat Environment in China Based on Coupled Coordination Degree Model Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithm Supported Construction of Architectural Window Design Model Based on Visual Comfort  A Case Study of Office Buildings in Cold Regions Optimization analysis of crossborder ecommerce marketing strategy based on the SCOR model Construction and implementation of teacher support services model under “5G+Smart Education” Probabilistic neural networkbased diagnosis of blockage faults in air conditioning and refrigeration units The Meaning, Value, and Realisation of Internetbased Culturally Responsive Teaching Analysis of digital humanistic knowledge production based on natural language processing Design of language assisted learning model and online learning system under the background of artificial intelligence An experimental study of the carbohydrate exchange method combined with aerobic exercise to intervene in the physical health of obese college students Design of a text evaluation and interaction system for university English textbooks based on a perceptual machine model in the context of globalization Comparative analysis of CR of ideological and political education in different regions based on improved fuzzy clustering Research on loyalty prediction of ecommerce customer based on data mining The use of red cultural and creative design in tourism cultural and creative design based on the background of big data Innovative measures of student management by counselors in higher education institutions under a big data environment Digital terrain interactive editing technology for landscape planning and design based on deep learning LightGBM model applied in the teaching course of Civic Education integrating red culture Research on personalized recommendation method of preschool elearning resources Key technology research on decentralized Internetbased smart agriculture platform Optimization of crossborder ecommerce marketing strategy based on deep learning model An innovative study of art teaching strategies for preschool children based on big data analysis The function of ideological and political education of campus culture in the context of big data and its realization path The use of new media technology in the creation of media animation under the threshold of big data Research on the construction of early warning model of customer churn on ecommerce platform Research and Development of “Gathering Green” Digital Cultural and Creative Collection Creative Platform under the Technical Support of Big Data and Advocacy of Rural Revitalization: A Typical Practice Based on Qingdao Coastal Villages Evaluation and prediction of regional human capital based on optimised BP neural network A Regionalization Study of MarketBased Allocation of Data Factors in China A study of local smoothnessinformed convolutional neural network models for image inpainting IoTbased interaction design of smart home products for elderly families A multidimensional interpretation analysis of Marxism globalization theory based on distributed Internet Strategy for financing mode optimization in international trade supply chain based on deep learning model Early warning and detection of geological disasters based on intelligent genetic algorithm Exploring the Application of Modern Fine Arts Artistic Modeling and Color in Modern Art Design Based on Information Fusion Technology Decisions of competing supply chain with altruistic retailer under risk aversion Research on China’s tourism marketing model in the data perspective: based on ecological perspective Research on human resource management performance evaluation based on BP algorithm Problem identification and solution of voice change phenomenon in vocal singing based on the AHP method A study on the effect of music on college students’ depression and anxiety based on big data analysis Inferring the role of fiscal decentralization and carbon taxes through the ARDL approach Some Necessary Conditions for Feedback Functions of de Bruijn Sequences A new model of tax governance in the context of the integration of traditional industries and the digital economy Improvement of the financial management supervision system of universities in the context of big data Analysis of the current situation and teaching strategies of university table tennis teaching in the context of big data Fractional Differential Equations in Sports Training in Universities Current situation and training strategies of preschool students’ skills in the Internet era Construction of sustainable development professional cluster in private universities based on data mining model Law of interest rate changes in financial markets based on the differential equation model of liquidity Basalt fibre continuous reinforcement composite pavement reinforcement design based on finite element model Innovative cultivation path of great craftsmanship based on logistic regression model AdaBoost modelbased rural governance cointegration and sharing mechanism Research on Fault Prevention and Maintenance System of Automatic Substation Primary Equipment Based on Decision Tree Algorithm The construction of innovation system of college physical education reform based on Bp neural network The Construction of Cultural Identity in Multimodal Discourse Analysis under the Perspective of Media Convergence Analysis of the impact of college students’ innovation and entrepreneurship on human resource index of science and technology enterprises based on logistic regression model