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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-7575
First Published
17 Mar 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 16 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-7575
First Published
17 Mar 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

5 Articles
access type Open Access

Water circulation and recharge pathways of coastal lakes along the southern Baltic Sea in northern Poland

Published Online: 18 Jan 2017
Page range: 63 - 75

Abstract

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to describe water circulation patterns for selected lakes found along the Baltic coast in northern Poland and to determine primary recharge mechanisms or pathways that produce an influx or loss of lake water. A secondary purpose of the paper is to determine the magnitude of recharge for each studied source of water – river water influx, surface runoff from direct catchments, forced influx from polders surrounding lakes, and periodic marine water intrusions from the nearby Baltic Sea. It is also important to determine the magnitude of water outflow from lakes to the sea via existing linkages as well as to compare horizontal influx and outflow data. The study area consisted of five lakes located along the Baltic Sea in northern Poland: Łebsko, Gardno, Bukowo, Kopań, Resko Przymorskie. The main driving force of the studied lakes are large rivers that drain lake catchment areas and periodic brackish water intrusions by the Baltic Sea.

Keywords

  • coastal lakes
  • inflow
  • outflow
  • recharge pathways
  • potamic influx
  • seawater intrusion
access type Open Access

Leaves and roots of Typha latifolia L. and Iris pseudacorus L. as bioindicators of contamination of bottom sediments by heavy metals

Published Online: 18 Jan 2017
Page range: 77 - 83

Abstract

Abstract

The paper concerns the bioaccumulation of zinc, nickel, iron and manganese in leaves and roots of selected macrophytes from the Krzynia Reservoir (northern Poland). The research was conducted within the area of 10 stations situated in the littoral zone of the reservoir. Samples of surface waters, bottom sediments and plants were taken in summer. Heavy metal content was determined by the atomic absorption spectrometry method (ASA). The concentration of heavy metals in the waters of Krzynia Reservoir was low and noinfluence of anthropogenic factors was found. Concentration of heavy metals in the examined bottom sediments was low and remained within the limits of the geochemical background for Zn and Fe. In the case of Ni and Mn it sporadically exceeded the level of the geochemical background. The tested plants mainly accumulated heavy metals in roots, with the exception of nickel which appeared in larger quantities in leaves. The relationships among the content of the determined elements in the organs of macrophytes was identical for the tested species and could be arranged into the following sequences: Mn>Fe>Ni>Zn in leaves and Fe>Mn>Zn>Ni in roots. Statistically significant differences were found in the content of Mn in leaves and Zn and Fe in the roots of Typha latifolia L. and Iris pseudacorus L. By accumulating substantial quantities of heavy metals in their organs, macrophytes constitute an effective protective barrier for the waters and bottom sediments.

Keywords

  • lakes
  • macrophytes
  • microelements
  • bioconcentration factor
  • translocation factor
access type Open Access

Is unstable reliable? Oxygen conditions in the ecological status assessment of lakes

Published Online: 18 Jan 2017
Page range: 85 - 94

Abstract

Abstract

The Water Framework Directive introduces the requirement for ecological status assessment based primarily on aquatic organisms and supporting physico-chemical elements, including oxygen conditions. The criteria for assessing oxygen conditions applied in routine lake monitoring in Poland are based on the mean hypolimnetic saturation with oxygen at the peak of summer stagnation in stratified lakes, and on the oxygen content at the bottom in the summer in polimictic lakes. The currently used oxygen criteria usually cause dismay, particularly if biological elements indicate at least good ecological status and the oxygen conditions are the only reason for lowering status class. The aim of the article is to present the scale of variability of oxygen conditions in selected lakes within the last two decades and to analyse the limitations and conditions of applying this indicator in routine monitoring, assessment and classification of Polish lakes. Data from the years 1999–2015 on oxygen and thermal conditions in a set of nine benchmark lakes in Poland were examined and the reasons for changeability in water oxygenation from year to year were discussed. Alternative oxygen indicators were considered as well as oxygen standards based on fish protection requirements that have been adopted in some European countries. It was suggested that when assessing lake ecological status, data on the oxygen conditions from a number of years must be taken into consideration, e.g., for the analysis of trends in lake trophy changes or for documenting the effects of remedial actions in lake catchment areas in long time frames.

Keywords

  • oxygen conditions
  • lake assessment
  • ecological status
  • hypolimnion oxygenation
access type Open Access

Impact of Lake Gopło on low-flow regime of the upper Noteć river

Published Online: 18 Jan 2017
Page range: 95 - 103

Abstract

Abstract

The main aim of this study is to make an assessment of the impact of Lake Gopło on a river low-flow regime. Two water gauges were selected, located in an upstream and downstream position to the lake on the River Noteć. On the basis of the daily discharge series from the period 1965–1990, a group of low-flow regime estimators was computed. Analyses involved various aspects of minimum flows and drought streamflow deficits. Comparison of the data between both gauging stations showed the extent of the influence of water management on Lake Gopło on low-flow regime transformation in the River Noteć.

