Journal & Issues

Volume 20 (2022): Issue 5 (December 2022)
Doctoral Supplement. Postgraduate Research in Contemporary Evangelical Higher Education: Academic Perspectives on Variegated Theological and Historical Topics. Issue Editor: Marcel V. Măcelaru

Volume 20 (2022): Issue 4 (December 2022)
Miscellaneous Theological Investigations. From Economy, Literature, and Hermeneutics to Christology, Exegesis, and Typology. Issue Editor: Corneliu C. Simuț

Volume 20 (2022): Issue 3 (July 2022)
A Multi-Angle Examination of C. S. Lewis's Till We Have Faces. Theological, Philosophical, Ethical, and Literary Insights from one of Lewis's Greatest Novels. Issue Editor: Zachary Breitenbach

Volume 20 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)
Reform according to Right Law: the Use of Legal Tradition in Reformation Theology. Issue Editor: André A. Gazal

Volume 20 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)
Confessing the Trinity. The Trinitarianism of Particular Baptists, 1640s-1840s. Issue Editor: Michael A. G. Haykin

Volume 19 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)
Miscellaneous Theological Studies: Biblical, Apologetic, Historical, Patristic, Theodicean, and Systematic. Issue Editor: Corneliu C. Simuţ

Volume 19 (2021): Issue 3 (July 2021)
Islam and Islamism. The Challenge for Modern Liberal Democracies. Issue Editors: Raphael Lataster, Rumy Hasan

Volume 19 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)
Fundamental Aspects of Christological Anthropology: Theological and Philosophical Perspectives in Contemporary Debates. Editor: Christopher G. Woznicki

Volume 19 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)
Revivalism in Central European Protestantism, 1840-1940: Hungarian Calvinists, British Evangelicals & German-Austrian Pietists during the Spiritual Renewal of Protestant Churches in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Editor: Ábraham Kovács

Volume 18 (2020): Issue 6 (December 2020)
The Catholic Reformation. Ecclesiology, Justification, Freedom, Sin, Grace & the Council of Trent. Editor: Eduardo J. Echeverria

Volume 18 (2020): Issue 5 (October 2020)
Roman Catholic, Reformed Catholic and Evangelical Protestant. Reformation Issues Five Hundred Years Later. Editor: Issue editor: Joshua R. Farris

Volume 18 (2020): Issue 4 (August 2020)
Issue 4 (Aug 2020): From Paris to Tortosa, via Barcelona (1240-1413), Characters, Issues and Problems in Medieval Jewish-Christian Disputations. Editor: Francesco Bianchi

Volume 18 (2020): Issue 3 (July 2020)
In the Footsteps of the Divine Artist. On the Religious and Spiritual Dimension in Art. Editors: Wessel Stoker and Frank G. Bosman

Volume 18 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)
De Corpore – ‘On the Body’ through the History of Idea, Views of the Body in Philosophy, Literature and Religion. Editor: Ramona Simuț

Volume 18 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)
Baptist and Reformed Theologies of Vision and Deification (2). Constructive Issues in Contemporary Research. Editors: Joshua R. Farris and Ryan A. Brandt

Volume 17 (2019): Issue 4 (December 2019)
Patristic Thought in Byzantine and Protestant Theology. From Gregory Palamas and George Pachymeres to Luther, Calvin, Anglicans, and Anabaptists. Editor: Andre A. Gazal

Volume 17 (2019): Issue 3 (July 2019)
Contemporary Evangelicals on Carl F. H. Henry’s Theology. From Philosophy, Evangelism, and Apologetics to Education, History, and Practice. Editor: Robert W. Talley

Volume 17 (2019): Issue s2 (July 2019)
Single Author Supplement 2: The Background and Nature of the Dissensions in 1 Corinthians 1-4. Apollos' Role and Paul's Response. Author: Corin Mihăilă

Volume 17 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)
Baptist and Reformed Theologies of Vision and Deification. Editors: Joshua R. Farris and Ryan A. Brandt

Volume 17 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)
The Father, Son, and Spirit in Early Christian Theology, Second Century Examples. Editor: Paul A. Hartog

Volume 17 (2019): Issue s1 (January 2019)
Single Author Supplement 1: Theological Patterns in Reformation Thought. English, American, and Scottish Protestants on Christ, Revival, and the Covenant. Author: Dinu Moga