Research on online and offline doubleloop teaching of college students’ mental health education based on cluster analysis algorithm Noise Reduction of Cable Partial Discharge Vibration Signal based on EEMDCIIT method Application of image processing technology based on hierarchical analysis in visual communication system Analysis of the influence path of Marx’s thought in contemporary college students’ Civic Education based on regression analysis A study on the influence of soccer culture on physical education in China's universities based on linear regression analysis Research on the cultivation mechanism of “doublecreative” talents in ethnic regions with the integration of industry and education in the context of the Internet Reform and innovation of Civic Education combined with deep and intensive learning Research on the organization of public space relations in commercial complex buildings in the context of big data A hybrid online and offline teaching model of professional English for Internet+ education platform The use of traditional Chinese elements in modern interior design in the context of multimedia A Study on College English Reading Teaching for Multimodal Teaching Model Application of biofilmmembrane bioreactor in municipal wastewater treatment Research on Tourism Environment Carrying Capacity Evaluation of Tourism Demonstration Area Based on Objective Optimization Method in the Perspective of Territorial Tourism Regional Logistics Routing Optimization System Based on Fractional Differential Equation Modeling Orientation and triage of preschool students’ interest development based on deep learning model Exploring a hybrid online and offline English teaching model based on model hierarchy analysis AHMFC Model in the Evolution Analysis of Ideological and Political Subjects System Construction of Intercity Culture and Xinjiang Music Integration in the Context of “One Belt, One Road” Based on SCP Model Simultaneous localization and mapping of mobile robots with multisensor fusion 3D Scene Simulation System of Japanese Teaching Based on Finite Element Equation Assessment of taxrelated risks in corporate betting agreements based on vector autoregressive model A deep learning modelbased approach to financial risk assessment and prediction MultiGovernance of Basketball Event Organization in Ethnic Areas Based on PESTEL Analysis Model Design of a linear regression modelbased Internet exit anomaly detection method Building Tilt Scanning Measurement Based on Binary Linear Regression Analysis Exploring the application of composite materials in ceramic design based on fuzzy numerical analysis Construction of law and economics litigation service platform based on multimedia retrieval Application of motion capture technology based on dance big data in dance retrieval Research on the innovative development model of ideological and political education based on big data and selfmedia environment Design of WeChat Public Service System for Toilets in Tourist Attractions Based on Adaptive Recommendation Algorithm The Innovation and Application of Computer Multimediaassisted Teaching Methods in College English Teaching Research on the immersive multimedia virtual interactive experience technology of the Great Wall World Heritage based on VR vision system Deep learningbased fault diagnosis and localization method for fiber optic cables in communication networks Effect of lowintensity exercise therapy combined with health education on quality of life and blood pressure in hypertensive patients A Study on Innovative Teaching Strategies of English in Universities Based on VAR Model Research on the construction of enterprise financial management information based on feature set Research on the integration and innovation of red culture and ideological and political education in universities in the new media era Analysis of the impact of ADDIE education model based on logistic regression model on teaching contemporary cultural and creative product design Exploring the Construction and Practice of College English Blended Teaching Model Based on Fuzzy Comprehensive Teaching Evaluation Model Research on the optimization of prefabricated building preset scheme integrating BIM technology and BiLSTM model Research on practical education model of mental health development of college students in higher education institutions in the context of big data Correlation analysis between the quality of physical activity and public health based on artificial intelligence technology Badminton players’ trajectory under numerical calculation method Evaluation of the Integration Path of Ideological and Political Elements in English Major Courses Based on the ADDIE Model Application of multiple regression models in the analysis of kinematic parameters in competitive gymnastics Research on the structure of corporate financial management objective system based on BRP method Analysis of the influencing factors of college students’ mental health literacy based on multiple linear regression model Scale and efficiency of China’s radiation industry based on LightGBM model Analysis of the effectiveness of short video news dissemination based on data mining technology The construction of a mathematical model for college English interactive distance teaching Application of Data Mining Algorithms in Power Marketing Predictive Analytics Analysis of music teaching technology based on a data mining model Research on the Development of Young Teachers’ Informatization Teaching Ability in Universities Based on