- Journal Details
- First Published
- 23 Apr 2014
- Publication timeframe
- 1 time per year
- Open Access
The role of the media in the promotion of breastfeeding
Page range: 103 - 106
Introduction. Breastfeeding is the optimal method of nourishing newborns and infants, as provided in guidelines and recommendations issued by both maternal and child health organizations and associations. For this reason, breastfeeding should be promoted and supported through educating the population. Various media outlets (television, radio, the Internet, press) have become an integral part of people’s daily life and an important source of information on health.
Aim. The present study aimed at determining the role of the mass media in the promotion of breastfeeding.
Material and methods. The study was conducted between January and April 2015 on 262 women. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires. The researchers used a self-designed questionnaire. The software used for databases and statistical analysis was STATISTICA 9.1 (StatSoft, Poland).
Results. A statistical analysis has shown that married women (p=0.00168), women with higher education (p=0.04007), women who had their own businesses (p=0.04482) and those who had given birth to one child (p=0.00093) stated that information on breastfeeding was available in the media. The women surveyed pointed to the media (56.13%) as the source of information on breastfeeding, while the Internet (82.07%) was the most popular medium used by the respondents to look for information on breastfeeding. The participants believed that the media should focus on promoting the benefits of breastfeeding for the child (94.27%).
Conclusions. The media are the most popular source of information on breastfeeding. The media should promote breastfeeding mainly through providing information on the benefits for the child. The Internet is the most popular medium to look for information on breastfeeding.
- health promotion
- Open Access
Most frequent problems of pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus
Page range: 107 - 111
Introduction. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common metabolic disorder happening to pregnant women. Some. 3-5% of all pregnant women in Poland are diagnosed with the condition. Glucose tolerance disorders or gestational diabetes recur in about 30% of women during their second (or next) pregnancy. Controlling diabetes involves many new responsibilities and sacrifices that may be difficult to bear for a pregnant woman.
Aim. The aim of the present study was to examine the most common problems among pregnant women with gestational diabetes
Material and methods. The study was conducted between 2015 and 2016. The authors used a diagnostic survey on 120 pregnant women with diabetes who were patients in gestational pathology and conservative gynecological treatment departments and diabetic outpatient clinics in Lublin. The χ2 test of independence was used to examine correlations between socio-demographic factors and problems experienced by pregnant women with gestational diabetes. Results. Problems with keeping a blood glucose monitoring diary were reported by women from cities different than province capitals (75%). Childless women reported problems with pricking their finger multiple times a day (60%). Insulin injections were perceived as a GDM-related problem mostly by women aged 31-35 (41.2%), women in their second pregnancy (61.8%) and women with more than one child (47.1%). Frequent visits to the doctor were perceived as a problem mostly by women aged less than 26 (42.3%), women living in rural areas (57.7%), women with higher education (84.6%), women in their first pregnancy (61.5%) and women without children (73.1%). The two last groups additionally indicated psychological burden (84.2% and 78.9%, respectively). Anxiety about the occurrence of type 2 diabetes was mainly expressed by women aged 26-30 (35.3%) and those in their second pregnancy (52.9%), whilst working women expressed concern for their own lives (78.6%).
Conclusions. There is a correlation between selected problems experienced by pregnant women with GDM and socio-demographic variables such as: age, place of residence, education, professional activity and number of pregnancies and children. The results obtained suggest that there is a need for educating women about the most frequent problems that accompany pregnancy with GDM.
- gestational diabetes
- pregnant women
- Open Access
Long-term effects of reproductive period on mineralized tissues (bones and teeth) in peri- and postmenopausal women
Page range: 112 - 115
Introduction. Reproductive period in women begins with the occurrence of the first menstruation and ends with the cessation thereof. The latter occurs at different age of women, depending on many factors such as race, geographical or living conditions and so on. At this time, many processes affect the condition of mineralized tissues in a woman’s body.
Aim. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of reproductive period (fertility, lactation, age of menopause) on the parameters of bone tissue and hard tissues of teeth in peri- and postmenopausal women.
Material and methods. The study involved 112 women aged 45-74 years. There was conducted a survey and a clinical study. Patients were asked about the number of pregnancies and offspring, the duration of lactation in case of each child, the age at which the menopause occurred. Periods of pregnancies and lactation were recorded in months. The bone mineral density, the number of teeth present in the mouth were also evaluated, and the DMFT index was calculated.
Results. In the studied groups of women a significant correlation between the bone mineral density and the T-score and the age at which menopause occurred was observed. Also, a significant correlation between the number of offspring and the number of the DMFT index, the number of offspring and component MT of the DMFT index and the number of offspring and the number of teeth present in the mouth during the study. A significant positive correlation between the duration of pregnancies and lactation and the DMFT index, the component MT and the number of teeth present in the mouth during the study, was observed.