Volume 16 (2018): Issue 4 (December 2018)
Tome huitième: Celebrating 500 Years since the Reformation, 1518-2018. Contemporary Perspectives on History and Theology in British Baptist Thought. Scottish and English Baptists on Salvation, Politics, and the End of Times. Issue editor: Alasdair Black

Volume 16 (2018): Issue 3 (July 2018)
Tome septieme: Celebrating 500 Years since the Reformation, 1518-2018. Teaching Leaders, Leading Teachers. Biblical and Historical Perspectives on Education and Leadership: Jeffrey M. Horner Issue editor: Jeffrey M. Horner

Volume 16 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)
Tome sixième: Celebrating 500 Years since the Reformation, 1518-2018. Contemporary Perspectives on Molinism. Theories, Responses to Objections, and Applications, Issue editor: Kirk R. MacGregor

Volume 16 (2018): Issue 1 (April 2018)
Tome cinquième: Celebrating 500 Years since the Reformation, 1518-2018. Insights into Contemporary Baptist Thought. Perspectives on European Baptist Theology and History, Issue editor: Toivo Pilli

Volume 15 (2017): Issue 4 (December 2017)
Special Issue: Tome quatrieme: Celebrating 500 Years since the Reformation, 1517-2017. Investigating the Magisterial Reformation and Its Radical Contenders. Contemporary Evangelicals on Reformation Research: from Lutheranism and Zwinglianism to Anabaptism and Baptism, Issue Editor: Marvin Jones

Volume 15 (2017): Issue 3 (October 2017)
Special Issue: Tome troisième: Celebrating 500 Years since the Reformation, 1517-2017. Theologizing about Spirituality, Pedagogy, and Soteriology. Miscellanea Antiqua, Medievalia, Reformatorica & Moderna by Corneliu Simuț

Volume 15 (2017): Issue 2 (July 2017)
Special Issue: : Celebrating 500 Years since the Reformation, 1517-2017. ‘On the Soul’ through the History of Ideas. Views of the Soul in Philosophy, Literature & Relivion by Ramona Simuț

Volume 15 (2017): Issue 1 (May 2017)
Issue title: Tome premier: Celebrating 500 Years since the Reformation: 1517-2017. Anthologizing History, the Bible, and Theology. Miscellanea Celtica, Humanistica & Reformatorica by Thomas O’Loughlin and Corneliu C. Simuț

Volume 14 (2016): Issue 3 (December 2016)
Avant-Premiere: Celebrating 500 Years since the Reformation, 1517-2017. Contemporary Perspectives on Reformed Orthodoxy. Reformed Confessions, Scholastic Thought, and Puritan Divinity in Post-Reformation Protestantism, Issue Editors: Gijsbert van den Brink, Aza Goudriaan

Volume 14 (2016): Issue 2 (October 2016)
Transformative Poetry and Its Role in Catholic Theology. Dutch Contributions to Contemporary Catholic Research. Issue Editors: Archibald L. H. M. van Wieringen, Marcel Sarot. Translator: Brian Heffernan

Volume 14 (2016): Issue 1 (June 2016)
African Hermeneutics in the Twenty-First Century. Social History and Indigenous Theologies in Contemporary African Research. Issue Editor: Zorodzai Dube

Volume 13 (2015): Issue 2 (October 2015)
Issue title: The Long History of Lutheranism in Scandinavia. Contemporary Voices in Finnish Historical Research. Issue Editor: Pirjo Markkola

Volume 13 (2015): Issue 1 (June 2015)
Issue Title: The Value of Controversy. Defining Early Modern Religion through Ritual and Writing. Issue Editor: Angela Ranson

Volume 12 (2014): Issue 2 (October 2014)
Special issue title: Exploring the Contours of Patristic Thought. Studies on Exegesis, Christology, and Soteriology in the Early Church

Volume 12 (2014): Issue 1 (June 2014)
Established and Emerging Voices in Richard Hooker Research, Issue Editor: Paul A. Dominiak

Volume 11 (2013): Issue 2 (December 2013)

Volume 11 (2013): Issue 1 (June 2013)

Volume 10 (2012): Issue 2 (June 2012)

Volume 10 (2012): Issue 1 (January 2012)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2284-7308
First Published
20 Sep 2012
Publication timeframe
3 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 17 (2019): Issue s2 (July 2019)
Single Author Supplement 2: The Background and Nature of the Dissensions in 1 Corinthians 1-4. Apollos' Role and Paul's Response. Author: Corin Mihăilă

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2284-7308
First Published
20 Sep 2012
Publication timeframe
3 times per year
Languages
English