Big Data Technology Interactive texture replacement of cartoon characters based on deep learning model Application of Multiple Linear Regression Model in the Sustainable Development of National Traditional Sports Analysis of improved particle swarm algorithm in wireless sensor network localization Analysis of using big data to achieve precise employment of college students Exploring Innovative Strategies for Teaching English in Higher Education with the Support of Big Data The Origin and Significance of Research on Music Education Reform and Talent Cultivation Based on Evaluation Index Analysis of media content recommendation in the new media era considering scene clustering algorithm Study on the optimization of the cultivation path of finance professionals in universities in the digital era The generalized matrix equation for systematic evaluation of oral Russian selfstudy The application of computer VR technology in physical education Research on the method of ideological and political education in college physical education based on knowledge mapping Evaluation of Corporate Social Responsibility and Core Competitiveness Based on GASVM Model Gymnastic movement recognition based on support vector machine classification model Research on the construction and reform path of online and offline hybrid English teaching model based on time series Extraction of Design Factors of Chinese Dance Culture based on Analytic Hierarchy Model Cultural and artistic dissemination of traditional Chinese silk patterns in the 17th18th centuries in the context of big data Application of traditional symbols in interior decoration based on VR technology Theory of physical education ecosystem based on SFIC model Research on the integration of online teaching resources in higher education institutions under the perspective of industryeducation integration The integration of flipped classroom into university physical education teaching reform practice from the perspective of multimedia The Analysis of the Expression Form of Ideological and Political Elements in Philosophy Courses Based on Multimedia Information Fusion Strategy Diversified Integration of Civics Teaching Resources in Universities Based on Discrete Regression Model Study on the rehabilitation training effect of exoskeletal diseases based on the skeletal muscle geometry modeling method Exploring the teaching practice of visual communication design in colleges and universities under the background of big data Dance Rehearsal System Based on Linear Partial Differential Mathematical Equation Big databased outputoriented teaching competency development for mathematics teacher trainees Research on dynamic detection method of bridge vehicle load based on optimization algorithm Deep Learning Based Sports Video Classification Research Design of energy big data and carbon emission monitoring system based on perceptron model in the context of carbon neutral and carbon peaking A model of online opinion dissemination based on vector autoregressive model of emotional information entropy Application of decision tree algorithm mining model in career planning goal simulation Multimodal construction of human movement dataset under the development of physical dance teaching in colleges and universities Visual Communication Design Method Based on Multimedia Information Processing Technology and Its Application Optimization of Teaching Path of Artificial Intelligence Programming Course in the Context of New Engineering Construction Application of short video recommendation technology in classical music teaching Reading promotion mode of university libraries in the context of information development The application of video text generation technology in assessing the effectiveness of teaching ethnic traditional sports Design of online art education system based on 3D virtual simulation technology Using Multimedia Information Retrieval Technology to Optimize the Strategies of College English Teaching Research on the current situation and development countermeasures of Chinese sports industry companies in the context of big data Study on the workhardening behavior and tissue property analysis of highstrength magnesium alloy An innovative approach to teaching physical education integrating modern network technology Research on quality engineering management effectiveness improvement strategy of universities based on fuzzy clustering maximum tree algorithm Research on fault feature extraction and early warning of rolling bearing vibration signal of generator set Construction of customeraware grid interactive service system based on neural network model Optimization analysis of transmission characteristics of wireless energy transmission system based on dynamic tuning algorithm Research on the construction of personalized learning system supported by big data in education Exploration of digital media art professional design talent class training based on Kmode algorithm Research on environmental impact assessment of ecotourism development oriented to cloud model Numerical simulation method of aluminum alloy heat treatment process based on BP neural network Research on digital transformation innovation of the exhibition industry in the era of big data A structural model of teachers’ teaching competencies based on multimodal affective features of support vector machines An analysis of the innovation strategy of student management in universities based on big data Research on information visualization for digital media design methodology based