Keywords

  • flow regime
  • hydrological drought
  • minimal runoff
  • drought streamflow deficit
  • Lake Gopło
access type Open Access

Tourism development challenges on the Dead Sea shore

Published Online: 18 Jan 2017
Page range: 105 - 112

Abstract

Abstract

The Dead Sea along with Jerusalem belongs to one of the most well-known spots visited by tourists in Israel. Because of many factors, such as the water level of the Dead Sea at a depth of 430 m b.s.l. (in 2015), average salinity of 26%, hot springs and many healing salts located there, it is a unique tourist attraction on a global level. Its attractiveness is heightened by its proximity to other sites of interest, such as the Jewish fortress at Masada, Jericho, Qumran, where the Dead Sea Scrolls were found, as well as Petra, Madaba and Al-Karak on the Jordanian side of the Dead Sea. High salinity and a microclimate create perfect conditions for the development of health resorts and medical tourism. Extracting healing salts from its waters for the needs of the chemical industry is important for both the economy and medical tourism. However, as a consequence of the agricultural and urban use of the waters of the River Jordan, which flows into the Dead Sea, a persistent decrease in the lake water level has been observed over the last century. This has created a number of economic and political issues. The problems which still have to be resolved are associated with the Red Sea-Dead Sea Conduit (Canal), the division of Jordan’s water resources, conservation of the unique reservoir of the Dead Sea and the threat of hindering the development of tourism within the region. The presentation of these issues is the main aim of this research paper. The study is based on the analysis of changes in tourism flows, results of research studies and the prognosis of changes in the water level of the Dead Sea. It presents an assessment of the effects of this phenomenon on the tourist economy. At the current level of tourism flows within the region, the tourist capacity of local beaches will be exceeded in areas where the most popular tourist resorts are located. Increased expenditure on development of tourism infrastructure in the coastal zone can also be observed. The predicted decreasing water level will result in further modifications and expansion of tourism infrastructure, decreased accessibility to the coastline for tourists, increased costs of visiting and may lead to an ecological disaster.

Keywords

  • Dead Sea
  • River Jordan
  • Israel
  • Jordan
  • tourism
  • medical tourism
  • accommodation
  • environmental issues
5 Articles
access type Open Access

Water circulation and recharge pathways of coastal lakes along the southern Baltic Sea in northern Poland

Published Online: 18 Jan 2017
Page range: 63 - 75

Abstract

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to describe water circulation patterns for selected lakes found along the Baltic coast in northern Poland and to determine primary recharge mechanisms or pathways that produce an influx or loss of lake water. A secondary purpose of the paper is to determine the magnitude of recharge for each studied source of water – river water influx, surface runoff from direct catchments, forced influx from polders surrounding lakes, and periodic marine water intrusions from the nearby Baltic Sea. It is also important to determine the magnitude of water outflow from lakes to the sea via existing linkages as well as to compare horizontal influx and outflow data. The study area consisted of five lakes located along the Baltic Sea in northern Poland: Łebsko, Gardno, Bukowo, Kopań, Resko Przymorskie. The main driving force of the studied lakes are large rivers that drain lake catchment areas and periodic brackish water intrusions by the Baltic Sea.

Keywords

  • coastal lakes
  • inflow
  • outflow
  • recharge pathways
  • potamic influx
  • seawater intrusion
access type Open Access

Leaves and roots of Typha latifolia L. and Iris pseudacorus L. as bioindicators of contamination of bottom sediments by heavy metals

Published Online: 18 Jan 2017
Page range: 77 - 83

Abstract

Abstract

The paper concerns the bioaccumulation of zinc, nickel, iron and manganese in leaves and roots of selected macrophytes from the Krzynia Reservoir (northern Poland). The research was conducted within the area of 10 stations situated in the littoral zone of the reservoir. Samples of surface waters, bottom sediments and plants were taken in summer. Heavy metal content was determined by the atomic absorption spectrometry method (ASA). The concentration of heavy metals in the waters of Krzynia Reservoir was low and noinfluence of anthropogenic factors was found. Concentration of heavy metals in the examined bottom sediments was low and remained within the limits of the geochemical background for Zn and Fe. In the case of Ni and Mn it sporadically exceeded the level of the geochemical background. The tested plants mainly accumulated heavy metals in roots, with the exception of nickel which appeared in larger quantities in leaves. The relationships among the content of the determined elements in the organs of macrophytes was identical for the tested species and could be arranged into the following sequences: Mn>Fe>Ni>Zn in leaves and Fe>Mn>Zn>Ni in roots. Statistically significant differences were found in the content of Mn in leaves and Zn and Fe in the roots of Typha latifolia L. and Iris pseudacorus L. By accumulating substantial quantities of heavy metals in their organs, macrophytes constitute an effective protective barrier for the waters and bottom sediments.