Search

6 Articles
Open Access

The Gnostic and Hellenistic Backgrounds of Sophia in 1 Corinthians 1-4

Published Online: 18 Jul 2019
Page range: 3 - 14

Abstract

Abstract

First Corinthians 1-4 discusses the concept of sophia or wisdom as a central theme. It seems to be both a worldly standard by which the Corinthians judged their teachers and a concept which Paul redefines in light of the cross. Over the last century, two major proposals have been put forth as an explanation for the background of sophia: Gnosticism and Hellenistic Jewish wisdom. Those who advance the hypothesis of Gnosticism behind the concept, correctly identify in these chapters words and terminology that are commonly associated with Gnosticism. However, the literary context of 1 Corinthians 1-4, as determinative of meaning for these words, suggests different meanings associated with the cross. Moreover, claiming Gnostic influence on the writing of 1 Corinthians is guilty of anachronism. The Hellenistic Jewish wisdom proposal is likewise based on alleged linguistic and conceptual parallelism with Philonic type wisdom. It is argued, among other things, that the Corinthians were taught such wisdom by Apollos. This argument, however cannot be sustained, when we look at Apollos’ ministry in light of the information we have in the New Testament. As a result, both Gnosticism and Hellenistic Jewish wisdom are not viable hypothesis for the background of sophia.

Keywords

  • Sophia
  • Corinthians
  • Gnosticism
  • Hellenistic Jewish wisdom
  • Apollos
  • Paul
Open Access

The Greco-Roman Rhetoric Background of Sophia in 1 Corinthians 1-4

Published Online: 18 Jul 2019
Page range: 15 - 26

Abstract

Abstract

It seems that the Corinthians appreciated rhetorical eloquence and had therefore esteemed their teachers according to their rhetorical abilities. This could be the root problem behind dissensions as they are confronted by the apostle Paul in 1 Corinthians 1-4. This hypothesis is one among other proposals for the background behind the concept of sophia, however, it is both the oldest and the most recent one at the same time. It is assumed by most recent commentators and seems to make the most sense in the context of these beginning chapters of 1 Corinthians. Nevertheless, the concept of sophia in 1 Corinthians 1-4 allows for at least two senses: the means by which one knows God and persuasive speech. It is against the second understanding of sophia that Paul presents his theology of preaching in 1 Corinthians 2:1-5 and it is this second sense that constitutes the cause of the dissensions in Corinth.

Keywords

  • sophists
  • Corinthians
  • rhetoric
  • eloquence
  • persuasive speech
  • dissensions
  • Apollos
  • Paul
Open Access

The Social Background of 1 Corinthians 1-4

Published Online: 18 Jul 2019
Page range: 27 - 40

Abstract

Abstract

The social structure of the Corinthian ecclesia is a reasonable cause for the dissensions that had occurred between her members. The people from the higher social strata of the church may have sought to advance their honor by desiring to extend their patronage over those teachers in the church that could help them in that regard. This situation was aided by the fact that the members of the Christian community have failed to allow the cross to redefine the new entity to which they now belonged. Rather, they perceived the Christian ecclesia according to different social models that were available at that time in the society at large: household model, collegia model, political ecclesia, and Jewish synagogue. As a result, the apostle Paul, in the first four chapter of 1 Corinthians, shows how the cross has overturned the social values inherent in these models. He argues that the Christian ecclesia is a new entity, with a unique identity, and distinct network of relations, which should separate those inside the Christian community from those outside.

Keywords

  • networks
  • social structure
  • identity
  • Corinthians
  • dissensions
  • honor
  • shame
  • patronage
  • client
Open Access

The Number and Nature of Parties In 1 Corinthians 1-4

Published Online: 18 Jul 2019
Page range: 41 - 50

Abstract

Abstract

The Corinthian church had many issues, among which the dissensions, as can be seen from 1 Corinthians 1-4. There are several theories concerning these dissensions. Some say that there are clearly four parties in the church, according to the slogans in 1 Corinthians 1:12. Others, go to the other extreme and talk about just disagreements among the members of the church, but no real schisms. Between these two extremes are those who seek to make sense of the slogan of allegiance to Christ, the role of Apollos in the dissensions, and ultimately the issue that the Corinthians had with Paul. There is probably some truth in all these theories and most likely the reality was that the Corinthians had preferences among their teachers, of whom the centre of attention were Paul and Apollos, the distinction made between the two were most presumably based on who played better into Corinthians’ social expectations.