on big data technology Analysis on the innovative education mode of the integration of information technology and traditional teaching in the era of big data Research on the physical training of athletes in ice and snow sports based on big data Innovation and exploration of construction project management based on BIM platform of big data Rural tourism service design based on collaborative filtering algorithm after epidemic normalization The Planning & Designing of Urban Building Water Supply and Drainage Engineering in AI Era Innovation of China’s international trade methods based on the perspective of crossborder ecommerce Research on the influence factors and improvement path of rural ecommerce development based on neural network The theory of innovation and entrepreneurship education practice with the integration of modern information technology and new engineering Analysis of the technical and tactical evolution characteristics of college men’s soccer based on simulated annealing algorithm The effect of fitness qigong exercise on college students’ physical fitness based on big data technology Research on fabric yarn detection based on improved fast RCNN algorithm A study on the management of big data technology in financial decisionmaking of enterprise cloud accounting Research on the innovation of the path of ideological and political education in universities based on data mining Exploring the application of virtual space in spatial design in the era of artificial intelligence Empirical evidence of coupling and coordination between circular economy and foreign trade based on big data Research on high quality development system of vocational education based on improved particle swarm optimization algorithm A strategy study based on artificial intelligence data analysis of rural governance into tourism industry development research Exploration of the innovative development path of university civic education based on data mining algorithm Study on the Flipped Classroom Teaching Model of “Business English Translation” in the Context of Big Data The Application and Exploration of Curriculum Ideology and Politics in the Innovation and Entrepreneurship Education of Medical College Students Based on Hierarchical Analysis Method Research on brand operation strategy of integrating traditional culture into the modern tourism industry based on big data analysis A Study on English Teachers’ Behavior and Teaching Effectiveness in Universities Based on Big Data Technology The Fit of Constructivist Teaching Theory and Foreign Language Teaching Reform in the Background of the Internet Era Research on intelligent recommendation algorithm of literature based on knowledge graph technology Heritage development of traditional culture in folk art education based on the decentralized Internet Research on the construction of sports statistics index system based on AMOS model Intelligent algorithmbased analysis of corporate financial decisions in the era of cloud accounting Bias detection and knowledge graph comparison analysis for medical record datasets The use of management accounting and financial accounting in financial management based on multiple linear regression algorithm Construction of intelligent practice system of college Civics teaching based on VR technology in the information age A Green Supply Chain Management Strategy for ECommerce Based on Multiple Blockchain Technology Exploring Innovative Strategies for Teaching English to College Students Based on Data Mining Theory Application of nonlinear regression theory based on edge computing to mathematical modeling in universities The innovation path of agricultural products ecommerce marketing mode under the background of “live broadcast + short video” Coupling research of Confucianism and Chinese philosophy based on data mining model A Study on the Influence of Ecological Translation Theory on University English Translation Teaching in the Context of Big Data Analysis The construction of a localized teaching model of the Orff music teaching method based on big data analysis Exploring the reform of college mental health education based on multisource data A study on the application of nonfiction writing in writing courses in local universities based on a decentralized Internet model Analysis of high quality collaborative development path of university civic education based on Rete’s pattern matching algorithm An Exploration of Chinese Language International Education Exchange and Cooperation Model Based on Random Forest Model Optimization of Teacher Incentive Mechanism and Policy Supply in Rural China Based on Judgment Matrix A Study on Risk Management of Commercial Banks’ Home Mortgage Loans Based on Risk Management Framework Research on multimedia intelligent algorithm based on recognition and detection of table tennis ball striking action A study on the application of creative writing in literature teaching based on multiple linear regression algorithm Analysis of the effect of userunderstandingbased retrieval system improvement on the application of intelligent archive management The positive impact of increased government bailout on weakening corporate default risk Teaching reform and innovation of vocational development and employment guidance courses in colleges and universities based on random forest model Innovative Research on Synergistic Development of Digital Integrated Media and Visual Design Based on Kruskal Algorithm Analysis of the application of Internet multimedia technology in the mixed teaching