Keywords

  • lakes
  • macrophytes
  • microelements
  • bioconcentration factor
  • translocation factor
access type Open Access

Is unstable reliable? Oxygen conditions in the ecological status assessment of lakes

Published Online: 18 Jan 2017
Page range: 85 - 94

Abstract

Abstract

The Water Framework Directive introduces the requirement for ecological status assessment based primarily on aquatic organisms and supporting physico-chemical elements, including oxygen conditions. The criteria for assessing oxygen conditions applied in routine lake monitoring in Poland are based on the mean hypolimnetic saturation with oxygen at the peak of summer stagnation in stratified lakes, and on the oxygen content at the bottom in the summer in polimictic lakes. The currently used oxygen criteria usually cause dismay, particularly if biological elements indicate at least good ecological status and the oxygen conditions are the only reason for lowering status class. The aim of the article is to present the scale of variability of oxygen conditions in selected lakes within the last two decades and to analyse the limitations and conditions of applying this indicator in routine monitoring, assessment and classification of Polish lakes. Data from the years 1999–2015 on oxygen and thermal conditions in a set of nine benchmark lakes in Poland were examined and the reasons for changeability in water oxygenation from year to year were discussed. Alternative oxygen indicators were considered as well as oxygen standards based on fish protection requirements that have been adopted in some European countries. It was suggested that when assessing lake ecological status, data on the oxygen conditions from a number of years must be taken into consideration, e.g., for the analysis of trends in lake trophy changes or for documenting the effects of remedial actions in lake catchment areas in long time frames.

Keywords

  • oxygen conditions
  • lake assessment
  • ecological status
  • hypolimnion oxygenation
access type Open Access

Impact of Lake Gopło on low-flow regime of the upper Noteć river

Published Online: 18 Jan 2017
Page range: 95 - 103

Abstract

Abstract

The main aim of this study is to make an assessment of the impact of Lake Gopło on a river low-flow regime. Two water gauges were selected, located in an upstream and downstream position to the lake on the River Noteć. On the basis of the daily discharge series from the period 1965–1990, a group of low-flow regime estimators was computed. Analyses involved various aspects of minimum flows and drought streamflow deficits. Comparison of the data between both gauging stations showed the extent of the influence of water management on Lake Gopło on low-flow regime transformation in the River Noteć.

Keywords

  • flow regime
  • hydrological drought
  • minimal runoff
  • drought streamflow deficit
  • Lake Gopło
access type Open Access

Tourism development challenges on the Dead Sea shore

Published Online: 18 Jan 2017
Page range: 105 - 112

Abstract

Abstract

The Dead Sea along with Jerusalem belongs to one of the most well-known spots visited by tourists in Israel. Because of many factors, such as the water level of the Dead Sea at a depth of 430 m b.s.l. (in 2015), average salinity of 26%, hot springs and many healing salts located there, it is a unique tourist attraction on a global level. Its attractiveness is heightened by its proximity to other sites of interest, such as the Jewish fortress at Masada, Jericho, Qumran, where the Dead Sea Scrolls were found, as well as Petra, Madaba and Al-Karak on the Jordanian side of the Dead Sea. High salinity and a microclimate create perfect conditions for the development of health resorts and medical tourism. Extracting healing salts from its waters for the needs of the chemical industry is important for both the economy and medical tourism. However, as a consequence of the agricultural and urban use of the waters of the River Jordan, which flows into the Dead Sea, a persistent decrease in the lake water level has been observed over the last century. This has created a number of economic and political issues. The problems which still have to be resolved are associated with the Red Sea-Dead Sea Conduit (Canal), the division of Jordan’s water resources, conservation of the unique reservoir of the Dead Sea and the threat of hindering the development of tourism within the region. The presentation of these issues is the main aim of this research paper. The study is based on the analysis of changes in tourism flows, results of research studies and the prognosis of changes in the water level of the Dead Sea. It presents an assessment of the effects of this phenomenon on the tourist economy. At the current level of tourism flows within the region, the tourist capacity of local beaches will be exceeded in areas where the most popular tourist resorts are located. Increased expenditure on development of tourism infrastructure in the coastal zone can also be observed. The predicted decreasing water level will result in further modifications and expansion of tourism infrastructure, decreased accessibility to the coastline for tourists, increased costs of visiting and may lead to an ecological disaster.

Keywords

  • Dead Sea
  • River Jordan
  • Israel
  • Jordan
  • tourism
  • medical tourism
  • accommodation
  • environmental issues

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