Keywords

  • dissensions
  • Corinthians
  • factions
  • parties
  • Paul
  • Apollos
Open Access

Apollos’ Function in 1 Corinthians 1-4

Published Online: 18 Jul 2019
Page range: 51 - 62

Abstract

Abstract

The dissensions in the Corinthian church bring up the question of the mention of Apollos’ name in Paul’s argument against the partisan spirit. Over time, there have been different proposals as to the role that Apollos had in the dissensions as well as his function in the argument of 1 Corinthians 1-4. Some say that Paul and Apollos were rivals and thus Paul formulates his argument against dissensions as a subtle attach on Apollos and his party. Others say that Apollos’ role in the dissensions is a more indirect one, give his modus operandi. Apollos is seen as a preacher characterized by rhetorical skill (cf. Acts 18:24-28), who has made a great impression on the Corinthian congregation especially on those of a certain high social status, who have used Apollos against the less skillful Paul in order to advance their honor. Thus, in this view, Apollos is seen as having an unintentional and indirect role in the dissensions, being played by some in the congregation. Others, however, see Apollos as having no role in the dissensions, the mention of his name by Paul being only as a way of example and with direct application to others. This view is based on a certain interpretation of meteschēmatisa in 1 Corinthians 4:6. An analysis of these views and their supporting arguments leads us to believe that the fault for the dissensions falls not on Apollos, but on the Corinthians. Paul and Apollos share a close collaboration in the mission work; it is the Corinthians who have pitched one against the other.

Keywords

  • dissensions
  • Corinthians
  • Paul
  • Apollos
  • rivals
Open Access

Paul’s Apologia in 1 Corinthians 1-4 and the Concept of Paterfamilias

Published Online: 18 Jul 2019
Page range: 63 - 73

Abstract

Abstract

In Paul’s argument against dissensions, Paul is said to have tried to regain his authority before the Corinthians. The first rhetorical unit is thus seen as an apologia. In his argument, he seemingly uses the concept of paterfamilias known to have evoked power and control. However, such a proposal neglects the fact that Paul’s argument is against exactly such type of discourse in which one seeks to elevate one teacher against another. Rather, in the use of the concept of paterfamilias we should see Paul redefining the concept and filling it with affection.

Keywords

  • Corinthians
  • Apollos
  • Paul
6 Articles
Open Access

The Gnostic and Hellenistic Backgrounds of Sophia in 1 Corinthians 1-4

Published Online: 18 Jul 2019
Page range: 3 - 14

Abstract

Abstract

First Corinthians 1-4 discusses the concept of sophia or wisdom as a central theme. It seems to be both a worldly standard by which the Corinthians judged their teachers and a concept which Paul redefines in light of the cross. Over the last century, two major proposals have been put forth as an explanation for the background of sophia: Gnosticism and Hellenistic Jewish wisdom. Those who advance the hypothesis of Gnosticism behind the concept, correctly identify in these chapters words and terminology that are commonly associated with Gnosticism. However, the literary context of 1 Corinthians 1-4, as determinative of meaning for these words, suggests different meanings associated with the cross. Moreover, claiming Gnostic influence on the writing of 1 Corinthians is guilty of anachronism. The Hellenistic Jewish wisdom proposal is likewise based on alleged linguistic and conceptual parallelism with Philonic type wisdom. It is argued, among other things, that the Corinthians were taught such wisdom by Apollos. This argument, however cannot be sustained, when we look at Apollos’ ministry in light of the information we have in the New Testament. As a result, both Gnosticism and Hellenistic Jewish wisdom are not viable hypothesis for the background of sophia.

Keywords

  • Sophia
  • Corinthians
  • Gnosticism
  • Hellenistic Jewish wisdom
  • Apollos
  • Paul
Open Access

The Greco-Roman Rhetoric Background of Sophia in 1 Corinthians 1-4

Published Online: 18 Jul 2019
Page range: 15 - 26

Abstract

Abstract

It seems that the Corinthians appreciated rhetorical eloquence and had therefore esteemed their teachers according to their rhetorical abilities. This could be the root problem behind dissensions as they are confronted by the apostle Paul in 1 Corinthians 1-4. This hypothesis is one among other proposals for the background behind the concept of sophia, however, it is both the oldest and the most recent one at the same time. It is assumed by most recent commentators and seems to make the most sense in the context of these beginning chapters of 1 Corinthians. Nevertheless, the concept of sophia in 1 Corinthians 1-4 allows for at least two senses: the means by which one knows God and persuasive speech. It is against the second understanding of sophia that Paul presents his theology of preaching in 1 Corinthians 2:1-5 and it is this second sense that constitutes the cause of the dissensions in Corinth.