of public physical education Modeling the connection between oil painting creation and university students’ inspiration in the context of “Internet+” Exploring the relationship between digital transformation of enterprises and “information infrastructure” in the new infrastructure perspective  based on industrial connection The cultivation system of crossmedia narrative ability of scriptwriter talent based on cluster model Exploring the path of reforming college mental health education curriculum based on big data technology The path of optimizing and improving the teaching innovation ability of visual communication based on the SWOT model Research on the effective way of mental health education based on artificial intelligence technology The Structure and Influencing Factors of Students’ Innovation and Entrepreneurship Ability Based on the Structural Equation Model The Influence of Green Entrepreneurship Orientation on Enterprise Performance Based on the TPB Model Computer Security Active Defense Technology Based on Bayesian Model Visual Operation and Maintenance Monitoring of Power System Data Network Based on Neural Network Model Design Method and Application of Intelligent Sports Equipment Based on Stochastic Differential Equation Color Processing System of Art Color Based on Fractional Differential Equation Global efficiency estimation of complex networks and regional technological and economic development based on fractal network model DMAIC Model’s Relative Efficiency Analysis of Input and Output in Cultural Construction of University Library and Mental Health Education of College Students Integrated Operation and Maintenance of Power System Communication Based on the Markov Model Oscillation and Asymptotic Behavior of a Special Delay Third Order Nonlinear Neutral Functional Differential Equation Statistical Analysis of Export Waybill Data of CrossBorder ECommerce Based on ISM Model The construction of teaching quality evaluation system of health management majors in universities based on information fusion technology Research on the effective guidance method of college soccer training activities based on SAQ training method Analysis of intelligent agent operation strategy of power system scheduling based on intelligent optimization algorithm A study on the measurement and standardized assessment model of student learning outcomes in vocational institutions Research on standardization and quantitative extraction of information of ancient building components based on BIM Innovative exploration of the implementation path of teaching reform of law courses based on Internet technology Building a “party building + political thinking” model for grassroots mass organizations in China in the era of big data Zagreb Connection Indices for Metal Trihalides The challenges of ideological and political education in universities based on the Internet environment and its optimization path Research and reflection on college physical education classroom teaching based on SSGAN model Analysis of power system scheduling operation mode based on multiobjective optimization algorithm Adaptation of the COVASIM model to incorporate nonpharmaceutical interventions: Application to the Dominican Republic during the second wave of COVID19 Karnauph Classifier: A Hybrid Mathematical Model for Data Classification An Improvement of Parameter Estimation Accuracy of Structural Equation Modeling using Hybridization of Artificial Neural Network in the Entrepreneurship Structural Model Mathematical model for portraits of members in largescale department stores Analysis of the Innovation of University Students’ Education Management Based on the APT Model Construction of College Vocal Music Innovation Teaching Mode Based on ARCS Model The Clustering Effect Analysis of College Marxist Theory Network Propagation Based on Ant Colony Intelligent Algorithm Effects of Aerobic Training on Body Function Based on Multiple Linear Regression Analysis Research on the cultivation path of craftsmanship in university education based on fuzzy hierarchical analysis Research and strategy of university education and teaching reform based on intelligent education platform Limit cycles of a generalised Mathieu differential system The nonlinear effects of ageing on national savings rate – An Empirical Study based on threshold model Research on Hazard Analysis and Control Strategy of Power System Dispatching Operation Based on Information Fusion Technology Exploring the online interaction model of college English based on deep learning network Research on the identification and integration of folk dance creation elements based on big data technology Research on the path of highquality development of tourism in Hainan based on international comparison Virtual Museum Scene Design Based on VRAR Realistic Interaction under PMC Artificial Intelligence Model Research on the artistic expression form of traditional cultural imagery in sculpture modeling based on DEGWO model Construction Cost Control and Management Based on Mapping Model and BIM Research on innovative cultivation mode of English and American literature translation talents based on internet environment Improved KSVD Model in Higher Vocational Physics Teaching Research on the quality control strategy of marine engineering based on big data technology Dance Emotion Characteristic Parameters Based on Deep Learning Model Analysis of energy storage capacity optimization of distribution network based on quadratic planning algorithm under large scale DG