Conclusions. In the studied population of peri- and postmenopausal women, a possible impact of reproductive period on the parameters of the state of the bones and teeth - the longer the total duration of pregnancy and breastfeeding and early age of onset of menopause concerned worse parameters of mineralized tissues - with the higher number of DMFT index and lower bone mineral density were observed.
- dental caries
- dental prophylaxis
- health care
- Open Access
Personality traits in people addicted to alcohol raised by parents with alcohol dependence
Page range: 116 - 121
Introduction. Alcohol dependence syndrome constitutes a serious social problem not only due to personal and health consequences suffered by addicted individuals but also by their family members and, in particular, by children.
Aim. The aim of the study was to make a comparison of self-image, narcissism, methods of coping with stress and aggression in people addicted to alcohol who were raised by parents addicted and not addicted to alcohol.
Material and methods. 118 individuals addicted to alcohol were examined. There were 53 patients raised by non-addicted parents and 55 by parents addicted to alcohol. The average age of the group was 41.20 (SD=10.85) and the average period of alcohol addiction was 9.03 (SD=6.26) years. We used the following research tools: the Sociodemographic Survey of own construction, Adjective Check List ACL by Gough and Heilbrun, the Questionnaire of Narcissism by Denke, Hilgenstock and Müller, the Coping with Stress Questionnaire by Janke, Erdmann and Boucsein and the Aggression Questionnaire by Buss-Perry.
Results. We found presence of statistically significant differences in respect of traits of self-image, narcissism, methods of coping with stress and severity of aggression in people addicted to alcohol who were raised by parents addicted and not addicted to alcohol.
Conclusions. 1. Alcohol addicted women who were raised by parents with alcohol dependence are characterised by more negative self-image, greater need for getting support, dependence, fear of negative assessment by other people, passive ways of coping with stress and aggression not directly expressed - in comparison to the women raised by not addicted parents. 2. Men raised by alcohol addicted parents are characterised by greater narcissism and more often expressed physical aggression in comparison to men raised by not addicted parents.
- alcohol addiction
- children of alcoholics
- Open Access
Do duties of students of medicine be cause for stress?
Page range: 122 - 125
Introduction. For young adults, one of the sources of peer interaction problems is the fact that they are burdened with an increasing number of duties and their pace of life increases. Since they are usually burdened with huge amount of study material, medicine students are particularly vulnerable.
Aim. The aim of this work was to determine the relationship between their obligations, stress levels and their peer or family relationships.
Material and methods. The study involved 242 students (148 women and 94 men) of the first year of daily studies, aged 18-30 (median - 20 years). The assessment was performed in March 2016, and the research tool was an anonymous survey. This took into account, inter alia, data on the demands of their studies, and their peer and family affinities.
Results. Using the results, around 71% of all respondents consider themselves to be over-burdened with the obligations resulting from their choice of study. Among these, women were more likely to self-assess themselves as overburdened (65%). Moreover, out of all respondents, approx. 27% of all, considered excessive workload as a major source of stress. This, however, does not significantly affect their peer and family relationships, because approx. 95% of all respondents consider such these to be be either good or rather good.
Conclusions. Medical students are burdened with responsibilities. This can be a source of stress, but overall, does not affect social and family associations.
- teaching load
- Open Access
Do medical students have a positive outlook on the world?
Page range: 126 - 129
Introduction. Upon entering diverse fields of medical science, young people are on the cusp of adulthood. They change their environment and take on new responsibilities, which often translates to stress and depression.
Aim. The main objective of the work was to assess the psychological health in students of Medical University of Lublin.
Material and Methods. The research tool was a questionnaire containing information regarding mental health of first-year students of medicine. The results were statistically analysed in Statistica 11.0, utilising Pearson’s Chi Squared test of independence, with significance set at p<0.05.
Results. Most respondents (55.79%), whether male or female, rarely feel sadness. About 43% of respondents replied that they employ different strategies of coping with stress. 33.47% of all students stated that whenever any problems appear they look for support from their families. Generally, around 47% of all students are happy with their lives. There were, statistical signification between the sex of the students and psychological well-being, and between the sex and the ways of dealing with depression.
Conclusions. Despite the significant stress to which these young people are exposed, they are relatively strong mentally and have a positive outlook towards the lives.
- young people
- psychological health
- Open Access
Use of common stimulants and awake bruxism – a survey study
Page range: 130 - 133
Introduction. Bruxism, the most detrimental parafunctional activity of the masticatory system can cause various temporomandibular joint disorders, as well as masticatory muscle disorders. It is important to identify factors aggravating bruxism, which can be easily eliminated and ease control of the disorder.
Aim. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between the use of common stimulants - nicotine, caffeine and selfreports of awake bruxism.
Material and methods. 113 dental students (83 females, 30 males) aged 21-29 were examined. In order to diagnose awake bruxism subjects were asked questions from the Oral Behaviors Checklist. Patients were also asked about daily/weekly frequency of cigarette smoking and coffee as well as caffeine-containing beverages consumption.