Keywords

  • sophists
  • Corinthians
  • rhetoric
  • eloquence
  • persuasive speech
  • dissensions
  • Apollos
  • Paul
Open Access

The Social Background of 1 Corinthians 1-4

Published Online: 18 Jul 2019
Page range: 27 - 40

Abstract

Abstract

The social structure of the Corinthian ecclesia is a reasonable cause for the dissensions that had occurred between her members. The people from the higher social strata of the church may have sought to advance their honor by desiring to extend their patronage over those teachers in the church that could help them in that regard. This situation was aided by the fact that the members of the Christian community have failed to allow the cross to redefine the new entity to which they now belonged. Rather, they perceived the Christian ecclesia according to different social models that were available at that time in the society at large: household model, collegia model, political ecclesia, and Jewish synagogue. As a result, the apostle Paul, in the first four chapter of 1 Corinthians, shows how the cross has overturned the social values inherent in these models. He argues that the Christian ecclesia is a new entity, with a unique identity, and distinct network of relations, which should separate those inside the Christian community from those outside.

Keywords

  • networks
  • social structure
  • identity
  • Corinthians
  • dissensions
  • honor
  • shame
  • patronage
  • client
Open Access

The Number and Nature of Parties In 1 Corinthians 1-4

Published Online: 18 Jul 2019
Page range: 41 - 50

Abstract

Abstract

The Corinthian church had many issues, among which the dissensions, as can be seen from 1 Corinthians 1-4. There are several theories concerning these dissensions. Some say that there are clearly four parties in the church, according to the slogans in 1 Corinthians 1:12. Others, go to the other extreme and talk about just disagreements among the members of the church, but no real schisms. Between these two extremes are those who seek to make sense of the slogan of allegiance to Christ, the role of Apollos in the dissensions, and ultimately the issue that the Corinthians had with Paul. There is probably some truth in all these theories and most likely the reality was that the Corinthians had preferences among their teachers, of whom the centre of attention were Paul and Apollos, the distinction made between the two were most presumably based on who played better into Corinthians’ social expectations.

Keywords

  • dissensions
  • Corinthians
  • factions
  • parties
  • Paul
  • Apollos
Open Access

Apollos’ Function in 1 Corinthians 1-4

Published Online: 18 Jul 2019
Page range: 51 - 62

Abstract

Abstract

The dissensions in the Corinthian church bring up the question of the mention of Apollos’ name in Paul’s argument against the partisan spirit. Over time, there have been different proposals as to the role that Apollos had in the dissensions as well as his function in the argument of 1 Corinthians 1-4. Some say that Paul and Apollos were rivals and thus Paul formulates his argument against dissensions as a subtle attach on Apollos and his party. Others say that Apollos’ role in the dissensions is a more indirect one, give his modus operandi. Apollos is seen as a preacher characterized by rhetorical skill (cf. Acts 18:24-28), who has made a great impression on the Corinthian congregation especially on those of a certain high social status, who have used Apollos against the less skillful Paul in order to advance their honor. Thus, in this view, Apollos is seen as having an unintentional and indirect role in the dissensions, being played by some in the congregation. Others, however, see Apollos as having no role in the dissensions, the mention of his name by Paul being only as a way of example and with direct application to others. This view is based on a certain interpretation of meteschēmatisa in 1 Corinthians 4:6. An analysis of these views and their supporting arguments leads us to believe that the fault for the dissensions falls not on Apollos, but on the Corinthians. Paul and Apollos share a close collaboration in the mission work; it is the Corinthians who have pitched one against the other.

Keywords

  • dissensions
  • Corinthians
  • Paul
  • Apollos
  • rivals
Open Access

Paul’s Apologia in 1 Corinthians 1-4 and the Concept of Paterfamilias

Published Online: 18 Jul 2019
Page range: 63 - 73

Abstract

Abstract

In Paul’s argument against dissensions, Paul is said to have tried to regain his authority before the Corinthians. The first rhetorical unit is thus seen as an apologia. In his argument, he seemingly uses the concept of paterfamilias known to have evoked power and control. However, such a proposal neglects the fact that Paul’s argument is against exactly such type of discourse in which one seeks to elevate one teacher against another. Rather, in the use of the concept of paterfamilias we should see Paul redefining the concept and filling it with affection.

Keywords

  • Corinthians
  • Apollos
  • Paul

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