access BIM Model Design of Deep Foundation Pit Engineering Based on BP Network Civic education reform based on deep reinforcement learning model Analysis of quantitative management of online intelligent monitoring of tailing ponds based on the perspective of safety prevention and control The Innovative Development Model of Ideological and Political Education Based on Big Data and We Media Analysis of rural tourism culture advertising content based on LSTMCNN model Construction of network mathematics model for college English mixed teaching Optimization of college physical education curriculum based on GDINA Strategic Policy Innovation of Regional Development Strategy Transformation in the New Era Based on Progressive Differential Model Optimization of local ethnic music teaching transmission path based on logistic regression model Vocational Education Agglomeration Promoting Innovation and Entrepreneurship Based on Spatial Dubin Model Exploring the Construction of Curriculum System of Theater and Film Studies Based on ADDIE Model Innovative research on propagation modes of short video works based on digital technology Analysis of the effect of compound training for explosive power on improving the psychological resilience of football athletes Construction of feature extraction model for machine foreign language translation evaluation system Exploration on the path of ideological and political education and cultural education in colleges and universities from the perspective of red culture Effect evaluation of ideological and political guidance in university party construction based on hierarchical analysis model Analysis and Evaluation of Ecotourism Resources in China Based on RIAM Model Can policy coordination facilitate unimpeded trade? An empirical study on factors influencing smooth trade along the Belt and Road A study of interactive furnishing design in the context of digitalization with a view to functional requirements A study of Japanese language sense and evaluation based on the basic structure of sentence SVO Research on design of customer portrait system for Ecommerce A practical investigation of cultivating students’ art innovation ability based on word vector model Research on rule extraction method based on concept lattice of intuitionistic fuzzy language Prediction of mechanical equipment fault diagnosis based on IPSOGRU deep learning algorithm Application of data mining model in English text writing training system Challenges and content structure optimization of ideological and political education in universities based on structural equations Design and evaluation of intelligent teaching system on basic movements in PE A Hierarchical Analysis Structure Model for the Integration and Optimization of Sports Industry Digitalization and Tourism Industry Exploration of the system of evaluation system of university teachers’ titles based on blockchain technology Exploration and Practice of College English Reading Teaching Reform in the Context of Deep Learning Construction of an economic environment scheduling system based on the multiobjective fuzzy optimization model Analysis of the evolution of modern Chinese history based on data mining Statistical Analysis of Advanced Mathematics Teaching Quality Evaluation Based on Quantile Regression Model Analysis of music teaching technology based on a data mining model The curriculum optimization exercise system of college physical aerobics based on partial differential equation Prediction of Cyberspace Security Data Based on the Markov Chain Model Scheduling Optimization of hotel supply chain based on heterogeneous multipopulation ant colony algorithm The application of multiple regression model in interactive English classroom teaching Sports Talent Training System of Sports Aerobics Based on Fractional Differential Equation Analysis of the fusion development of traditional culture concept and interior art design based on 3D scene analysis Research on evaluation system of crossborder Ecommerce platform based on the combined model Financial customer classification by combined model Influence of displacement ventilation on the distribution of pollutant concentrations in livestock housing Innovation in thinking and practice path of digital economy based on big data analysis to promote highquality development of agricultural service trade New Green’s Function Method for Solving Underground Oil Seepage Problems The zeroHopf bifurcations of a new hyperchaotic system Retraction: Wei, Wei and Lu, Liu. “The influence of X fuzzy mathematics method in basketball tactics scoring” Applied Mathematics and Nonlinear Sciences, vol.7, no.1, 2022, pp.677684 Retraction of: Pan, Liurong, Alshalabi, Riyad, Li, Pingfen, Naminse, Eric Yaw and Tan, Fuqiang. “Analysis of digital humanistic knowledge production based on natural language processing” Applied Mathematics and Nonlinear Sciences, vol.0, no.0, 2023, pp.. https://doi.org/10.2478/amns.2022.1.00029 Retraction Retraction: Retraction of: Mundewadi, R. A. and S, Kumbinarasaiah. “Numerical Solution of Abel's Integral Equations using Hermite Wavelet” Applied Mathematics and Nonlinear Sciences, vol.4, no.2, 2019, pp.395406 A new expansion auxiliary equation method for traveling wave solutions of the simplified MCH equation and the ZKBBM equation Geometric Properties of a Linear Complex Operator on a Subclass of Meromorphic Functions: An Analysis of HurwitzLerchZeta Functions Retraction Study of Enterprise Resource Optimization Scheme from the Perspective of Knapsack Problems