Results. Cigarette smoking was positively associated with self-reported awake bruxism. There was no link found between caffeine consumption and parafunctional activities.
Conclusion. Cigarette smoking, but not caffeine consumption, may be a risk factor for awake bruxism. However, this association should be further assessed in the presence of confounding factors, such as psychological distress.
- tobacco smoking
- Open Access
A comparison of anterior teeth color among Polish, Saudi and Taiwanese students of dentistry
Page range: 134 - 137
Introduction. Color of teeth is undoubtedly one of the most important factors considering patients’ satisfaction with the quality of their restoration, especially in the anterior region of the mouth. Therefore, the determination of color is an integral part of esthetic dentistry and therefore it should be given the highest importance in dentistry in order to achieve the esthetic requirements of patients.
Aim. The aim of this study was to evaluate tooth color in 3 different ethnic groups and its relationship with gender and type of tooth using a clinical spectrophotometer.
Material and methods. A total of 90 dental students of the Medical University of Lublin was divided into three groups of 30 each according to participant’s ethnicity, which was as follows: Polish, Saudi Arabian and Taiwanese. Then, different divisions were made according to gender as well as the type of teeth. The tooth color was identified by spectrophotometer. The data was statistically analyzed.
Results. For the Vita Classical shade guide, A3.5 shade was the most frequently chosen in Taiwanese and Saudi students’ teeth. However, the most common shade observed for the anterior teeth of Polish students was A3. The most common shade among males was A3.5 and in females A3 was the most frequent shade. In all 360 central incisors, overall, the most common shades noticed were A2, D3 and C1. In all 360 lateral incisors, D3, A3 and A2 were the most frequent shades for this group of teeth. In all 360 canines, A3.5 and A3 were the most common shade with almost half of the number of canines in this study was measured with A3.5.
Conclusions. Based on the performed preliminary research, it was observed that Polish students tend to have brighter teeth than Saudis which in turn have even brighter teeth than Taiwanese students. It was also noted that men are more likely to have darker shade values than women. Central incisors have higher values of tooth color than lateral incisors and canines.
- tooth color
- anterior teeth
- Open Access
Dental treatment needs in patients of a Lublin dental clinic aged 35-54
Page range: 138 - 141
Introduction. Evaluation of the oral health among adult Poles carried out in the framework of the “National Monitoring of Oral Health and Its Determinants” study and the research results of clinical centers in Poland indicate that dental caries, periodontal diseases and missing teeth are a major health problem.
Aim. The aim of the study was determining the reasons for reporting to the dentist of 35-54-year-old people, the assessment of dental health and prosthetic needs.
Material and methods. The study comprised 154 patients aged 35-54 reporting in 2015 to the dental clinic in Lublin, which offers treatment financed by the National Health Fund or for a fee. Gender, age, the place of residence and the reason for the reporting to the dentist were analyzed. The place of residence was a village, a town of less than 200 thousand inhabitants or the city of more than 200 thousand residents. The reason for reporting to the dental clinic was a check-up visit, toothache or loss of filling. Dental condition was assessed by calculating the DMF index. The prosthetic state and needs were evaluated. The results were statistically analyzed.
Results. Most patients reporting to the dental examination were women (59.09%) and residents of a big city (70.78%). More than a half of the patients (55.84%) had a check-up appointment, 25.32% appeared due to the loss of filling, and 18.83% - because of a toothache. The frequency of decay in the study group was 100% and the DMF index values ranged from 2.0 to 32.0, assuming an average of 21.18±5.02, and with the age the DMF index values increased. The highest number of decayed and extracted teeth were found in the rural population. Both residents of big cities and patients who reported for regular check-ups had the biggest number of fillings.
Conclusion. Dental caries is still a major health problem in Polish population aged 35-44. Poor oral health among the adult population in Poland is due to the low health awareness of society. This requires launching large-scale dental educational campaigns and prevention measures among adult Polish citizens, especially in rural areas.
- oral health
- treatment needs
- Open Access
Caries prevention programs for children based on the current health care system in Poland
Page range: 142 - 146
Prevention is the most effective element of measures to promote oral health. The authors have conducted an analysis of the current health system in Poland with particular emphasis put on caries prevention focused on children. It is worth noting that in the first days of life a midwife introduces „the area of dental prophylaxis“. In subsequent years of life i.e. 2, 4, 6, 10, 13, 16, 19, both the dentist and the primary care doctor provide prophylactic services. More preventive actions are organized in primary school (grades I-VI), where group fluoride prophylaxis and education in oral health are carried out by a nurse/school hygienist. The effects of preventive measures, as measured by epidemiological studies presented among others in the reports from the Monitoring of Oral Health by the Ministry of Health, show that the adopted regulations are unsatisfactory. It is necessary to carry out a public information campaign on the negative consequences of neglecting disease prevention and the consequences of incorrect early treatment of oral cavity diseases and their influence over the proper development of children.
- dental caries
- dental prophylaxis
- health care